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the river made a great turn, and fome Canadians by deepening the channel of a small brook, diverted the waters of the river into it. The impetuosity of the stream was so violent, and the soil of so rich and loose a quality, that in a short time, the point was entirely cut through, and travellers faved fourteen leagues of their voyage. The old bed has no water in it, the times of the periodical overflowing only excepted. The new channel has been fince founded with a line of thirty fathoms, without finding a bottom.

In the spring foods the Misliflippi is very high, and the current so strong, that with difficulty it can be ascended; but that disadvantage is compensated by eddies or counter-currents, which always run in the bends close to the banks of the river, with nearly equal velocity against the stream, and affift the ascending boats. The current at this season descends at the rate of about five miles an hour. In autumn, when the waters are low, it does not run faster than two miles, but it is rapid in such parts of the * river, as have clusters of islands, shoals, and fand-banks. The circumference of many of these shoals being several miles, the voyage is longer, and in some parts more dangerous than in the spring. The merchandize necessary for the commerce of the upper settlements on or near the Misfilfippi, is conveyed in the spring and autumn in batteaux, rowed by eighteen or twenty men, and carrying about forty tons. From New Orleans to the Illinois, the voyage is commonly performed in eight or ten weeks. A prodigious number of islands, some of which are of great extent, inter{perse that mighty river. Its depth increases as you ascend it. Its waters, after overflowing its banks below the river Ibberville, never return within them again. These fingularities distinguish it from every other known river in the world. Below New Orleans, the land begins to be very

low on both sides of the river across the country, and gradually declines as it approaches nearer to the sea. This point of land, which in the treaty of peace in 1762, was mistaken for an island, is to all appearance of no long date ; for in digging ever fo little below the surface, you find water and grcat quantities of trees. The many becches and breakers, as well as inlets, which arose out of the channel within the last half century, at the several mouths of the river, are convincing proofs that this peninsula was wholly formed in the same manner. And it is certain that when La Salle failed down the Miffiflippi to the sea, the opening of that river war very

different from what it is at present. The nearer you approach to the sea, this truth becomes more striking. The bars that cross most of these small channels opened by the current, have been multiplied by means of the trees carried down with the streams ; one of which stopped by its roots or branches in a shallow part, is fufficient to obstruct the passage of thousands more, and to fix them at the same place. Such collections of trees are daily seen between the Balize and the Missouri, which fingly would supply the largest city in America with fuel for several years. No human force being sufficient for removing ahem, the mud carried down by the river serves to bind and cement then together. They are gradually covered, and every inundation not only extends their length and breadth, but adds another layer to their height. In less than ten years time, canes' and shrubs grow on them, and form points and islands, which forcibly shift the bed of the river:


Nothing can be asserted with certainty, respecting its length. Itse fource is not known, but supposed to be upwards of three thousand miles from the sea as the river runs. We only know, that from St. Anthony's falls, it glides with a pleasant, clear stream, and becomes comparatively : narrow before its junction with the Missouri, the muddy waters of which immediately discolour the lower part of the river to the sea. Its rapidity, breadth, and other peculiarities then begin to give it the majestic appearance of the Missouri, which affords a more extensive navigation, and is a longer, broader, and deeper river than the Miffiffippi. It is in fact the principal river, contributing more to the common (tream than does the Miffisippi, even after its junction with the Illinois. It has been ascended by French traders about twelve or thirteen hundred miles, and from the : depth of water, and breadth of the river at that distance, it appeared to be pavigable many miles further.

From the Missouri river, to nearly opposite the Ohio, the western bank of the Miffiffippi, is (some few places excepted) higher than the eastern. From Mire au fer to the Ibberville, the eastern bank is higher than the western, on which there is not a fingle discernible rising or eminence, the distance of seven hundred and fifty miles. From the Ibberville to the sea there are no eminences on either side, though the eastern bank

appears rather the highest of the two, as far as the English turn. Thence the banks gradually diminish in height to the mouths of the river, where they are not more than two or three feet higher than the common surface of the water.

