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The power of impeaching officers of the state is vested in the house of representatives.
The lieutenant-governor, and a majority of the privy-council, exercise the powers of a court of chancery.
Justices of the peace are nominated by the senate and representatives, jointly, and commissioned by the governor during pleasure.
All other judicial officers are chosen by the senate and representatives, jointly and (except the judges of the court of chancery) commissioned by the governor during good behaviour.
All religious focieties, who acknowledge that there is one Godma fu'ture state of rewards and punishments, and that God is to be publickly worshipped, are freely tolerated.
The liberty of the press is to be preserved inviolate.
part of this constitution is to be altered, without a notice of ninety days being previously given, nor then, without the consent of a majority of the members of the fenate and houfe of representatives.
Laws.] The laws of this state have nothing in them of a particular na ture, excepting what arises from the permission of slavery. The evidence of a flave cannot be taken against a white man, and the master who kills his slave is not punishable, otherwise than by a pecuniary mulet, and 12 months imprisonment.
In an act of this state for regulating and fixing the salaries of several officers, passed in March 1787, it was ordered that the governor should receive a falary of
£. 900 sterling. Four affociate judges,
£. 500 each
373: 6:8 Commissioners of the treasury,
8: 8 Other salaries of public officers mentioned in said act to the amount of
$17,958: 15:4 State of Literature.] Gentlemen of fortune, before the late war, sent their sons to Europe for education. During the war and since, they have generally sent' them to the middle and northern states. Those who have been at this expence in educating their sons, have been but comparatively few in number, so that the literature of the state is at a low ebb. Since the peace, however, it has begun to flourish. There are several flourishing academies in Charleston-one at Beaufort, on Port Royal island and several others in different parts of the state. Three colleges have lately been incorporated by law--one at Charleston, which is merely nominalone at Winnsborough, in the district of Camden--the other at Cambridge, in the district of Ninety-fix. The public and private donations for the support of these three colleges, were originally intended to have been appropriated jointly, for the crecting and supporting of one respectable college. The division of these donations has frustrated this design. The Mount Sion college, at Winnborough, is supported by a respectable fo
ciety of gentlemen, who have long been incorporated. This inftitution flourishes, and bids fair for usefulness. The college at Cambridge is no more than a grammar school. That the literature of this state might be put upon a respectable footing, nothing is wanting but a spirit of enterprize among its wealthy inhabitants.
Indians. ] The Catabaws are the only nation of Indians in this state. They have but one town, called Catabaw, situated on Catabaw river, in Latitude 34° 49', on the boundary line between North and South-Carolina, and contains about 450 inhabitants, of which about 150 are fighting men.
Religion. The people of this state, by the constitution, are to enjoy the right of electing their own paftors or clergy; and what is peculiar to this state, the minifter, when chosen, is required by the constitution, to subscribe to the following declaration, (viz.) · That he is determined, by God's grace, out of the holy scriptures, to instruct the people committed to his charge, and to teach nothing (as required of neceflity to eternal salvation) but that which he shall be persuaded may be concluded and proved from the scripture ; that he will use both public and private admonitions, as well to the fick as to the whole, within his cure, as need Thall require, and occafion shall be given, and that he will be diligent in prayers, and in reading of the holy scriptures, and in such studies as help to the knowledge of the fame-that he will be diligent to frame his own felf and family according to the doctrine of Christ, and to make both himself and them, as much as in him lieth, wholesome examples and patterns to the flock of Christ ; that he will maintain and set forward as much 25 he can, quietness, peace, and love among all people, and especially among those that are or hhall be committed to his charge.'
Since the revolution, by which all denominations were put on an equal footing-there have been no disputes between different religious societies. They all agree to differ.
The upper parts of this state are settled chiefly by Presbyterians, Baptists and Methodists. From the most probable calculations, it is supposed that the religious denominations of this state, as to numbers, may be ranked as follows: Presbyterians, including the Congregational and Independent churches-Episcopalians, Baptists, Methodists, &c.
