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Piere and Miquelon.— These, with their African and Afiatic poffeffions, and their settlements at Guiana and Cayenne, contain, according to Mr. Necker, 600,000 inhabitants.
To HOLLAND belong the islands of St. Euftatia, Saba and Curracoa.
To DENMARK belong the islands of St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John. In these islands the Moravians have useful establishments.
U R O P £*.
Lenth 3000 Between Breadth 2500
10 West and 65° East Longitude from
Boundaries.] B fouth, by the Mediterranean
, which divides it from
Africa ; west, by the Atlantic Ocean, which separates it from America. Containing 2,627,574 square miles.
Divisions, Population Sc.]The following table*, 'exhibits the latest and most accurate account of the grand divisions of Europe of their exs tent, and real and comparative pupulation of any extant.
inhabitants Public Reveal of Europe.
Aates in Population. in each square nue in fterSquare miles.
* Zimmerman's Political Survey,' † Exclusive of Ireland.
$ Of Old Spain alone.
Military and marine strength.] The land forces of the European states, in the year 1783, were as follows :
282,000 Naples and Sicily 30,000 Ruflia, (450,000 in ail) in
Electorate and Saxony 26,000 Europe 290,000 Portugal
Electorate of Bavaria and Turkey, (210,000 in all)
24,000 in Europe, only : 170,000 Heffe Caffel
15,000 Spain (including militia) 60,000 Hanover
20,000 Denmark 72,000 Poland
15,000 Great Britain (including
58,000 Wustenburgh - 6,000 Sweden
50,000 The Ecclefiaftical state 5,000 Sardinia 40,000 Tuscany
3,000 Including the parts of Europe onitted in this calculation, the armies of all the countries of Europe, amount to two millions of men; fa that sup. posing one hundred and forty millions of inhabitants in Europe, no more than tho of the whole population are foldiers.
Number of ships of the Line, Frigate Cutters, Sloops, &c.
25 Sweden 85 Portugal
24 Denmark Turkey
50 Religion-] The religions of Europe are the Christian, tire Jewish and the Mahometan. The two first are spread all over Europe ; the first and last are the only established ones, the Jewish being merely tolerated. The chief divisions of the Chriftian, are the Greek, the Roman Catholic, and the Protestant. The Greek religion is established only in Russia, and to lerated in some parts of the Austrian dominions, in Poland, and chiefly in Turkey ; fubdivifiors of the Greek church, are the Arminian and Nesto rian church. Of the Roman Catholic church, Jansenism is a subdivision. The Protestant religion is subdivided into the Lutheran and Calvinift, or reformed religion: Of the fornier thé Episcopal church of England and Ireland is a branch: Ofthe latter the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. There are, besides, many feets adapted to the different degrees of theological knowledge, or to the different warmth of imagination of those that adhere to them : The principal of these sects are Arminians, Mennonists, Socinians, Unitarians,Moravian Brethren, Quakers and Methodists, The portion of the surface of the countries, in which the Protestant religion is established, to those in which the Roman Catholic religion prevails, is Dearly as 3 to 4: The number of Roman Catholics, according to the
is the Tagus.
villages, 3343 parishes.
best calculations, is about 90,000,000; the number of Protestants only 24,000,000, which is a proportion of nearly 4 to 1.
A concife view of the several countries of Europe, proceedingfrom south
170 and 10° West Longitude.
north ; Rivers.] Every brook in Portugal is called a river. Its rivers rise in Spain,
and run west through Portugal, into the Atlantic. The most noted Capital.] Lisbon, at the mouth of the Tagus, containing about 150,000 inhabitants. In 1755, it was laid level with the ground by a tremendous earthquake, which was succeeded by a general conflagration; in which catastrophe upwards of 10,000 people loft their lives. Climate, Productions, and Commerce.] Portugal, situated in a genial climate, abounds in excellent natural productions, and is well watered. It poffeffes very rich piovinces in, and upon the coast of Asia, Africa, and America. It is, however, not proportionably powerful ; its inhabitants are indigent, and the balance of trade is against it. It is even obliged to import the necessaries of life; chiefly corn, from other countries. Portugal produces wine, wool, oil, filk, honey, aniseed, fumac, a variety of fine fruits, fome corn, filax, and cork. In 1785, the goods imported from Great Britain and Ireland into Portugal, consisting of woollens; corn, fish, wood and hard ware, amounted to upwards of 2.960,coa sterling. The English took in return, of the produce of Portugaland Brasil, to the amount of £.728,000 sterling: Only 15 millions of livres are supposed to circulate in a country which draws annually upwards of 4 1,500,000 sterling,or 36 millions of livres, froin the mines of Peru. Since the discovery of these mines, that is, within 60 years, Portugal has brought from Brasil about 2400 millions of livres, or £.100,000,000 sterling;
Governmet and Religion.] Since the council of the three estates, viz. the clergy, the nobility, and the cities, the members of which are nominated by the king, was substituted in the room of diets, or meetings of the states (which event took place the latter end of the last century); the government of the kingdom of Portugal has been absolutely monarchical. The proceedings of the courts of justice are slow and arbitrary, and the number of lawyers and law officers is exceedingly great.
The state of religion in Portugal is the same as in Spain. The Portuguese clergy confift of one Patriarch, a dignity granted to the church of Portugal in the year 1716, of 3 archbishops, and 15 bishops. The whole number of ecclesiastics is 200,000; 30,000 of which, and some fay 60,000, are monks and nuns. The number of convents is 745.
The number of clerical persons to that of laymen is i to u.
History.] Portugal was anciently called Lusitania, and inhabited by tribes of wandering people, till it became subject to the Carthaginians and Phænicians, who were difpoffeffed by the Romans 250 years before Christ. In the fifth century it fell under the yoke of the Suevi and Vandals, who were driven out by the Goths of Spain, in the year 589 ; but when the Moors of Africa made themselves masters of the greatest part of Spain, in the beginning of the eighe century, they, penetrated into Lusitania : there they the established governors, who made themselves kings., After many fruitless attempts made by the kings of Leon on this part of Spain. Alonzo V. king of Castile and Leon, carried here his victorious arms, and to ensure his conquests, he gave it, in the year 1088, with the title of count, or earl, to Henry, grandson of Robert, king of France, who had married Theresa, Alonzo's natural daughter. Henry, was fucceeded in his earldom by his son Alonzo, who, encouraged by his conqueft over the Moors in the year 1139 affumed the title of king of Portugal." His succesfors continued till 1580, when, upon the death of Henry surnamed the Cardinal, it was seized upon by Philip the II. king of Spain, after a war of two or three years; but in 1640, the people rebelled, shook off the Spanish yoke, and elected for their king the duke of Braganza, who took the. name of Joho IV. in whose family it has ever since remained independent of Spain. Her prefent Majesty's name in Mary Frances Iffabella, who acceded to the throne in the year 1777.
Boundaries.] OUNDED west, by Portugal and the Atlantic; north
by the Bay of Biscay and the Pyrenean mountains, which divide it from France ; east and fouth, by the Mediterranean fea, and the Straits of Gibraltar.
Spain is divided into 14 diftriéts, in which are 139 towns, and 21,093 villages and boroughs.
Rivers.] The Deuro, the Tagus, the Guadiana the Guadalquiver, all which fall into the Atlantic ocean, and the Ebro, the ancient Iberus, which falls into the Mediterranean.
Capital.] MADRID, situated on a branch of the river Tagus, con. taining 140,000 inhabitants. CADIZ, situated on the Atlantic; a little