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part, has the following observation : "The country on the Ohio is every where pleasant, with large level spots of rich land; and remarkably healthy. One general remark of this nature will serve for the whole tract of the globe comprehended between the western skirts of the Allegany mountains; thence running fouth-westwardly to the distance of 500 miles to the Ohio falls ; then crossing them northerly to the heads of the rivers that

empty themselves into the Ohio ; thence east along the ridge that separates the lakes and Ohio's streams, to French creek. This country may, from a proper knowledge, be affirmed to be the most healthy, the most pleasant, the most commodious and most fertile spot of earth, known to the European people.”

• The lands that feed the various streams above-mentioned, which fall into the Ohio, are now more accurately known, and may be described with confidence and precision. They are interspersed with all the variety of soil which conduces to pleasantness of fituation, and lays the foundation for the wealth of an agricultural and manufacturing people. Large level bottoms, or natural meadows, from 20 to 50 miles in circuit, are every where found bordering the rivers, and variegating the country in the interior parts. These afford as rich a soil as can be imagined, and may be reduced to proper cultivation with very little labour. It is said, that in many of these bottoms a man may clear an acre a day, fit for planting with Indian corn; there being no under wood ; and the trees, growing, very high and large, but not thick together, need nothing but girdling.

• The prevailing growth of timber and the more useful trees are, maple or sugar tree, sycamore, black and white mulberry, black and white walnut, butternut, chesnut, white, black, Spanish and chesnut oaks, hiccory, cherry, buckwood, honey, locuft, elm, horse-chesnut, cucumber tree, lynn tree, gum tree, iron wood, afh, aspin, sassafras, crab-apple tree, paupaw or custard apple, a variety of plum trees, nine bark spice, and leather wood bushes. General Parsons measured a black walnut tree near the Muskingum, whose circumference, at five feet from the ground, was 22 feet. A fycamore, near the same place, measures 44 feet in circumference, at some distance from the ground. White and black oak, and chesnut, with most of the above-mentioned timbers, grow large and plenty upon the high grounds. Both the high and low lands produce vast quantities of natural grapes of various kinds, of which the settlers universally make a sufficiency for their own consumption of rich red wine. It is asserted in the old settlement of St. Vincent's, where they have had op portunity to try it, that age will render this wine preferable to most of the European wines. Cotton is the natural production of this country, and grows in great perfection.

· The sugar maple is a most valuable tree for an inland country. Any number of inhabitants may be for ever supplied with a fufficiency of sugar, by preserving a few trees for the use of each family. A tree will yield about ten pounds of sugar a year, and the labour is very trifling : The fap is extracted in the months of February and March, and granulated, by the simple operation of boiling, to a fugar equal in flavour and whiteness to the best Muscovado.

• 'Springs of excellent water abound in every part of this territory : and small and large streams, for mills and other purposes, are actually in


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terpersed, as if by art, that there be no deficiency in any of the conteniencies of life. Very little waste land is to be found in any part of this tract of

country. There are no swamps ; and though the hills are frequent, they are gently and swelling, no where high, nor incapable of tillage. They are of a deep, rich foii, covered with a heavy growth of timber and, well adapted to the production of wheat, rye, indigo, tobacco, &c.

• The conımunications between this country and the sea will be princtá pally in the four following directions.

• 1. The rout through the Sioto and Muskingum to Lake Erie, and so to the river Hudson : which has been already described.

* 2. The passage up the Ohio and Monongahela to the portage abovementioned, which leads to the navigable waters of the Potowinac. This portage is 30 miles, and will probably be rendered much less by the execution of the plans now on foot for opening the navigation of those

43. The greatKanhaway, which falls into the Ohio from the Virginia shore between the Hockhocking and Sioto, opens an extensive navigation from the south-east, and leaves but 18 miles portage from the navigable waters of Jame's river, in Virginia. This communication, for the country between Muskingum and Sioto, will probably be more used than any other, for the exportation of inanufactures, and other light and valuable articles; and, especially for the iinportation of foreign commodities, which may be brought from the Chesapeek to the Ohio much cheaper than they are now carried from Philadelphia to Carlisle, and the other thick settled back countries of Penn'ylvania,

4. But the current down the Ohio and the Millisippi, for heavy articles that suit the Florida and West-India markets, such as corn, flour, bcef, lumber, &c. will be more frequently loaded than any streams on earth

The distance from the Sioto to the Millifippi is 800 miles; from thence to the sea is 900. This whole course is easily run in 15 days; and the passage up those rivers is not so difficult as has usually been represented. It is found, by late experiments, that fails are used to great advantage against the current of Ohio: And it is worthy of observation, that in all probability steam boats will be found to do infinite service in all our extensive river navigation.