The flime which the annual floods of the river Miffissippi leaves on the surface of the adjacent shores, may be compared with that of the Nile, which depofits a lịmilar manure, and for many centuries past has insured the fertility of Egypt. When its banks shall have been cultivated as the excellency of its foil and temperature of the climate deserve, its population will equal that of any other part of the world. The trade, wealth, and power of America, will, at some future period, depend, and perhaps centre upon the Mislissippi. This also resembles the Nile in the number of its mouths, all issuing into a sea that may be compared to the Mediterranean, which is bounded on the north and south by the two continents of Europe and Africa, as the Mexican Bay is by North and South Ame. rica. The smaller mouths of this river, might be easily stopped up, by means of those floating trees with which the river during the floods, is always covered. The whole force of the channel being united, the only opening then left would probably grow deep as well as the bar. Mr. Carver has travelled higher

up this river, and appears to be better acquainted with its northern parts and fource, than any European or American, who has published his observations. He is my authority for what follows.

The falls of St. Anthony, in about latitude 44° 30', received their name from Father Lewis Hennipin, a French missionary, who travelled into these parts about the year one thousand fix hundred and eighty, and was the first European ever seen by the natives. The whole river, which is more than two hundred and fifty yards wide, falls perpendicularly about thirty feet, and forms a most pleasing cataract. The rapids below, in the {pace of three hundred yards, render the descent considerably greater; so


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that when viewed at a distance, they appear to be much higher than they really are. In the middle of the falls is a small island, about forty feet broad, and somewhat longer, on which grow a few cragged henlock and spruce trees; and about half way between this island and the eaitern thore is a rock, lying at the very edge of the fall, in an obliquo pofition, five or fix feet broad, and thirty or forty long. These falls are peculiarly fituared, as they are approachable without the least obstruction from any intervening hill or precipice, which cannot be faid of any other considerable fall that I know of in the world. The country around is exceedingly beautiful. It is not an interrupted plain where the eye finds no relief, but composed of many gentle ascents, which in the spring and summer are covered with verdure, and interspersed with little groves, that give a pleasing variety to the prospect.

A little distance below the falls, is a small island of about an acre and an half, on which grow a great number of oak trees, almost all the branches of which, able to bear the weight, are, in the proper

jealon of the year, loaded with eagles nests. Their instinctive wisdom has taught them to choose this place, as it is secure, on account of the rapids above, from the attacks either of man or beast.

The Miffiflippi has never been explored higher up than the river St. Francis ; so that we are obliged to the Indians for all the intelligence relative to the more northern parts.

Mr. Carver relates, that from the best accounts he could obtain from the Indians, together with his own observations, he had learned that the four most capital rivers on the continent of North America, viz. the St. Lawrence, the Mislifsippi, the river Bourbon, and the Oregon, or the river of the West, have their sources in the same neighbourhood. The waters of the three former, are within thirty miles of each other; the latter is rather farther weft.

This shews that these parts are the highest lands in North America; and it is an instance not to be parralleled in the other three quarters of the globe, that four rivers of fuch magnitude should take their rile together, and each, after running separate courses, discharge their waters into different occeans, at the distance of more than two thousand miles from their sources. For in their passage from this spot to the bay of St. Lawrence, east ; to the Bay of Mexico, fouth; to Hudson's Bay, north; and to the bay at the straits of Annian, welt; where the river Origon is supposed to empty, each of them traverses upwards of two thousand miles.

Mr. Jefferson, whose extentive and accurate information ranks him among the first authorities, in his notes on Virginia, has given a description of the river Ohio, and annexed fuch remarks on the fituation of the western waters as will throw great light on this part of our subject, and may not be omitted. His observations, together with those already made, will afford the reader a comprehensive and pretty complete view of the internal navigation of the United States.

• The Ohio is the most beautiful river on earth : its current gentle, waters clear, and bosom (mooth and unbroken by rocks and rapida, a tingle instance only excepted. It is one quarter of a mile wide at Fort Pitt : tive hundred yards at the mouth of the Great Kanhaway: one mile and twenty-five poles at Louisville : one quarter of a mile on the rapids, three


or four miles below Louisville : half a mile where the low country begins, which is twenty miles above Green river: one mile and a quarter at the receipt of the Tanisfee : and a mile wide at the mouth.

