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tained a grant of Carolina, from Charles I. in 163.0; but no settlements were made in consequence of this grant.
In 1662, after the restoration of Charles II. Edward, earl of Clarendon, and feven others, obtained a grant of all lands lying between the 31st and 36th degrees of north latitude.
A second charter, given two years after, enlarged their boundaries, and comprehended all that province, territory, &c. extending eastward as far as the north end of Currotuck inlet, upon a straight line westerly to Wyonoke creek, which lies within, or about latitude 36° 30'; and so weit, in a direct line as far as the South fea; and south and westward as far as 29° north latitude, inclusive, and so weit in direct lines to the South sea*. Of this large territory, the king constituted these eight persons absolute Lords Proprietors-investing them with all necessary powers to settle and govern the same.
Nothing was successfully done towards the settlement of this country till 1669. At this time the proprietors, in virtue of their powers, engaged the famous Mr. Locke to frame, for them, a constitution and body of laws. This conftitution, consisting of 120 articles, was aristocratical, and though ingenious in theory, could never be successfully reduced to practice.
* Various causes have rendered it expedient to divide this extensive territory. In 1788, North-Carolina was erected into a seperate province. In 1732, George II. granted to certain trustees therein mentioned, and to their fuccessors, a charter of all that part of Carolina lying between the most northern stream of Savannah river ; westward, from the heads of these rivers, respectively in dircet lines to the South fea, inclusively, with all islands within 20 leagues of the fame.
In 1761, the governor of South-Carolina, conceiving that the lands lying south of Alatamaha river, belonged to South Carolina, granted several tracts of faid land. Upon complaint being made by the government of Georgia, of i be jupposed encroachment on their territory, his majesty issued a proclamation in 1763, annexing to Georgia all the lands lying between the river Alatamaha and St. Mary's. The bouudary line, dividing the two provinces (now states) of South-Carolina and G:ergia, has been long the subject of controverby; the former claiming the lands lying between the
North Carolina line, and a line to run due west from the mouth of Tugulo and Keowee rivers ; consequently that spot was the head of Savannah river; tht latter contended that the source of Keo
zee river was to be considered as the head of Savannah river. For the purpose of settling this controversy, commisioners were appointed
in April 1787, by the contending flates-vested with full powers to determine the controverted boundary, which they fixed as follows:
• The most northern branch or stream of the river Savannah, from the sea or mouth of such stream, to the fork or confluence of the rivers now called Tagulo and Keowee and
from thence the most northern branch or stream of the said river Tugulo till it interseets the northern boundary line of South-Carolina, if the said branch of Tugulo extends so far north, reserving all the islands in
Three classes of nobility were to be established, (viz.) barons, cafliques and landgraves. The first to poffefs twelve-the second twenty-fourthe third forty-eight thousand acres of land, which was to be unalienable.
In 1669, William Sayle, being appointed first governor of this country, embarked with a colony, and settled on the neck of land where Charleston now stands.
During the continuance of the proprietary government, a period of 50 years (reckoning from 1669 to 1719) the colony was involved in perpetual quarrels. Oftentimes they were harrassed by the Indians--sometimes infefted with pirates—frequently invaded by the French and Spanish fleets-conftantly uneasy under their injudicious government and quarrelling with their governors.--But their most bitter diffentions, were respecting religion. The Episcopalians, being more numerous than the Diffenters, attempted to exclude the latter from a seat in the legislature. These attempts were so far succeeded, as that the church of England, by a majority of votes, was established by law. This illiberal act threw the colony into the utmost confufion, and was followed by a train of evil consequences, which proved to be the principal cause of the revolution. Notwithstanding the act establishing the church of England was repealed, tranquility was not restored to the colony. A change of government was generally desired by the colonists. They found that they were not sufficiently protected by their proprietary constitution, and effected a revolution about the year 1719, and the government became regal.