• As far as observations in passing the rivers, and the transitory remarks of travellers will justify an opinion, the lands farther down, and in other parts of the unappropriated country, are not equal in point of foil and other local advantages, to the tract which is here described. This, however, cannot be accurately determined, as the prefent fituation of these countries will not admit of that minute inspection which has been bestowed on the one under confideration.

• It is a happy circumstance, that the Ohio Company are about to commence the settlement of this country in so regular and judicious a man

It will serve as a wife model for the future settlement of all the federal lands ; at the fame time that, by beginning so near the western liinit of Pennsylvania, it will be a continuation of the old settlements, leaving vacant no lands exposed to by such lawless banditti as usual infett the frontiers of countries distant from the seat of government.

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• The design of Congress and of the settlers is, that the settlements shall proceed regularly down the Ohio ; and northward to Lake Erie. And it is probable that not many years will elapse, before the whole country above Miami will be brought to that degree of cultivation, which will exhibit all its latent beauties, and justify those descriptions of travellers which have so often made it the garden of the world, the seat of wealth, and the centre of a great empire.'

Arimals, &c.] • No country is better stocked with wild game of ever kind : Innumerable herds of deer, elk, buffalo, and bear, are sheltered in the groves, and fed in the extensive bottoms that every where abound; an unquestionable proof of the great fertility of the soil. Turkies, geese, ducks, swans, teal, pheasants, partridges, &c. are, from observation, believed to be in greater plenty here, than the tame poultry are in any part of the old settlements in America.

• The rivers are well stored with fish of various kinds, and many of them of an excellent quality. They are generally large, though of different sizes: The cat-fish, which is the largest, and of a delicious flavour, weighs from 30 to 80 pounds.'

Antiquities and Curiosities.] The number of old forts found in the Kensucky country are the admiration of the curious, and a matter of much fpeculation. They are mostly of a circular form, situated on strong, well chosen ground, and contiguous to water. When--by whom—and for what purpose, these were thrown up, is uncertain. They are certainly very ancient, as there is not the least visible difference in the age or size of the timber growing on or within these forts, and that which grows without, and the oldest natives have lost all tradition respecting them. They must have been the efforts of a people much more devoted to labour than our present race of Indians ; and it is difficult to conceive how they could be constructed without the use of iron tools. At a convenient distance from these always stands a small mount of earth, thrown up in the form of a pyramid, and seems in some measure proportioned to the size of its adjacent fortification. On examination, they have been found to contain a chalky substance, supposed to be bones, and of the human kind.

On an extensive plain, or, as the French term it parara*, between Post St. Vincent and Cuscusco river, is what is called the Battle Ground, where the Siack and Cuscusco Indians fought a desperate battle, in which about 800 were killed on each side. On this spot, the ground for two miles is covered with skulls and other human bones.

Forts.] The stations occupied by the troops of the United States on the fruntiers, are the following.

Fort FRANKLIN-On the French creek, near to the post formerly called Venango, is a small Itrong fort with one cannon, was erected in 1787, and

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which answers to what in the southern states is called a savannah, is an extensive rich plain, without trees, and covered with grass. Some of these pararas, between Poft St. Vencent and the Milfhupi are 30 or 40 miles broad, and several hundred miles in length. In palling them, as far as the eye can reach, there is not a tree to be seen; but there is plenty of buffaloes, deer, elks, bears, and wolves, and innumerable flocks of turkies; these, with she green grass, form e rich and beautiful profpe&.


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garrisoned with one company. The excellent construction and execution of this work reflects honor on the abilities and industry of Captain Hart, who garrisons it with his company, and who was his own engineer.

This post was established for the purpose of defending the frontiers of Pennsylvania, which are much exposed by the facility with which the Indians can cross from Lake Erie, either to French creek or the Jadagghue Lake and the Conneawango branch, and thence descend the rapid river Allegány,

Fort Pitt-Has only an officer, and a few men to receive the supplies and dispatches forwarded to the troops by the Secretary at War.

Fort M'INTOSH-Is ordered to be demolished, and a block-house to be erected in lieu thereof, a few miles up the Big Beaver creek to protect the communication up the same, and also to cover the country.

