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NINETY SIXDISTRICT,comprehends all other parts of the ftate, not included in the other district, Ch. t. CAMBRIDGE.
CAMDEN DISTRICT, west of ORANGE DISTRICT, west of
George-town district. Chief Beaufort district. Chief town CAMDEN.
town ORANGE BURG.
The committee appointed by act of assembly to divide the districts into counties, were directed to lay them as nearly 40 miles square as was practicable, due regard being paid to situations, natural boundaries, &c.
As the lower country was originally settled by people from Europe under the proprietary government and influence, all the then counties were divided into parishes. And even now, although the old counties are done àway, the boundaries altered, and new ones established, the division of parihes subfifts in the three lower districts, the people choose their senators and representatives by parishes, as formerly. "But in the middle and upper districts, which were settled by people of various nations from Europe, but principally by northern emigrants, parishes are hardly known, except perhaps in Orangeburgh district. in theie districts the people vote in smalt divisions as convenience dictates.
Chief Torons.] CHARLESTON is the only confiderable town in South Caroli:a. It is fituaied on the tongue of land which is formed by the confluence of Ahley and Cooper rivers, which are large and navigable. These rivers mingle their waters immediately below the town, and form a spacious and convenient harbour, which communicates with the ocean at Sullivan's island, seven miles south-eait of the town. In these rivers the tide rises, in common, about five feet. The continued agitation which this occasions in the waters whic', almost surround Charleion, and the refreshing fea breezes which are regularly felt, render Charleston more healthy than any part of the low country in the southern states.
On this acçount it is the resort of great numbers of gentlemen, invalids from the West India Inands, and of the rich planters from the country, who come here to spend the sickly months, as they are called, in quest of health and of the social enjoyments which the city affords. And in no part of Ainerica are the focial blefings enjoyed more rationally and libcrally than in Charleston. Unaffected hospitality-affability—cale in manners and address and a disposition to make their guest welcome, easy, and pleased with themselves, are characteristics of the respectable people of Charleston.
The land on which the town is built is flat and low, and the water brackish and unwholesome. The inhabitants are obliged to raise banks of earth as barriers to defend themselves against the higher floods of the sea. The strects from cast to west extend from river to river, and running in a straight line not only open beautiful prospects each way, but afford excellent opportunities, by means of fubterranean drains, for removing all nuisances and keeping the city clean and healthy. These itreets are intersected by others, nearly at right angles, and throw the town into a number of squares, with dwelling houses in front, and office-houses, and little gardens behind. Some of the streets are conveniently wide, but moit of them are much too narrow, especially for fo populous a city, in so warm a climate. Besides there being a nursery for various diseases from their confined situation, they have been found extremely inconvenient in case of fires, the destructive effects of which have been frequently felt in this city. The houses which have been lately built, are brick, with tiled roofs. Some of the buildings in Charleston are clegant, and most of them are neát, airy, and well finished. The public buildings are an exchange, flate house, armoury, poor house, two large churches for Episcopalians, two for Congregationalists or Independents, one for Scotch Presbyterians,
two for the Baptists, one for the German Lutherans, one for the Methodists, one for French Protestants-besides a meeting house for Quakers, and two Jewish synagogues, one for the Portuguese, the other for the German Jews. There are upwards of a thousand Roman Catholics in Charleston, but they have no public building for worship:
In 1787, there were 1600 houses in this city, and 9600 white inhabitants, and 5400 negroes; and what evinces the healthiness of the place, upwards of 200 of the white inhabitants were above 60 years
age. Charleston was incorporated in 1783, and divided into 13 wards, who choose as many wardens, who, from among themselves, elect an intendant of the city. The intendant and wardens from the city council, who have power to make and enforce bye laws for the regulation of the city,
BEAUFORT, on Port Royal island, is the seat of justice in Beaufort diftrict. It is a pleasant, thriving little town, of about 50 or 60 houses, and 200 inhabitants, who are distinguished for their hospitality and polite. ness.
GEORGE-Town, the seat of justice in George-town district, stands on a spot of land near the junction of a number of rivers, which, when united in one broad stream, by the name of Pedee, fall into the ocean 12 miles below the town. Besides these, are Purysburgh, Jacksonsborough, Orangeburgh, Wynnsborough, Cambridge, Camden and Columbia, the intended capital of the state, which are all inconsiderable villages of from 30 to 60 dwelling houses.
General face of the Country. The whole ftate, to the distance of 80 miles from the sea, is level, and almost without a stone. In this distance, by a gradual affent from the sea coast, the land rises about 190 feet. Here commences a curiously uneven country. The traveller is constantly ascending or descending little fand hills, which nature seems to have disunited in a frolic. If a pretty high sea were suddenly arrested, and transformed into fand hills, in the very form the waves existed at the moment of transformation, it would present the eye with just such a view as is here to be seen. Some little herbage, and a few small pines grow even on this soil. The inhabitants are few, and have but a scanty subsistence on corn and sweet potatoes, which grow here tolerably well. This curious country continues for. 60 miles, till you arrive at a place called The Ridge, 140 miles from Charleston. This ridge is a remarkable tract of high ground, as you approach it from the sea, but level as you advance north-west from its summit. It is a fine, high, healthy belt of land, well watered, and of good foil, and extends from the Savannah to Broad river, in about 60 30' west longitude from Philadelphia. Beyond this ridge, commences a country exactly resembling the northern states. Here hills and dales, with all their verdure and variegated beauty, present themselves to the eye. Wheat fields, which are rare in the low country begin to grow common. Here Heaven has bestowed its blessings with a moit bounteous hand. The air is much more temperate and healthful than nearer to the sea. The hills are covered with valuable woods--the vallies watered with beautiful rivers, and the fertility of the soil is equal to every vegetable production. This, by way of distinction, is called the upper country, where are different modes and different articles of cultivation;
where the manners of the people, and even their language, have a different tone. The land still rises by a gradual ascent; each succeeding hill overlooks that which immediately precedes it, till, having advanced 220 miles in a north-west direction from Charleston, the elevation of the land above the sea-coast is found by mensuration, to be about 800 feet. Here commences a mountain country, which continues rising to the western terminating point of this state.