In 1728, the proprietors accepted £.22,500 sterling from the crown, for the property and jurisdiction, except Lord Granville, who reserved his 8th of the property, which has never yet been formally given up. At this time the constitution was new modelled, and the territory, limited by the original charter, was divided into North and South-Carolinas.
From this period the colony began to flourish. It was protected by a government, formed on the plan of the English constitution. Under the fostering care of the mother country, its growth was aftonishingly rapid. Between the years 1763 and 1765, the number of inhabitants was more than doubled. No one indulged a wish for a change in their political conftitution, till the memorable stamp act, passed in 1765.
From this period till 1775, various attempts were made by Great-Britain to tax her colonies without her consent. These attempts were invariably opposed. The Congress, who met at Philadelphia this year, the faid rivers Savannah and Tugulo to Georgia--but if the said branch stream of Tugulo does not extend to the north boundary line of South Carolina, ihen a west line to the Millilippi to be drawn from the head spring or source of the said branch of Tugulo river, which extends to the highest northern latitude, shall for ever kereafter form the separation limit and boundary between the states of South-Carolina aad Georgia.
It is supposed, in the map of this state, that the most northern branch of Tugulo river, interseets the northern boundary of South-Carolina, which, if it de fact, brings the state to a point in latitude 35°, and about 8° 35' weff Iongitude from: Philadelphia,
unanimously approved the opposition, and on the 19th of April, war commenced.
During the vigorous contest for independence, this state was a great sufferer. For three years it was the seat of the war. It feels and la. ments the loss of many of its noble citizens. Since the peace, it has been emerging from that melancholy confusion and poverty, in which it was generally involved by the devastations of a relentless enemy. The inhabitants are faft multiplying by emigrations from other states---the agricultural interests of the state are reviving-commerce is flourishingeconomy is becoming more fashionable and science begins to spread her falutary influences among the citizens.-And should the political disficulties, which have, for several years past, unhappily divided the inhabitants, subfide, as is hoped, upon the operation of the new government, this state, from her natural commercial and agricultural advantages, and the abilities of her leading characters, promises to become one of the richest in the union.
OUNDED east, by the Atlantic Ocean ; south, by
East and West Floridas; west, by the river Misfilippi; north and north-east, by South-Carolina, and by lands ceded to the United States by South-Carolina.
Civil divisions.] That part of the state which has been laid out in
SAVANNAH, lat. 32° 5'.
Waynesburgh and Louisville.
Before the revolution, Georgia, like all the southern states, was divided into parishes; but this mode of division is now abolished, and that of counties has succeeded in its room. Chief Towns. The present seat of government in this state is Au
It is situated on the south west bank of Savannah river, about 134 miles from the sea, and 117 north-west of Savannah. The town, which contains not far from 200 houses, is on a fine large plain ; and as it enjoys the best foil, and the advantage of a central situation between the upper and lower counties, is rising falt into importance.
SAVANNAH, the former capital of Georgia, Itands on a high fandy bluff, on the south side of the river of the same name, and 17 miles from its mouth. The town is regularly built in the form of a parallellogram, and, including its suburbs, contains 227 dwelling-houses, one Episcopal church, a German Lutheran church, a Prefbyterian church, a Synagogue, and Court-house. The manner of its inhabitants, exclusive of the blacks, amount to about 830, seventy of whom are Jews.
In Sav nah, and within a circumference of about 10 miles from it, there were, in the summer of 1787, about 2300 inhabitants. Of these, 192 were above 50 years of age, and all in good health. The ages of a lady and her fix children, then living in the town, amounted to 385 years. This computation, which was actually made, serves to shew that Savannah is not really so unhealthy as has been commonly represented.
SUNBURY is a sea port town, favoured with a safe and very convenient harbour. Several small islands intervene, and partly obftruct a direct view of the ocean; and, interlocking with each other, render the passage out to sea, winding, but not difficult. It is a very pleasant, healthy town, and is the resort of the planters from the adjacent places of Midway and Newport, during the sickly months. It was burnt by the British in the late war, but is now recovering its former populousness and importance.
