« הקודםהמשך »
formed in the same territory ; to provide also for the establishment of states, and permament government therein, and for their admission to share in the federal councils on an equal footing with the original states, at as early periods as may be consistent with the general interest:
It is hearby ordained and declared by the authority aforesaid, That the following articles thall be considered articles of compact, between the original states and the people, and states in the same territory, and for ever remain unalterable, unless common consent, to wit:
Article ist. No person demeaning himself in a peaceable and orderly manner shall ever be molested on account of his mode of worship or religious sentiments in the same teritory.
Article 2d. The inhabitants of the said territory shall always be entitled to the benefits of the writ of habeas corpus, and of the trial by jury, of a proportionate representation of the people in the legislature, and of judicial proceedings according to the course of the common law: all perLons shall be bailable unless for capital offences, where the proof shall be evident, or the presumption great : all fines shall be moderate, and no cruel or unusual punishment Thall be inflicted; no man shall be deprived of his, liberty or property but by the judgement of his peers, or of the law of the land, and should the public exigencies make it necessary for the common preservation to take any person's property, or to demand his particular services, full compensation shall be made for the fame; and in the just preservation of the rights and property it is understood and declared, that no law ought ever to be made, or have force in the said territory, that shall in any manner whatever interfer with, or affect private contracts or engagements, bona fide, and without fraud previously formed.
• Article 3d. Religion, morality, and knowledge, being neceffary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged, the utmost good faith shall always be observed towards the Indians; their lands and property thall never be taken from them without their confent ; and in their property, rights, and liberty, they shall never be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by Congress; but laws founded on justice and humanity Shall from time to time be made, for preventing wrongs being done to them, and for preserving peace and friendship with them. 4 Article 4th. The said territory and the estates which may be formed therein; fall for ever remain a part of this confederacy of the United States of America; subject to the articles of confederation, and to fuch alte rations therein as shall be constitutionally made ; and to all the acts and
ordinances of the United States, in Congress assembled, conformable thereto. The inhabitants and settlers in the said territory, shall be subject to pay a part of the federal debts contracted; or to be contracted; and a proportionable part of the expences of government to be apportioned on them by Congress, according to the same common rule and measure; by which apportionments thereof shall be made on the other states; and the taxes for paying their proportion; shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the district or districts, or new states; as the original states, within the time agreed upon by the United States, Congress assembled. The legislature of those districts; or new states; fhall never interfer with the primary disposal of the soil; by the United
States, in Congress assembled, nor with any regulations Congress may find neceffary for securing the title in such soil to the bona fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on lands the property of the United States; and in no cafe shall non-resident proprietors be taxed higher than residents. The navigable waters leading into the Millilippi and St. Lawrence, and the cara rying places between the same, shall be common highways, and for ever free, as well to the inhabitants of the said territory, as to the citizens of the United States, and those of any other ftates that may be admitted into the confederacy, without any tax, impost, or duty therefor.
Article 5th. There shall be formed in the said territory, not less than three, nor more than five states; and the boundaries of the states, as soon as Virginia shall alter her act of cesfion and confent to the fame, shall be-? come fixed and established as follows, to wit: The western state in the said territory, shall be bounded on the Miffisippi, the Ohio, and Wabash rivers a direct line drawn from the Wabash and Post Vincent's dųe north to the territorial line, between the United States and Canada, and by the faid territorial line to the lake of the Woods and Millisippi. The middle state shall be bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash from Post Vin. cent's to the Ohio; by the Ohio, by a direct line. drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami to the said territorial "line, and by the said territorial line. The ealtern state shall be bounded by the last mentioned direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said territorial line: Provided however, and it is furthor understood and declared, that the boundaries of these three states, shall be subject fo far to be altered, that if Con. gress hereafter shall find it expedient, they shall have authority to form one, or two states in that part of the said territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan: and when any of the said states shall have 60,000 free inhabitants therein, such state shall be admitted by its delegates into the Congress of the United States, on an equal footing with the original states in all respects whatever ; and shall be at liberty to
form a permament
constitution and state government: Provided the constitution and government fo to be formed, shall be republican, and in conformity to the principles contained in these articles, and so far as it can be consistent, with the general interest of the confederacy, such admission hall be allowed at an earlier period, and when there may be a less number of free inhabitants in the state than 60,000.