Population and Cbaracter.) The best estimate of the inhabitants in this ftate which has been made, fixes their number at 80,000 white people, and as many negroes--some say there is 120,000 negroes in this state ; but no actual census has lately been made. On the sea
coas there are many more flaves than freemen. The bulk of the white population is in the western parts of the state. There is no peculiarity in the manners of the inhabitants of this state, except what arises from the mischievous influence of flavery; and in this, indeed, they do not differ from the inhabitants of the other southern states. Slavery, by exempting great numbers from the neceflities of labour, leads to luxury, distipation and extravagance. The absolute authority which is exercised over their slaves, too much favours a haughty, supercilious behaviour. A disposition to obey the christian precept, • To do to others as we would that others should do unto us,' is not cherished by a daily exhibition of many made for one. The Carolinians fooner arrive at maturity, both in their bodies and minds, than the natives of colder climates. They possess a natural quickness and vivacity of
genius superior to the inhabitants of the north ; but too generally want that enterprize and perseverance, which are necessary for the highest attainments in the arts and sciences. They have, indeed, few motives to enterprize. Inhabiting a fertile country, which by the labor of the flaves, produces plentifully, and creates affluence--in a climate which favors indulgence, ease, and a disposition for convivial pleasures, they too generally reft contented with barely knowledge enough to transact the common affairs of life. There are not a few instances, however, in this state, in which genius has been united with application, and the effects of their union have been happily experienced, not only by this state, but by the United States.
The wealth produced by the labor of the slaves, furnishes their proprietors with the means of hospitality; and no people in the world use these means with more liberality. Many of the inhabitants spare no pains nor expence in giving the highest polish of education to their children, by enabling them to travel, aud by other means unattainable to those who have but moderate fortunes.
The Carolinians are generally affable and easy in their manners, and polite and attentive to strangers. The ladies want the bloom of the north, but have an engaging loftness and delicacy in their appearance and manners, and many of them poffefs the polite and elegant accomplishments.
Hunting is the most fashionable amusement in this state. At this the country gentlemen are extremely expert, and with surprising dexterity pursue their game through the woods. Theatrical exhibitions have been prohibited in Charlefi wn. Gaming of all kinds is more discountenanced among fashionable people in this, than in any of the southern states. Twice a year, ftatedly, a class of sportive gentlemen, in this and the neighbouring states, have their horse-races. Bets of ten and fifteen hundred guineas are foinetimes laid on these occasions.
There is no inftance, perhaps, in which the richer class of people trefpass more on propriety than in the mode of conducting their funerals. That a decent respect be paid to the dead, is the natural dictate of refined humanity; but this is not done by sumptuous and extensive entertainments, spiended decorations, and pompous ceremonies, which a misguided fashion has here introduced and rendered necessary. In Charleston and other parts of the state, no persons attend a funeral any more than a wedding, unless they are particularly invited. Wine, punch, and all kinds of liquors, tea, coffee, cake, &c. in profufion, are handed round on these folemn occafions. In short, one would suppose that the religious proverb of the wise man, It is better to go to the house of mourning than to the house of feasting,' would be unintelligible and wholly inapplicable here, as it would be difficult to distinguish the house of mourning from the house of feasting,
The Jews in Charleston, among other peculiarities in burying their dead, have this : After the funeral dirge is sung, and just before the corpse is deposited in the grave, the coffin is opened, and a small bag of earth, taken from the grave, is carefully put under the head of the deceased ; then some powder, said to be carth brought from Jerusalem, and carefully kept for this purpose, is taken and put upon the eyes of the corpse, in token of their remembrance of the holy land, and of their expectations of returning thither in God's appointed time.
Military Strength.] There are about 20,000 fighting men in this state. About 10 men are kept to guard Fort Johnson, on James Island, at the entrance of Charleston harbour, by which no vessel can pass, unless the master or mate make oath that there is no malignant diftemper on board. These io men are the only standing force of this state. The militia laws, enacting that every freeman between 16 and 50 years of age, shall be prepared for war, have been but indifferently obeyed since the peace.
Public Revenue and Expences.] The public revenue of this state is, nominally, about 4.90,000 sterling. But a great part of this is either not collected, or paid in public securities, which are much depreciated. The expences of government are about 6.16,000 fterling.
