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of ravenous beasts, poisonous animals and vermin ; not even so much as a fly to be found here. The foil is extremely fertile, being watered with numberless little rivulets from the mountains. It produces, in the greatest abundance, apples, pears plumbs, peaches, quinces, apricots, almonds, olives, grapes, cocoa-nuts, figs, and strawberries as large as pears, wheat, cats, corn, garden flowers and fruits of almost
kind. It abounds in gold, silver, and lead mines, and the rivers themselves roll on golden sands. But their staple commodity is cattle ; they have them in fuch abundance, as frequently to cast the Aesh into the rivers, reserving the hides, tallow and tongues for exportation.
Hiftory, inbabitants, &c.] The Spaniards made several attempts to reduce this country, but with no great success till the year 1541, when they built the capital St. Jago, now the residence of the Spanish governor, and a bishop's fce; and afterwards Coquimbo, Conception, and Baldivia. The natives are remarkable for wit, fortitude and patience ; and the Spaniards to this day have never been able to fubdue them; they continue still masters of part of the inland country. There have lately been some formidable insurrections against the Spaniards by the natives, which have greatly alarmed the Spanish court.
PARAGUA, OR LA PLATA,
} Boundaries.] B by Patagonia; welt by Peru and Chili.
129 and 37° South Latitude. Breadth 1000
1509 and 75o West Longitude, Boundaries.] DOUNDED north, by Amazonia; east, by Brazil; fouth,
Rivers and Mountains.] This country, besides an infinite number of small rivers, is watered by three principal ones, which united near the sea, form the famous Rio de la Plata, or Plate river, and which annually over-, flow their banks, and, on their recess, leave them enriched with a flime, that produces great plenty of whateve is committed to it. This river, where it unites with the ocean, is 150 miles broad. At 100 miles from its mouth a ship in the middle of the channel cannot be seen from either shore ; and at Buenos Ayres, 100 miles still further back, one cannot discern the opposite shore. There are no mountains of consequence here excepting that remarkable chain which divides South America, called the Andes. The height of Chimborazo, the most elevated point in these mountains is 20,280 feet; which is above 5000 feet higher than any other mountains in the known world.
Climate, Soil Produce.] This country consists of extensive plains, 300 leagues over except on the east, where it is separated by high mountains from Brazil. La Plata is a most desirable climate, and one of the most fruitful countries in the world. The cotton and tobacco produced here, with the herb called Paragua, which is peculiar to this country, could alone be sufficient to form a flouriling commerce.
There are here alo several gold and silver mines.
Chief Towns.] Buenos Ayres, the capital of La Plata, is the most considerable sea port town in South America. It is situated on the south Side of the river La Plata, 200 miles from the mouth of it. The river is upwards of 20 miles broad at this place. From this town a great part of the treasure of Chili and Peru is exported to Old Spain. The natives of Tacuman are said to liave wooden houses built on eels, which they draw from place to place as occasion requires.
History and Religion.] The Spaniards first discovered this country in the year of 1515, and founded the town of Buenos Ayres in 1535. Most of the country is still inhabited by native Americans. The Jesuits have been indefatag able in their endeavours to convert the Indians to the belief of their religion, and to introduce among .hem the art of civilized life, and have met with surprising success. It is said that above 340,000 families, several years ago, were subject to the Jesuits, living in obedience and an awe, bordering on adoration, yet procured without any violence or constraint. In 1767, the Jesuits were sent out of Anierica, by royal authority, and their subjects were put upon the fame footing with the rest of
BRAZIL, belonging to PORTUGAL.
359 and 60° West Longitude.
The Equator and 35° South Latitude. Boundaries. OUNDED north, by the mouth of the river Amazon
and the Atlantic Ocean ; east, by the same ocean; south, by the mouth of the river La Plata ; west, by the chain of moun, tains, which divides it from Paragua, and the country of the Amazons.