Soil and productions.] The foil may be divided into four kinds, first, the Pine.barren, which is valuable only for its timber. Interspersed among the pine-barren, are tracts of land free of timber, and of every kind of growth but that of grass. These tracts are called Savannas, constituting a second kind of foil, good for grazing. The third kind is that of the swamps and low grounds on the rivers, which is a mixture of black loam and fat clay, producing naturally canes in great plenty, cypress, bays,
&c. In these swamps rice is cultivated, which constitutes the staple commodity of the state. The high-lands, commonly known by the name of oak and hiccory lands, constitute the fourth kind of soil. The natural growth is oak, hiccory, walnut, pine, and locuft. On these lands, in the low country, are cultivated, Indian corn, principally; and in the back country, besides these, they raise tobacco in large quantities, wheat, rye, barley, oats, hemp, fax, cotton, and filk*.
At the distance of about 110 miles from the sea, the river swamps for the culture of rice terminate, and the high lands extend quite to the rivers, and form banks in some places, several hundred feet high from the surface of the water, and afford many extensive and delightful views. These high banks are interwoven with layers of leaves and different colored earth, and abound with quarries of free stone, pebbles, Aint, chrystals, iron ore in abundance, fisver, lead, fulphur and coarse diamonds.
It is curious to observe the gradations from the sea coast to the upper country, with respect to the produce the mode of cultivation, and the cultivators. On the islands upon the sea-coast, and for 40 or 50 miles back (and on the rivers much farther) the cultivators are all laves. No white man, to speak generally, ever thinks of settling a farm, and improve ing it for himself without negroes. If he has no negroes, he hires "himself as overseer, to fome rich planter, who has more than he can or will attend to, till he can purchase for himself. The articles cultivated, are corn and potatoes, which are food for the negroes; rice and indigo, for exportation. The soil is cultivated almoft wholly by manual labor. The plough, till since the peace, was scarcely used, and prejudices still exist against it.- In the middle settlements negroes are not so numerous. The mafter attends personally to his own business, and is glad to use the plough to assist his negroes, or himself, when he has no negroes. The foil is not rich enough for rice. "It produces moderately good indigo weed; no tobacco is raised for exportation. The farmer is contented to raise corn, potatoes, oats, poultry, and a little wheat. In the upper country, many men have a few negroes, and a few have many; but generally speaking, the farmers have none, and depend, like the inhabitants of the
* See the nature of the soil more particularly described under this head in the description of Georgia.
northern states, upon the labor of themselves and families for fubfiftence. The plough is used almost wholly. Indian corn, wheat, rye, potatoes, &c. are raised for food, and large quantities of tobacco, and some wheat, and indigo for exportation.
Manufactures.] in the middle, and especially in the upper country, the people are obliged to manufacture their own cotton and woollen clothes. and most of their husbandry tools ; but in the lower country the inhabitants for thele articles depend almost entirely on their merchants. It is a fact to be lamented, that manufactures and agriculture, in this and the two adjoining states, are yet in the firit stages of improvement.
Constitution.] In 1776, a temporary form of government was agreed to by the freemen of South Carolina, assembled in congress; and on the 19th of March, 1778, it was eftablished by an act of the legislature. By this constitution, the legislative authority is vested in a general assembly, to consist of two diftinét bodies, a senate, and a house of representatives. These two bodies, jointly by ballot, at their every first meeting, choose a governor and lieutenant governor, both to continue for two years, and a privy council (to consist of the lieutenant-governor and eight other persons) all of the protestant religion.
The governor and lieutenant-governor must have been residents in the ftate for 10 years, and the members of the privy-council 5 years, preceding their election, and possess a freehold in the state of the value of at least ten thouland pounds currency, clear of debt.
The governor is eligible but two years in fix years, and is vefted with the executive authority of the state.
The senate are chosen by ballot, biennially, on the last Monday in November-thirteen make a quorum. A fenator must be of the protestant religion---must have attained the age of 30 years-must have been a resident in the state at least 5 years : and must possess a freehold in the parish or district for which he is elected, of at least £.2000 currency, clear of debt.
The last Monday in November, biennially, two hundred and two perfons are to be chosen in different parts of the state, (equally proportioned) to represent the freemen of the state in the general allembly, who are to meet with the fenaie, annually, at the seat of government, on the firit Monday in January.
All free whitemen of 21 years of age, of one year's residence in the state, and possessing freeholds of 50 acres of land each, or what shall be deemed equal thereto, are qualified to elect representatives.
Every fourteen years the representation of the whole state is to be proportioned in the most equal and juft manner, according to the particular and comparative strength and taxable property of the different parts of the same.
All money bills for the support of government, mult originate in the house of representatives, and shall not be altered or amended by the fenate, but may be rejected by them*.
Ministers of the gospel are ineligible to any of the civil offices of the ftate.
* This is in imitation of the British constitution, while the reasons for this imitation do not exist.