Article 6th There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary fervitude in the faid territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted: Provided always, that any person escaping into the same, from whom labour or service is lawfully claimed in any one of the original states, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labour or service as aforefaid!'
Such is the present government of the Western Territory, and such the political obligations of the adventurers into this fertile and delightful part of the United States.
• * In the ordinance of Congress, for the government of this territory, it is provided, that, after the laid territory acquires a certain degree of
From the anonymous pamphlet before quoted:
population, it shall be divided into states. The eastern state, that is this provided to be made, is bound by the Great Miami on the west, and by the Pennsylvania line on the east. The center, of this state will fall between the Sioto and the Hockhocking. Al the mouth of one of these rivers will probably be the seat of government for this state: And, if we may indulge the sublime contemplation of beholding the whole territory of the United States fettled by an enlightened people, and continued under one extended government-on the river Ohio, and not far from this spot, will be the seat of empire for the whole dominion. This is central to the whole; itwill best accommodate every part; it is the most pleasant, and probably the most healthful.'
In this connection we must not omit to add, that a settlement is commencing, with advantageous prospects, on the western side of the Misfilippi, opposite the mouth of the Ohio. The spot on which the city is to be built, is called New Madrid, after the capital of Spain. This settlement, which is without the limits of the United States, in the Spanish dominions, is conducted by Colonel Morgan, under the patronage of the Spanish king.
The settlers are to form their own constitution, make their own laws, (provided they do not counteract the laws of Spain) choose their own magistrates and civil officers, and are to enjoy free toleration in religion. They are, however, to be subjects of the king of Spain. As an encouragement to settlers, they are to be indulged with some peculiar commercial privileges.
New Madrid, from its local situation and advantitious privileges, is in prospect of being the great emporium of the western country, unless the free navigation of the Millisippi should be opened to the United States. And even should this desired event take place, which probably will not without a rupture with Spain, this must be a place of great trade. For here will naturally center, the immense quantities of produce that will be borne down the Illinois, the Millisippi, the Ohio, and their various branches; and if the carriers can find as good a market for their corgaes here, as at New Orleans or the West Indies, and even procure the articles they defire, they will gladly fave themselves the difficulties and dangers of navigating the long Misisippi.
It has been supposed by some, that all settlers who go beyond the Mir, filippi, will be for ever lost to the United States. There is, I believe, little danger of this, provided they are not provoked to withdraw their friend. ship. The emigrants will be made up of citizens of the United States. They will carry along with them their manners and customs, their habits of government, religion, and education; and as they are to be indulged with religicus freedom, and with the privilege of making their own laws, and of conducting cducation upon their own plans, these American habits will undoubtedly be cherished. If so, they will be Americans in fact, though nominally the subjects of Spain.
It is true. Spain will draw a revenue from them, but in return they will enjoy peculiar commercial advantages, the benefit of which will be experienced by the United States, and perhaps be an ample compensation for the loss of so many citizens as may migrate thither. In short, this settlement if condiked with judgment and prudence, may be mutually serviceable
- both to Spain and the United States. It may prevent jealousies—lessen na
tional prejudices-promote religious toleration, preserve harmony, and be a medium of trade reciprocally advantegous.