Mode of Levying Taxes.] There is a general impoft of 3 per cent. and other imposts varying from 3 to 10 per cent. payable on the importation of merchandize from foreign countries. The great bulk of the revenue of the state, is raised by a tax on lands and negroes. The lands, for the purpose of being taxed according to their value, are divided into three grand divisions ; the first reaches from the sea coast to the extent of the flowing of the tides; the second from these points to the falls of the rivers; and thence to the utmost verge of the western settlement makes the third. These grand divisions, for the sake of more exactly ascertaining the value of the lands, are subdivided into 21 different species. The most valuable of which is estimated at fix pounds, and the least valuable at one shilling per acre. One per cent. on the value thus eftirse ted, is levied from all granted lands in the state. The collection of taxes is not annexed to the office of sheriff, but is committed to particular gentlemen appointed for that purpose.
Eftimate of Damages sustained in the late War.] The damages which this ftate sustained in the late war are thus eftimated.
The two entire crops of 1780 and 1781, both of which were used by the British-The
of 1782 taken by the Americans—About 25,000 negroes-Many thousands of pounds worth of plate, and houshold furniture in abundance. The villages of George-town and Camden burnt-The loss to the citizens directly by the plunderings and devaftations of the British army-and indirectly by American impressments, and by the depreciation of the paper currency, together with the heavy debt of 4.1,200,000 sterling, incurred for the support of the war, in one aggregate view, make the price of independance to South Carolina, exclusive of the blood of its citizens, upwards of £13,000,000 fterling.
State of the Practice of Phyfic.] The practice of Phyfic throughout the ftate, is reputable, particularly in Charleiton, which contains more regular bred physicians, in proportion to its numbers, than any city in the United States. It is to be lamented, however, that, in common with the other parts of America, extraordinary merit is unrewarded, and persons of real skill rarely fare better, and sometimes worse, than those of moderate talents and contracted education.
Commerce.] The little attention that is paid to manufactures occasions a vait consumption of foreign imported articles; but the quantities and value of their exports generally leave a balance in favour of the state, except when there are large importations of negroes. The following list of exports, which was copied from the custom-house books in Charleston, will give an accurate and satisfactory idea of the variety and quantity of articles exported from the port of Charleston. General EXPORTS from Charleston, South-Carolina, from November, 1786,
to November, 1787. Barrels rice, 61,745 Logs cedar,
2,726 Half-barrels ditto, 6,882 Plank,
514 Hogsheads tobacco, 5,493 Feet cedar,
8,800 Caiks indigo, 2,783 Bushels corn,
29,088 Hogsheads deer skins, 205 Firkins butter,
I,III Bales ditto, 256 Barrels beef,
362 Racoon skins, 767 Barrels pork,
176 Otter skins,
Boxes soap, Hogshead Beaver skins,
119 Bale, ditto,
42 Box, ditto,
Caiks ground nuts,
50 Pounds, ditto,
875 Hogsheads Pink root, Bag wool,
Caiks snake ditto,
28 Bags cotton, 33 Boxes ginseng ditto,
3 Pounds ditto,
10 Bags feathers, 31 Casks ditto,
15 Pounds ditto, 600 Bundles ditto,
57 Barrels pitch, 1,904 Hides leather,
3,308 Barrels tar, 2,230 Sides ditto;
4,21Z Barrels rosin, 739 Casks bacon hams,
13 Barrels turpentine, 3,707 Pounds ditto,
3,455 Barrels spirits of turpentine,
21 Feet lumber, 1,057,600 Bricks,
97,000 Feet shingles, 3,689,600 Reeds,
121,800 Feet staves, 1,023,700 Horns,
6,900 AMERICAN produce imported into, and exported from, Charleston. Barrels flour, 8,783 Bushels ditto,
1,238 Barrels bread, 735 Barrels onions,
36 Kegs ditto, 835 Bunches ditto,
14,624 Barrels fish, 965 Bushels oats,
360 Quintals ditto, 110 Barrels apples,
72 Pounds ditto,
900 Barrels cyder, Barrels potatoes,
360 FOREIGN produce imported into, and exported from, Charleston. Hog.heads and puncheons,
Casks and barrels ditto,
I21 Rum, W. I. and N. E. 134 Pipes wine,
31 Hogsheads ditto,
32 Calks oranges,