Fort HARMAR-At the mouth of Muskingum, is a well constructed fort, with five bastions, and three cannons mounted.

It is at present garrisoned with four companies, and is considered as head quarters, being conveniently situated to reinforce any of the posts either up or down the river Ohio.

FORT STEUBEN-At the rapids of the Ohio, on the west side is a wellconstructed small fort, with one cannon, and is garrisoned with a major and two companies. This post is established to cover the country from the incursions of the Indians, and it also serves as a post of communication to Post Vincennes on the Wabash.

Posr VINCENNES-On the Wabash, is a work erected during the year 1787, and has four small brass cannon. It is garrisoned by a major and two companies.

It is established to curb the incursions of the Wabash Indians into Kentucky country, and to prevent the usurpation of the federal lands, the fertility of which have been too strong a temptation to the lawless people of the frontiers, who posted themselves there in force in the year 1786. Brigadier-General Harmar, by order of Congress, formed an expedition in August, 1787, for the purpose of dispossessing them; but previous to his arrival, most of the intruders abandoned their settlement.

Government, &c] By an ordinance of Congress, passed on the 13th of July, 1787, this country, for the purpose of temporary government, was erected into one district, subject, however to a division, when circumstances shall make it expedient.

In the same ordinance it is provided, that Congress shall appoint a governor, whose commission shall continue in force three years, unless sooner revoked.

The governor must reside in the district, and have a freehold estate therein, in 1000 acres of land, while in the exercise of his office."

Congress, from time to time, are to appoint a secretary, to continue in office four years, unless sooner removed, who must reside in the district, and have an estate of 500 acres of land, while in office.

The business of the secretary is, to keep and preserve the acts and laws of the legislature, and the public records of the district, and the proceedings of the governor, in his executive department; and to transmit authentic copies of such acts and procçedings, every six months, to the secretary of Congress.


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The ordinance provides that Congress shall appoint three judges, posa felfed each of 500 acres of land in the district in which they are to reside, and to hold their commissions during good behaviour, any two of whom, Thall form a court, which shall have a common law jurisdiction. The go vernor and judges are authorized to adopt and publish in the district, such laws of the original states, criminal and civil, as may be necessary and best suited to the circumstances of the district, and report them to Congress, and if approved they shall continue in force, till the organization of the general afsembly of the district, who shall have authority to alter them. The governor is to command the militia, and appoint and commission

their officers, except general officers, who are to be appointed and commillioned by Congress.

Previous to the organization of the assembly, the governor is to appoint such magiftrates and civil officers, as shall be deemed necessary for the preservation of peace and order.

Só soon as there shall be 5000 free male inhabitants of full age, in the district, they shall receive authority to ele& reprefentatives, one for

every 500 free male inhabitants, to represent them in the general assembly; the representation to increase progressively with the number of free male inhabitants, till there be 25 representatives ; after which the number and proportion of the representatives thall be regulated by the legislature. A representative must possess, in fee fimple, 200 acres of land, and be a refident in the distric-and must have been a citizen of the United States, or a refident in the distri&, three years preceding his election. An elecfor must have 50 acres of land in the district-must have been a citizen of one of the states -- and must be a refident in the distria-or must pofells the same freehold -and have been two years a resident in the district. The representatives, when duly elected, are to continue in office two years.

The general afsembly, or legiflature, shall consist of the governor, legislative council, and house of representatives. The legidative council Thall consist of five members, to continue in office five years, unless fooner removed by Congress. Three make a quorum.

The council are to be thus appointed: The governor and representatives, when mer, shall nomi. nate ten persons, residents in the diftrict, and each possessed of a freehold in goo acres of land, and return their names to Congress, who shall

apa point and commission five of them to serve as aforesaid.

All bills passed by a majority in the house, and in the council, shall be referred to the governor for his affent; but ao bill or legislative act whatever, shall be of force without his affunt. The governor shall have power to convene, prorogue, and disolve the general assembly, when, in his opinion, it shall be expedient.

"The legislature, when organized, shall have authority, by joint ballot, to elect a delegate to Congress, who shall have a feat in Congress, with a right of debating, but not of voting, during this temporary govern

'And for extending the fundamental principles of civil and religio us liberty, which form the basis whereon these republics, their laws and con{titutions are erected ; to fix and establish those principles as the basis of all laws, constitutions and governments, which for ever hereafter shall be Hh


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