Its length, as measured according to its meanders by Capt. Hutchins, is as follows:

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1188 In common winter and spring tides it affords fifteen feet water to Louisville, ten feet to La Tarte's rapids, forty miles above the mouth of the Great Kanhaway, and a sufficiency at all times for light batteaux and ca. noes to Fort Pitt. The rapids are in the latitude 38° 8'. The inundation's of this river begin about the last of March, and subside in July. During these a first rate man of war may be carried from Louisville to New Orleans, if the sudden turns of the river and the strength of its current will admit a safe fteerage. The rapids at Louisville descend about thirty feet in a length of a mile and a half. The bed of the river there, is a solid rock, and is divided by an island into two branches, the southern of which is about two hundred yards wide, and is dry four months in the year.

The bed of the northern branch is worn into channels by the constant course of the water, and attrition of the pebble stones carried on with that, so as to bę passable for batteaux through the greater part of the year. Yet it is thought that the southern arm may be the most easily opened for constant navigation. The rise of the waters in these rapids does not exceed ten or twelve feet. A part of this island is fo high as to have been never overflowed, and to command the settlement at Louisville, which is opposite to it. The fort, however, is situated at the head of the falls. The ground on the south side rises very gradually,

At Fort Piţt the river Ohio loses its name, branching into the Mononqahela and Allegany.

The Monongahela is four hundred yards wide at its mouth. From thence is twelve or fifteen miles to the mouth of Yohogany, where it is three hundred yards wide. Thence to. Redstone by water is fifty miles, by land thirty. Then to the mouth of Cheat river by water forty miles, by land twenty-eight, the width continuing at three hundred yards, and


the navigation good for boats, Thence the width is about two hundred yards to the western fork, fifty miles higher, and the navigation frequently interrupted by: rapids ; which however with a swell of two or three feet, become very paffable for boats. It then admits light boats, except in dry seasons, fixty-five miles further to the head of Tygarts valley, pre. senting only some small rapids and falls of one or two feet perpendicular, and lessening in its width to twenty yards. The Western fork is navigable in the winter ten or fifteen miles towards the northern of the Lit. tle Kanhaway, and will admit a good waggon road to it. The Yohogany is the principal branch of this river. It passes through the Laurel mountain about thirty miles from its mouth; is so far from three hundred to one hundred and fifty yards wide, and the navigation much obAru&ed in dry weather by rapids and shoals. In its passage through the mountain it makes very great falls, admitting no navigation for ten miles to the Turkey foot. Thence to the great crossing, about twenty miles, it is again navigable, except in dry seasons, and at this place is two hundred yards wide. The sources of this river are divided from those of the Patomak by the Allegany mountains." From the falls, where it interfects the Laurel mountain, to Fort Cumberland, the head of the navigation on the Patomak, is forty miles of very mountainous road. Wills's creek, at the mouth of which was Fort Cumberland, is thirty or forty yards wide, but affords no navigation as yet. Cheat river, another confiderable branch of the Monongahela, is two hundred yards wide at its mouth, and one hundred yards at the Dunkard's settlement, fifty miles higher. It is navigable for boats, except in dry seasons. The boundary between Virginia and Pennsylvania crosses it about three or four miles above its mouth.

The Allegany river, with a light swell, affords navigavion for light batteaux to Venango, at the mouth of French creek, where it is two hundred yards wide; and it is practised even to Le Bæuf, from whence there is a portage of fifteen miles to Presque Ide on Lake Erie.

The country watered by the Miftiffippi and its eastern branches, constitutes five-eighths of the United States; two of which five-eighths are occupied by the Ohio and its waters: the residuary ftreams which run into the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantis, and the St. Lawrence water, the remaining three-eighths.

Before we quit the subje& of the western waters, we will take a view of their principal connections with the Atlantic. These are three; the Hudson's river, the Patowmak, and the Miffissippi itself. Down the laft will pass all the heavy commodities. But the navigation through the Gulf of Mexico is so dangerous, and that up the Miffissippi fo difficult and tedious, that it is thought probable that European merchandiże will not return through that channel. It is most likely that flour, timber, and other heavy artieles will be floated on rafts, which will themselves be an article for sale as well as their loading, the navigators returning by land or in light batteaux. There will therefore be a competition between the Hudson

and the Patomak rivers for the residue of the commerce of all the country westward Lake Erie, on the waters of the lakes, of the Ohio, and upper parts of MifGflippi. To go to New-York, that part of the trade which comes from the lakes or their waters must first be brought


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