BRUNSWICK, in Glynn county, lat. 31° 16', is situated at the mouth of Turtle river, at which place this river empties itself into St. Simon's found. Brunswick has a safe harbour, and sufficiently large to contain the whole of his Most Christian Majesty's fleet; and the bar, at the entrance into it, has water deep enough for the largest vessel that swims. 'The town is regularly laid out, but not yet built. From its advantageous situation, and from the fertility of the back country, it promises to be hereafter one of the first trading towns in Georgia.
FREDERICA, on the island of St. Simon, is nearly in lat. 31° 15' north. It stands on an eminence, if considered with regard to the marshes before it, upon a branch of Alatamaha river, which washes the west fide cf this agreeable island, and, after several windings, disembogues itself into the sea at Jekyl found: it forms a kind of bay before the town, and is navigable for veifels of the largeft burthen, which may lie along the wharf in a secure and safe harbour.
The town of LOUISVILLE, which is designed as the future seat of government in this state, has lately been laid out on the bank of Ogeechee river, about 70 miles from its mouth, but is not yet built.
Rivers.) Savannah river forms a part of the divisional line, which feparates this state from South-Carolina. Its course is nearly from northweit to south-eait. It is formed principally of two branches, by the names
of Tugulo and Keowee, which spring from the mountain. It is navigable for large veffels up to Savannah, and for boats of 100 feet keel as far as Augusta. After rising a fall just above this place, it is passable for boats to the mouth of Tugulo river. Tybee bar, at its entrance in lat. 31° 57', has sixteen feet water at half tide.
Ogeechee river, about eighteen miles south of the Savannah, is a smaller, river, and nearly parallel with it in its course.
Alatamaha , about fixty miles south of Savannah river, is formed by the junction of the Okonee and Okemulgee branches. It is a noble river, but of difficult entrance. Like the Nile, it discharges itself by several mouths into the sea.
Besides these there is Turtle river, Little Sitilla, Great Stilla, Crooked river, and St. Mary's, which forms a part of the southern boundary of the United States. St. Mary's river empties into Amelia found, lat. 30° 44, and is navigable for vessels of considerable burden for ninety miles. Its banks afford immense quantities of fine timber, suited to the WeitIndia market. Along this river, every four or five mniles, are bluffs convenient for vessels to haul and load.
The rivers in the middle and western parts of this state are, Apalachicola, which is formed by the Chatahouchee and Flint rivers, Mobile, Pascagoula and Pearl rivers. All these running fouthwardly, empty into the Gulph of Mexico. The forementioned rivers abound with a great variety of fish, among which are the mullet, whiting, cat, rock, trout, brim, white, fhad and sturgeon.
Climate, Diseases, &c.] In some parts of this state, at particular seafons of the year, the climate cannot be esteemed falubrious. In the low country near the rice swamps, bilious complaints and fevers of various kinds are pretty universal during the months of July, Auguft and September, which for this reason, are called the fickly months.
The disorders peculiar to this climate, originate chiefly from the badness of the water, which is generally brackish, and from the noxious
putrid vapours which are exhaled from the stagnant waters in the rice swamps. Besides, the long continuance of warm weather produces a general relaxation of the nervous system, and as they have no necessary labour to call them to exercise, a large share of indolence is the natural consequence; and indolence, especially among a luxurious people, is ever the parent of disease. The immense quantities of spirituous liquors, which are used to correct the brackishness of the water, forms a species of intemperance, which too often proves ruinous to the constitution. Parents of infirm, &ckly habits, often, in more senses than one, have children of their own likeness. A considerable part of the diseases of the present inhabitants, may therefore be viewed as hereditary. I must add as a general observation, that to the three lat mentioned causes may be ascribed no inconfiderable part of those disorders which prevail in southern climates.
before the fickly season commences, many of the rich planters of this ftate remove with their families to the sea islands, or some elevated healthy situation, where they reside three or four months, for the benefit of fresh air. In the winter and spring pleurifics, peripneumonies, and other
* Pronounced Olfamawhaw.