Besides, it is well known that empire has been travelling from east to west. Probably her last and broadest seat will be America. Here the sciences, and the arts of civilized life, are to receive their highest improvement. Here civil and religous liberty are to flourish, unchecked by the cruel hand of civil or ecclesiastical tyranny. Here genius, aided by all the improvements of former ages, is to be exerted in humanizing mankind—in expanding and enriching their minds with religious and philofophical knowledge, and in planning and executing a form of government, which shall involve all-the excellencies of former governments, with as few of their defects as is consistent with the imperfection of human affairs, and which shall be calculated to protect and unite, in a manner consistent with the natural rights of mankind, the largest empire that ever existed, Elevated with these prospects, which are not merely the visions of fancy, we cannot but anticipate the period, as not far distant, when the AMEKICAN EMPIRE will comprehend millions of fouls, west of the Misfilippi. Judging upon probable grounds, the Millilippi was never designed as the western boundary of the American empire. The God of nature never intended that some of the best parts of his earth should be inhabited by the subjects of a monarch 4000 miles from them. And may we not venture to predi&t, that, when the rights of mankind shall be more fully known, and the knowledge of them is fast increasing both in Europe and America, the power of European potentates will be confined to Europe, and their present American dominions, become like the United States, free, fovereign, and independent empires.
V E R M O N T.
SITUATION and EXTENT.
42° 50' and 45° North Latitude.
1 go' and 3° East Longitude.
beton } Between Boundaries.] Briver which divides it from New Hampshire ; fouth,
by Massachusetts ; west, by New-York.
These counties are divided into townships, which are generally fix miles Square. In every township is a reserve of two rights of land, of 350 acres each; one to be appropriated for the support of public schools, the other to be given in fee to the first ininister who setules in the townfhip. A part of the townships were granted by the governor of NewHampshire, and the other part by that of Vermont. In those townships granted by the former, à right of land is reserved for the fupport of the gospel in foreign parts; in those granted by the latter, a college right, and a right for the support of county grammar schools, are reserved. In these refervations, liberal provision is made for the fupport of the gospel, and for the promotion of common and collegiate education.
Rivers.] This state, on the east-side of the mountain, is watered by Paupanhoalak, Quechey, Welds, White, Black and West rivers, which
run from west to east into Connecticut river; and west of the mountains, by the river Lamoil, over which is a natural stone bridge; seven or eight rods in length, by Onion river and Otter Creek, which empty by one mouth into Lake Champlain, 20 or 30 feet south of St. John's. Creek is navigable for boats 50 miles. The lands adjacent are of an excellent quality, and are annually enriched by the overflowing of the water, occasioned by the melting of the snow on the Green Mountains.
Mountains. ) A chain of high mouutains, running north and south, divides this state nearly in the center between Connecticut river and Lake Champlain. The height of land is generally from 20 to 30 miles from the river, and about the same distance from the New-York line. The natural growth upon this mountain is hemlock, pine, spruce, and other evergreens; hence it has always a green appearance, and on this account has obtained the descriptive pame of Ver Mons, Green Mountains. On some high parts of this mountain, snow lics till May, and sometimes till June.
Face of the country, Soil and produtions.] The country is generally hilly, but not rocky. It is fincly watered, and affords the best of pasturage for cattle. On the banks of the lakes, rivers and rivulets, are many fine tracts of rich interval land. The heavy growth of timber, which is common throughout the state, evince the strength and fertility of the soil. Elm, black birch, maple, afhand bass-wood, grow in the moist low ground; and the banks of the rivers are timbered principally with white pine, intermingled with vales of beech, elm and white oak. The inhabitants cultivate wheat; 25 and 20 bushels of which grow on an acre, rye, barley, oats, Indian corn, &c. The corn, however, is frequently cut off by
the early frosts, especially on the mountains and hills. That which grows ed on the banks of the rivers is not so frequently injured. Flax is raised in
considerable quantities, and the soil is good for hemp - Potatoes, pumpkins, and garden roots and vegetables, grow here in great plenty. Large quantities of sugar, of a good quality and flavour, are made from the fugar maple. Climate
. None in the world more healthy Snow begins to fall commonly in the beginning of November, and is generally gone by the middle of April. During this season, the inhabitants generally enjoy a serene sky, and a keen cold air. The ground is seldom frozen to any great depth, being covered with a great body of snow, before the severe