Air, Soil and Produce.] The air of this country is hot, but healthy, and the foil exceedingly fertile in maize, millet, rice, fruits, faffron, balsam of capivi, ginger, indigo, amber, rosin, train oil, cotton, the best of tobacco, fine sugar, brazil-wood, &c. Here also are mines of gold, silver and diamonds, and a great quantity of excellent crystal and jasper. This country also abounds in cattle, apes, parrots, and beautiful birds.
The rivers and lakes are stored with fish, and there is a whale fishery on the coast.
Inhabitants, Religion, &c.] The coast of this large country is only known; the natives still possess the inland parts; whereof these towards the north are called Tapayers, and those in the south Tupinamboys. These patives seem to have little religion, and no temple or place for public worfhip ; but yet are said to believe a future state, and have some notion of rewards and punishments after this life.
History, cc.] The Portuguese discovered this country in the year 1500, but did not plant it till the year 1549, when they took poffeffion of All Saints Bay, and built the city of St. Salvador, which is now the residence
of the viceroy and archbishop. The Dutch invaded Brazil in 1623, and fubdued the northren provinces ; but the Portuguese agreed in 1661, to pay the Dutch eight tons of gold, to relinquish their interest in this country, which was accepted, and the Portuguese remained in peaceable pole session of all Brazil till about the end of 1762, when the Spanish governor cf Buenos Ayres, hearing of a war between Portugal and Spain, took, cfter a month's liege, the Portuguese frontier fortress, called St. Sacrament; but by the treaty of peace it was restored,
GUIANA, belonging to the French and Dutch,
nam which is a Dutch province. Cayenne extends 240 miles along the coast of Guiana, and pear 300 within land. "It is bounded north, by Surinam ; cast by the Atlantic; south, by Amazonia ; welt, by Guiana. All the coast is very low, but within land there are fine hills, very proper for fettlements. The com; modities are limiliar to those of the Weit India Iilands.
Surinam is one of the richest and most valuable colonies belonging tą the United Provinces. The chief trade of Surinam consists in sugar, cotton, coffee of an excellent kind, tobacco, flax, ikins, and some valuable dying drugs. They trade with the United States, of whom they receive Borfes, live cattle, and provisions, and give in exchange large quantities of molasses. The Torporisíc eel is found in the rivers of Guina,which, when fouched either by the hand, or by a rod of iron, gold, copper, or by a stick of some particular kinds of heavy wood, communicates a shock perfeatly like that of electricity. There is an immense number and variety of snakes in this country, and which form one of its principal inconve. niencies.
A M A Z O. NI A.
Length 1200-Breath 960 miles.
Boundaries.] B by the Alantic Ocean and Brazil ; south, by La Plata;
OUNDED north, by Terra. Firma and Guiana ; east, and west, by Peru.
Rivers.] From the discoveries of Orellana, and others made fince his time, it appears that the Amazon is one of the largest rivers in the world. It runs a course from west to east of aboat 3000 miles, and receives near 200 other rivers, many of which have a course of 5 or 600 leagues and some of them not inferior to the Danube or the Nile. The breadth of his river at its mouth, where it discharges itself by fevereal channels into
the ocean, almost under thc equator, is 150 miles; and 1500 miles from its mouth it is 30 or.40 fathoms deep. In the rainy seasons it overflows its banks, and waters and fertilizes the adjacent country.
Climate, foil and Produce.] The fair season here is about the time of the folftices, and the wet or rainy season, at the time of the equinoxes. The trees, fields and plan:s, are verdant all the year round. The soil is extremely rich, producing corn, grain, and fruits of all kinds, cedar trees, brazil wood, oak, ebony, logwood, iron wood, dying woods, cocoa, tobacco, sugar canes, cotton, cassavi root, potatoes, yams, farsaparilla, gums, raisins, balsams of various kinds, pine apples, guavas, bonanas, &c. The forests are stored with wild honey, deer, wild fowls and parrots. The rivers and lakes abound with fish of all sorts ; but are much infested with crocodiles, alligators, and water serpents.
