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taneonly the fru Carolinas. But

Thelter a Squadron of ships through the winter. The town has an enta trenchment, and is strengthened with forts of timber. It is commodiousły situated for the fishery. ANNAPOLIS stands on the cast side of the Bay of Fundy, and has one of the finest harbours in the world. St. John's is a new settlement at the mouth of the river of the same name. Since the conclufion of the war, there have been large emigrations of the refugées from the United States of this province. They have built several pew towns, the largest of which is SHELBURNE, which is said to contain gooo inhabitants.

Hifory and Government.] Notwithstanding the forbidding aspect of this country, it was here that some of the first European settlements were made. The first grant of land in it, was made by James I, to his secretary William Alexander, who named it Nova Scotia, or New Scotland.-Since that time it has frequently changed from one private proprietor to another, and repeatedly from the French to the English. At the peace of Utrecht it was confirmed to the English, under whose government it has ever fince continued.

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SPANISH DOMINIONS.

EAST AND WEST FLORIDA.

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Miles.
Length 6007 250 and 31° North Latitude.
Between 50 and 17° West Longitude from Philadel-

phia.

Breadth 139

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Boundaries.] Bocean, South by the Gulf Mexico"; weft by the
Missisippi : lying in the form of an .

Rivers.) St John's and Indian rivers, which empty into the Atlantic Ocean; Seguana, Apalachicola, Chatahatchi, Escambia, Mobile, Pascagoula and Pearl rivers, all of which rise in Georgia, and run foutherly into the Gulf of Mexico.

Climate.] Very little different from that of Georgia.

Soil and productions.] There are, in this country, a great variety of foils. The eaftern part of it, near and about St. Augustine, is far the most unfruitful; ger even here two crops of Indian corn a year are produced. The banks of the rivers which water the Floridas, and the parts contigious, are of a fuperiour quality, and well adapted to the culture of rice and corn, while the more interiour country, which is high and pleafant, abounds with wood of almost every kind'; particularly white and red oak, pine, hiccory, cypress, red and white cedar. The intervals be tween the hilly part of this country are extremely rich, and produce fpon

taneoufly

general recer on the Mill commercial

Religion, Catholics. ber is unknc

Climate, the extreme the north.

taneously the fruits and vegetables that are common to Georgia and the Carolinas. But this country is rendered valuable in a peculiar manner, by the extensive ranges for cattle.

Chief Towns.] Št. AUGUSTINE, the capital of E. Florida, is situated on The sea coaft-is of an oblong figure, and intersected by four streets, which cut each other at right angles. The town is fortified with bastions, and enclosed with a ditch. It is likewise defended by a castle, called Fort St. John, which is well appointed as to ordnance. The north and south breakers, at the entrance of the harbour, form two channels, whose bars have eight feet water.

The principal town in West Florida is Pensacola. It lies along the beach, and, like St. Augustine, is of an oblong form.-— The water-approach to the town, except for small vessels, is obstructed by a low and fandy fhore. The bay, however, on which the town stands, forms a very commodious harbour, and vessels may ride here secure from every wind.

History.] The Floridas have experienced the viciffitudes of war, and frequently changed masters, belonging alternately to the French and Spaniards. It was ceded by the latter to the English at the peace During the last war it was again reduced by the arms of his Catholic Ma. jesty, and it was guaranteed to the crown of Spain by the late definitive treaty. Its first discoverer was Sebastian Cabot, in 1497.

of 1763,

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Boundaries.] B Mexico fouth; "Wy New Mexico welt; and runs inde

the the finitely north.

Rivers.] It is intersecked by a number of fine rivers, among which are the Natchitoches, which empties into the Mifflippi at Point Coupee, and the Adayes or Mexicano river, emptying into the Gulph of Mexico.

