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and were fixed in another quarter : fo that, in the space of three years, Georgia received above four hundred British subjects, and about an hun dred and feventy foreigners. Afterwards several adventurers, both from Scotland and Germany, followed their countrymen, and added further strength to the province, and the trustees fattered themselves with the hopes of foon feeing it in a promifing condition.
Their hopes, however, were vain. Their injudicious regulations and restrictions—the wars in which they were involved with the Spaniards and Indians and the frequent insurrections among themselves, threw the colony into a state of confusion and wretchedness too great for human nature long to endure. Their oppressed situation was represented to the trustees by repeated complaints ; till at length, finding that the province languished under their care, and weary with the complaints of the people, they, in the year 1752, surrendered their charter to the king, and it was made a royal government. In confequence of which, his majesty appointed John Reynolds, an officer of the navy, governor of the province, and a legiflator, fimilar to that of the other royal governments in America, was eftablished in it. 'Great had been the expence which the mother country had already incurred, besides private benefactions, for fupporting this colony; and fmall have been the returns yet made by it. The vestiges of cultivation was scarcely perceptible in the forests, and in England all commerce with it was neglected and despised. At this time the whole annual ex ports of Georgia did not amount to £ 10,000 sterling. Though the peo ple were now favoured with the same liberties and privileges enjoyed by their neighbours under the royal care, yet several years more elapfed be fore the ýalue of the lands in Georgia was known; and that fpirit of industry broke out in it, which afterwards diffufed its happy influence over
In the year 1740, the Rev. George Whitefield founded an orphan-house academy in Georgia, about 12 miles from Savannah.--For the support of this, in his itinerations, he collected large sunis of money of all denominations of chriftiaas, both in England and America. A part of this money was expended in erecting proper buildings to accommodate the students, and a part in supporting them. In 1768, it was proposed that the orphan-house should be erected into a college. Whereupon Mr. Whitefield applied to the crown for a charter, which would have been readily granted, on condition that the preGdent should, in all succesfions, be an Episcopalian, of the Church of England. Several letters passed between the archbishop of Canterbury and Mr. Whitefield, on this subject, in which the archbishopinsisted on this condition. But Mr. Whitefield, though himself an Episcopalian, declined it, alledging to his grace, that it would be unjuft to limit that office to any particular sect, when the donations for the foundation of the institution had been made and intrufted to him by the various religious denominations both in England and America. In confequence of this dispute, the affair of a charter was given up, and Mr. Whitefield made his aflignment of the orphan-house in trust to the countess of Huntingdon. Mr. Whitefield died at Newbury Port, in New-England, in O&ober, 1770, in the 56th year of his age, and was buried under the Presbyterian Church in that place.
Soon after his death a charter was granted to his infitution in Georgia, and the Rev. Mr. Percy was appointed president of the college. Mr. Percy accordingly came over to execute his office, but, unfortunately, on the 30th of May, 1775, the orphan-house building caught fire, and was entirely consumed, except the two wings, which are still remaining. The American war soon after came on, and put every thing into confufion, and the funds have ever since lay in an unproductive state. It is probable, that the college estate may hereafter be so incorporated with the university of Georgia, as to subserve the original and pious purposes of its founder.
From the time Georgia became a royal government, in 1752, till the peace of Paris, in 1763, she struggled under many difficulties, arising from the want of credit, from friends, and the molestations of enemies. The good effects of the peace were sensibly felt in the province of Georgia. From this time it began to flourish, under the fatherly care of Go. vernor Wright. To form a judgment of the rapid growth of the colo.. ny, we need only attend to its exports.
In the year 1763, the exports of Georgia consisted of 7,500 barrels of rice, 9,633 pounds of indigo, 1,250 bushels of Indian corn, which, together with deer and beaver skins, naval stores, provisions, timber, &c. amounted to no more than £.27,021 sterling. Ten years afterwards, in 1773, il exported commodities to the value of £121,677 sterling.
During the late war, Georgia was over-run by the British troops, and the inhabitants were obliged to flee into the neighbouring states for safe. ty. The sufferings and losses of her citizens were as great, in proporțion to their numbers and wealth, as in any of the states. Since the peace, the progress of the population of this state, has been astonish, ingly rapid. Its growth in improvement and population has been checked by the hostile irruptions of the Creek Indians, which have been frequent, and very distressing to the frontier intrabitants for these two years past
. This formidable nation of Indians, headed by one Mac Gilvery, an in. habitant of Georgia, who sided with the British in the late war, still continue to harrass the frontiers of this state. Treaties have been held, and a cessation of hostilities agreed to between the parties ; but all have hitherto proved ineffectual to the accomplishment of a peace. It is expected that, under the new government, conciliatory measures will be adopted, and tranquillity restored to the state.