Inhabitants.] The Indian nations inhabiting this wide country are very numerous ; the banks of almost every river are inhabited by a different people, are governed by petty sovereigns, called Caciques, who are distinguished from their subjects by coronets of beautiful feathers. They are idolaters, and worship the images of their antient heroes. In their expeditions they carry their gods along with them.
Hiflery.] l'he fiuít discovery of this country was made by Francisca Orellana, about the year 1580, who coming from Peru, failed down the șiver Amazon to the Atlantic Ocean. He observed on the banks of the river, companies of women in arms, and from thence called the country Amazonia, or the land of the Amazons; and gave the name of Amazon to the river, which formerly had been called Maragon. The Spaniards made several attempts to plant this country, but always met with so many difficulties and disasters as rendered all their designs abortive. The Portuguese have fome small fettlements on that part of the coast which lies betwixt Cape North and the mouth of the river Amazon; but this excepted, the natives are in the sole possession of all the country.
Sa tract of country, 7 or 8oo miles long, and 2 or 300 broad, at the
Southern extremity of the American continent. Climate, soil and Produdion.] This country is full of high mountains, which are covered with snow most of the year. The storms of wind, rain, and snow here are terrible. The soil is very barren aud has never been cultivated.
Inbabitants, Character &c ] The natives live in thatched huts, and wear no cloaths, notwithstanding the rigour of the climate. They live chiefly on fith and game, and what the earth fpontaneously produces. They are of a tawney complexion, have black hair, and are a gigantic, brave, hardy, active race. Their arms are bows and arrows headed with flint. We know nothing of their government or religion.
History. ] Ferdinand Magellan, a Porteguese in the service of Spain, bit discovered this country; at least he was the first that failed through
the straits called by his name. "Magellan passed these straits in the year 1519. The continent is often called Terra Magellanica ; and the largest of the neighbouring isles, from a volcanno in it, is called Terra del Fuego, the most southerly point of which is called Cape Horn.
Upon the first discovery of the straits of Magellan, the Spaniards built forts and sent fome colonies thither ; but most of the people perished with cold and hunger ; since which time no settlements have been attempted here by any Europeans.
West India Islands.
These belong to
Great Britian, Spain, France,
Holland and Denmark.
TO GREAT BRITAIN belong, Bermudas, the Bahama islands, Ja
maica, Barbadoes, Antigua, St. Christopher's, Grenada, and the Grenadines, Nevis, Montserrat, Barbuda, Duminica, St. Vincent, Anyuilla,--to which we may add their northern iflands, Newfoundland. Cape Breton, and St. John's. Jamaica, the largest of the west India islands, is computed to produce annually 70,000 tons of sugar, upwards of 4,000,000 gallons of rum, besides coffee, cocoa, indigo and pepper.
To Spain belong the island of Cuba, one half of St. Domingo, PortoRico, Trinidad, Margaretta, Tortuga, Virgin islands, to which we may add the island of Juan Fernades, which lies 300 miles west of Chili in the Pacific Ocean, famous for having given rise to the celebrated romance of Robinson Crusoe. The story is this : One Alexander Selkirk, a Scotchman, was left ashore in this solitary place, where he lived a number of years, till he was taken up by Capt. Rogers, 1709; he had almost forgotten his native language, seeming to speak his words by halves. During his residence on the island, he had killed 500 goats by running them down, and he had marked as many more on the ear which he had let go. Upon his return to England he was advised to publish an account of his life and adventures in this little kingdom. For this purpose he gave his papers into the hands of one Defoe, to prepare them for publication. But the writer, by the help of these papers, transformed Alexander Selkirk into Robinson Crusoe.
To the FRENCH belong, the largest part of the island of St. Domingo, the islands of Martinique, Gaudaloupe, St. Lucia, Martia Galante, Tobago, St. Bartholomew, and Delcada, and the North America islands St."