Capital.] NEW ORLEANS. It stands on the east side of the Misslippi, 105 miles from its mouth, in latitude 30° 2' Dorth. In the beginning of the last year it contained about 1100 houses, seven-eighths of which were consumed by fire, in the space of five hours, on the 19th of March, 1788. It is now fast rebuilding. Its advantages for trade are very great. Situated on a noble river, in a fertile and healthy country, within two weeks fail of Mexico by sea, and still nearer to the British, French and Spanish West-India islands, with a moral certainty of its becoming the general receptacle for the produce of that extensive and valuable country on the Mililippi and Ohio, are sufficient to ensure its future growth and commercial importance.

Religion, &c.] The greater part of the white inhabitants are Roman Catholics. They are governed by a viceroy from Spain, and their num. ber is unknown.

Climate, Soil and Produce.) Louisiana is agreeably situated between the extremes of heat and cold. Its climate varies as it extends towards the north. The southern parts, lying within the reach of the refreshing

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breezės from the fea, are not scorched like those under the same latitudes in-Africa; and its northern regions are colder than those of Europe under. the fame parallels, with a wholefome serene air. To judge of the produce to be expected from the soil of Louisiana, let us turn our eyes to Egypt, Arabia Felix, Persia, India, China and Japan, all lying in corresponding latitudes. Of these, Chira alone has a tolerable government; and yet it muft be acknowledged they all are, or have been, famous for their riches and fertility. From the favourableness of the climate, two annual crops of Indian corn, as well as rice; may be produced ; and the foil, with little cultivation, would furnish grain of every kind in the greatest abundance. Their timber is as fine as any in the world, and the quantities of live oak, ash, mulberry, walnut, cherry, cypress and cedar, are astonishing. The neighbourhood of the Mifsilippi, besides, furnishes the richest fruits in great variety s the foil is particularly adapted for hemp, flax and tobacco ; and indigo is at this time a staple commodity, whicn commonly yields the planter three or four cuttings a year. In 2 word, whatever is rich and rare in the most defirable climates in Europe, feems to be the spontaneous production of this delightful country. The Misfilippi furnishes in great plenty several sorts of fish, particularly perch, pike, Iturgeon and eels.

History.] The Misfilippi, on which the fine country of Louisiana is situated, was first discovered by Ferdinand de Soto, in 1541. Monsieur de la Salle was the first who traverfed it. He, in the year 1682, having passed down to the mouth of the Missippi, and surveyed the adjacent country, returned to Canada, from whence he took passage to France.

From the flattering accounts which he gave of the country, and the consequential advantages that wonld accrue from settling a colony in those parts, Louis XIV. was induced to establish

company

for the

purpose. Accordingly a squadron of four vessels amply provided with men and provisions, under the command of Monsieur de la Salle, embarked, with an intention to settle near the mouths of the Missisippi. But he unintentionally failed 100 leagus to the westward of it, where he attempted to establish a colony; but, through the unfavourableness of the climate. most of his men miserably perished, and he himself was villainously murdered, not long after, by two of his own men. Monsieur Ibberville fucceeded him in his laudable attempts. He, after two successful voyages, died while preparing for a third. Crozat succeeded him ; and in 1712, the king gave him Louifiana. This grant continued but a short time aftér the death of Louis XIV. In 1763 Louisiana was ceded to the king of Spain, to whom it now belongs.

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NEW

Biundaries.} Bana; fouth, by Old Mexico and the Pacific Ocean ;

NEW MEXICO AND CALIFORNIA.

Miles.
Length 2000

90 and 126° West Long. from London.

Between
Breadth 1600

1 23° and 43° North Latitude.
OUNDED north, by unknown lands; east, by Louili-

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west, by the ocean.
Didifsons.
Subdivisions.