THE WESTERN TERRITORY.
NDER this name is comprehended all that part of the United
States which lies north-west of the Ohio. Bounded west, by the Mifflippi river ; north by the Lakes ; eaft, by Pennsylvania ; south-eaft and south, by the Ohio river. Containing, according to Mr. Hutchins, 411,000 square miles, equal to 263,040,000 acres -- from which, if we
deduct 43,040.000 acres for water, there will remain 220,000,cos of acres, belonging to the federal government, to be sold for the discharge of the national debt, except a narrow strip of land, bordering on the south of Lake Erie, and stretching 120 miles west of the western limit of Penfylvania, which belongs to Connecticut.
But a small proportion of these lands is yet purchased of the natives, and to be dispofed of by Congrefs. Beginning on the meridian line, which forms the western boundary of Pennsylvania, seven ranges of townships have been furveyed and laid off by order of Congress. As a north and south line strikes the Ohio in an oblique direction, the termination of the 7th range falls upon that river, 9 miles above the Mufkingum, which is the first large river that falls into the Ohio. It forms this junction 172 miles below Fort Pitt, including the windings of the Ohio, though in a direct line it is but sa
miles. The lands in which the Indian title is extinguished, and which are now purchafing under the United States, are bounded by Pennsylvania on the east, by the Great Miami on the west, by the Ohio on the south, and extend nearly to the head waters of the Muskingum and Sioto on the north. On these lands two settřements are commencing, one of Mariet:a *, at the mouth of Muskingum, under the direction of the Ohio company. This settlement confists, at present, of about 220 souls, and is almost daily increasing The other between the Miami rivers, under the direction of Colonel Symmes, which, though very small at present, is în prospect of a rapid enlargement. There are several other tracts, dea lineated on the map, which have been granted by Congress to particular companies, and other traits for particular ufes, which remain without any English settlements.
Rivers.] The Mykingum is a gentle river, confined by banks fo. high as to prevent its overflowing. It is 250 yards wide at its coniuence with the Ohio, and navigable by large batteaux and barges to the Three Legs ;, and, by fmall ones, to the lake at its head. From thence by a portage of about one mile, a communicationis opened to Lake Erie, through the Cayalıoga, which is a stream of great utifty, navigable the whole length, without any obítruction from falls. From Lake Erie, the avenue is well known to the Hudson in the state of New York,
The Hockhocking resembles the Muskingum, though somewöat infe. rior in fize. It is navigable for large boats about 70 miles, and for small ones. much farther. On the banks of this very useful stream are found inexhaustible quarries of free-stone, large beds of iron ore, and fome rich mines of lead. Coal mines and salt springs are frequent ia che neighbourhood of this stream, as they are in every part of the western territory. The salt that may be obtained from those springs will afford. an inexhaustible store of that neceffary article. : Beds of white and blue clay, of an excellent quality, are likewise found here, suitable for the inanufacture of glass, crockery, and other earthern wares. Red bele and
many other ufeful fossils have been observed on the branches of this river.
The Siota is a larger river than either of the preceding, and opens a more extensive navigation. It is paffable for large barges for 200 miles,
* This place was forft called Adelphi, and is so called in the map
with a portage of only 4 miles to the Sandusky, a good navigable stream that falls into the Lake Erie. Through the Sandusky and Sioto lies the molt common pafs from Canada to the Obio and Missisipi ; onc of the most extensive and useful communications that are to be found in any country. Prodigious extensions of territory are here connected; and, from the rapidity with which the weitern parts of Canada, Lake Erie and the Kentueky countries are fettling, we may anticipate an immente intercourse between them. The lands on the borders of these middle streams, from this circumftance alone, aside from their natural fertility, must be rendered vastly valuable. There is no doubt but flour, corn, fax, hemp, &c. raised for exportation in that great country between the lakes Huron and Ontario, will find an easier outlet through Lake Erie and these rivers, than in any other direction, The Ohio merchant can give a liigher price than those of Quebec, for these commodities ; as they may be tranfported from the former to Florida and the West India iflands, with less expence, risk and insurance, than from the lattet ; while the expenct from the place of growth to the Ohio will not be one fourth of what it wouid be to Quebec, and much less than even to the Oneyda lake. The ftream of Sioto is gentle, no where broken by falls : At some places, in the fpring of the year, it overflows its banks, providing for large natural rice plantations. Salt fprings, coal mines, white and blue clay, and free-stone, abound in the country adjoining this river.