Chief Towns.
North-east division. } New Mexico Proper, { SANTA FE; W. Longitude

104North
South-east division, Apacheira,

St. Antonio.
South division,

Sonora,

Tuape.
West division, California, a peninsula, St. Juah.
Climate, foil and produktions.] The climate of this country,

if
we

may judge from its situation, must be very agreeable. Towards the close of the last century, the Jesuits, who had great merit in exploring the negleEted province of California, and in civilizing its sude inhabitants, seem itudioufly to have depreciated this country, for political reasons, by representing the climate as so disagreeable and unwholesome, and the soil as so barren, that nothing but their zealous endeavours to convert the patives, could have induced them to settle there. The falsehood of this representation, however, has since been detected, and a very favourable accouut has been given of the climate and soil. A able pearl fishery has been found on its coasts, and mines of gold have been discovered of a very promising appearance. In California, there falls in the morning a great quantity of dew, which, settling on the role-leaves, candies, and becomes hard like manna, haviag all the sweetness of refined sugar, with out its whiteness. There is also another very singular natural production. In the heart of the country there are plains of salt, quite firm, and clear as cryftal, which, considering the vast quantities of fish found on its coafts, might render it an invaluable acquisition to an industrious nation.

Inhabitants and character. ] The number of inhabitants, as far as can be known, do not exceed 300,000. The chara teristics of the Califore nians, are stupidity and insensibility; want of knowledge and reflection inconstancy, impetuosity, and blindness of appetite ; an excellive floth, and abhorrence of all labour and fatigue; an excesiive love of pleasure and amusement of every kind, however trifling or brutal ; pusillanimity; and, in fine, a most wretched want of every thing which constitutes the real man, and renders him rational, inventive, traflable, and useful to himself and society.

History.] Cortes, the great conqueror of Mexico, discovered the exa tensive peninsula of California in the year 1536, after enduring incredible hardships, and encountering dangers of almost every 1pecies. During a long period it continued to be so little frequented, that even its form was unknown, and in most maps it was represented as an iland. Sir Francis Drake was the first who took possession of it' in 1578, and his right was confirmed by the principal king or chief in the whole country, .

OLD

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OLD MEXICO, OR NEW SPAIN.

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Miles. Length 2000 Breadth 600

of the

80° and 110° West Long. from London

8 and 30 North Latitude.

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:} Between { Boundaries. JB Gulph of Mexico; Youth.cat,by Terra Firma; south

chara

OUNDED north, by New Mexico; north-east, by the

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west, by the Pacific Ocean , divided into the three following audiences,
viz.
Audiences.

Chief Towns.
Galicia, or Guadalajarra,

Guadalajarra.

Mexico, N. Lat. 19° 54'1 Mexico Proper,

Acapulco

Vera Cruz. Guatimala,

Guatimala.

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Climate, foil and productions.] Mexico, lying principally in the torrid zone, is excellively hot. This country is mountainous in the interior parts, but along the castern shore it is flat and marshy, and is overflowing in the rainy seasons, which renders it very unhealthy. The trees are clothed with perpetual verdure, and blossom and bear almost the whole year round. The cotton and cedar-trees, and those which bear the cocoa, of which chocolate is made, abound here. Mexico, like all the tropical countries, is rather more abundant in fruit than in grain. Pine-apples, pomegranates, oranges, lemons, citrons, figs, &c. are here in great plenty and perfection. Mexico produces also a great quantity of sugar, especially towards the Gulf of Mexico.

The chief mines of gold are in Veragua and New Granada, bordering upon Darien and Terra Firma. Those of silver, which are much more rich, as well as numerous, are found in several parts, particularly in the province Mexico.

The mines of both kinds are always found in the most barren and mountanous parts of the country; nature making amends in one respect for defects in another.

Of the gold and silver which the mines of Mexico afford, great things have been said. Those who have enquired most into the fubje&t compute the revenues at twenty-four millions of money; and this account is probably juft, since it is well known that this, with the other Spanish provinces is South America, supply the whole world with silver. The Spanish commerce in the article of cocoa is immense. It

grows on a tree of a middling size, which bears a pod about the size of a cus cumber, containing the cocoa. It is faid that a small garden of cocoas, produces to the owner 20,000 crowns a year.

Inbabitants, character and government.] The present inhabitants of Mexico

may

be divided into whites, Indians and negroes. The whites are born in Old Spain, or they are creoles, that is, natives of Spanish A. merica. The former are chiefly employed in government and trade, and have nearly the same character with the Spaniards in Europe ; only a

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