The Little Miami is too small for batteaux navigation. Its banks are good land, and fo high as to prevent, in common, the overflowing of the The Great Miani has a very stoney channel, and a swift ftrcam, but
It is formed of several large branches, which are passable for boats a great distance. One branch comes from the west, and rises in the Wabash country : Another rises near the head waters of Miami river which runs into Lake Erie ; and a short portage divides another brànch, from the west branch of Sandulky river.
The Wabah is a beautiful river, with high and fertile banks. It empties into the Ohio, by a mouth 270 yards wide, '1020 miles below Fort Pitt. In the firing, fummer and autumn, it is paffable with batteaux, drawing three feet water, 412 miles, to Quitanon, a small French settlement, on the west side of the river ; and for large canoes 197 miles further, to the Miami carrying place, 9 miles from Miami village. This village stands on Miami river, which empties into the south-weft part of Lake Erie. The communication between Detroit, and the Illinois, and Ohio countries is, down Miami river to Miami village ; thence, by land 9 miles when the rivers are high--and from 18 to 30 when they are low, through a level country, to the Wabash, and through the various branches of the Wabath to the places of destination.
A silver mine has been discovered about 28 miles above Ouitanong on the northern side of the Wabash. Salt Springs, lime, free-stone, blue, yellow and white clay are found in plenty upon this river.
The rivers Avafé and Kafkasetas empty into the Miffisppi from the north-east; the former is navigable for boats 60, and the latter about 130 miles. They both sun through a rich country, which þas extensive meadows.
Between the Kafkalkias and Illinois rivers, which are 84 miles apart, is in an extensive tract of level, rich land, which terninates in a high ridge, about 15 miles before you reach the Illinois river. In this delightful vale are núinber of French villages, which, together with those of St. Genevieve and St. Louis, on the western side of the Misfilippi, contained in 1771, 1,273 fencible men. One hnndred and
seventy-fix iniles above the Ohio, and 18 miles above the Missouri, the Illinios empties into the Missisippi from the north-east by a mouth about 400 yards wide. This river is bordered with fine meadows, which in some places extend as far as the eye can reach : This river furnishes a communication with Lake Michigan, by the Chicago river, between which and the Illinois,are two portages,the longest of which does not exceed 4 miles. It receives a number of rivers which are from 20 to 100 yards wide, and navigable for boats from 15 to 180 miles. On the northwestern side of this river is a coal mine, which extends for half a mile along the middle of the bank of the river. On the eastern side, about half a mile from the river, and about the same distance below the coal mine, are two salt ponds, 100 yards in circumference,and several feet in depth. The water is stagnant, and of a yellowith colour ; but the French and natives make good falt from it. The soil of the Illinois country is, in general, of a superior quality-its natural growth are oak, hiccory, cedar, mulberry, &c. hops, dying drugs, medicinal plants of several kinds, and excellent wild grapes. In the year of 1769, the French fettlers made 100 hogsheads of strong wine from these grapes.
There are many other rivers of equal size and importance with those we have been describing, which are not sufficiently known for accurate descriptions.
Population.] It is impossible to tell the exact population of this country, Mr. Hutchins, the geographer of the United States, who is the best acquainted with the country, estimates them at about 6000 souls, exclusive of Indians. This number is made up of French, English emigrants from the original states, and negroes. Face of the
country, foil and productions.] To the remarks on these heads, interpersed in the description of the rivers, we will add some observations from an anonymous, pamphlet, lately published, which we presume are the most authentic, respecting that part of the country which has been purchased of Indians, of any that has been given.
The undistinguished term of admiration, that are commonly used in fpeaking of the natural fertility of the country on the western waters of the United States, would render it difficult, without accurate attention in the surveys to ascribe a preference to any particular part ; or to give a juft description of the territory under confideration, withont the hazard of being suspected of exaggeration : But in this we have the united opinion of the geographer, the
surveyors, and every traveller that has been inti. inately acquainted with the country, and marked every natural object with the most scrupulous exactness-That no part of the federal territory unites so many advantages, in point of health, fertility, variety of production and foreign entercourse, as that tract which stretches from the Mufkingum to the Sioto and the Great Miami rivers.
Colonel Gordon, in his journal, speaking of a much large range of country, in which this is included, and makes unquestionably the finest