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mouth of this creek is the center of a piece of ground, the diameter of which is 5 miles, ceded by the southern Indians at the treaty at Hopwell, on Keeowee, to the United States for the establishment of trading posts.
At Nashville, the inferior and superior courts of the county are held, in which good order is observed, and justice speedily and satisfaitorily administered. Two houses in this town are set apart for divine worship, in which divine service is regularly performed on the fabbath.
The legislature of North Carolina, at their sesion in the year 1986, passed a law for the establishment of an academy in this town, with liberal endowments.
It is to be observed that this county, though it lies upwards of 200 miles west of what is commonly called the state of Franklin, never departed from her allegiance to the state of North-Carolina, but continued to fend her members to the legislature, although they had to pass through the state of Franklin.
The following are the distances on the new road from Nashville, in Davidfon county, to Fort Campbell, near the junction of Holstein river with the Tennessee. miles.
miles. From Nashville to Stony river 9 From Grovet's creek
7 Big Spring
6 The foot of Cumberland
Through the mountain
to Emmeries river, a Spring creek
branch of the Pelison Martin's Spring
5 To the Pappa Ford of Blair's Spring
the Pelison or Clinch
8 To Campbell's ftation Smith's creek
To the Great Island
9 To Abingdon in Wash-
35 War Path
To Richmond in Virgi-
230 Camp creek
8 King's Spring 16
Total 605 By this new road, a pleasant passage may be had to the western country with carriages, as there will be only the Cumberland mountain to pass ; and that is easy of afcent-and beyond it, the road is generally level and firm; abounding with fine fprings of water.
History.] The history of North-Carolina is less known than that of any of the other states. From the best accounts that history affords, the first permanent settlement in North-Carolina was made about the year 1710, by a number of Palatines from Germany, who had been reduced to circumstances of great indigence, by a calamitous war. The proprietors of Carolina, knowing that the value of their lands depended on the strength
of their settlements, determined to give every posible encouragement to such emigrants. Ships were accordingly provided for their transportation mand instructions were given to governor Tynte to allow an hundred acres of land for every man, woman and child, free of quit-rents for the first ten years; but at the expiration of that term, to pay one periny per acre, annual rent for ever, according to the usages and customs of the province. Upon their arrival, Governor Tynte granted them a tract of land in North-Carolina, since called Albemarie and Bath precincts, where they settled, and flattered themselves with having found, in the hideous wilderness, a happy retreat from the desolations of a war which then raged in Europe.
In the year 1712, a dangerous conspiracy was formed by the Coree and Tufcorora tribes of Indians, to murder and expel this infant colony. The foundation for this conípiracy is not known. Probably they were of. fended at the encroachments upon their hunting ground. They managed their conspiracy with great cunning and profound fecrecy. They lurrounded their principal town with a brest-work to secure their families. Here the warriors convened to the number of 1200. From this place of rendezvous they sent out small parties, by different roads, who entered the settlement under the mask of friendship. At the change of the full moong all of them had agreed to begin their murderous operations the same night. When the night came, they entered the houses of planters, demanding provisions, and pretending to be offended, fell to murdering men, women and children without mercy or distinction. One hundred and thirty-seven settlers, among whom were a Swifs baron, and almost all the poor Palatines that had lately come into the country, were slaughtered the first night. Sich was the secrecy and dispatch of the Indians in this expedition, that none knew what had befallen his neighbour, until the barbarians had reached his own door. Some few, however, escaped, and gave the alarm.-- The militia affembled in arins, and kept watch day and night, until the news of the said disaiter had reached the province of South-Ca. rolina. Governor Craven loit no time in fending a force to their relief. -The assembly voted £:4000 for the service of the war. A body of 600 militia, under the command of Colonel Barnwell, and 366 Indians of different tribes, with different commanders, marched with great expedizion through a hideous wilderness, to their affiítance. In their first encounter with the Indians, they killed 300, and took 100 prisoners. After this defeat, the Tuscororas retreated to their fortified town which was Shortly afier surrendered to colonel Barnwell. In this whole expedition it was computed that near a thousand Tuscororas were killed, wounded and taken... The remainder of the tribe foon after abandoned their country, and joined the Five Nations, with whom they have ever since remained. After this the infant colony remained in peace, and continued to fourish under the general government of South-Carolina, till about the year 1729, when seven of the proprietors, for a valuable consideration *, veited their property and jurisdiction in the crown, and the colony was erected into a feperate province, by the name of North-Carolina and its present limits
established by an order of George II. From this period to the revolution in 1776, the history of North-Carolina is unpublished, and of course unknown, except to those who have had access to the records of the province. Some of the most important events that have fince taken place, have been already mentioned in the general history of the United States.
In the year 1785, the inhabitants of the counties of Sullivan, Washington and Greene, which lie directly west of the mountains in this state, convened in committees appointed and held a convention--framed a conftitution-elected their governor-and in short erected themselves in to a separate, independent state, by the name of the New State of Franklin. This premature state, was to comprehend all that tract of country which lies between the mountains and the Suck or Whirl, in the Tennessee river. These proceedings occasioned great confusions and warm disputes in North-Carolina, which continued to rage till the year 1788, when all pretensions to independency were relinquished, and tranquillity was restored to the state.
The western and frontier settlements, for some time past, have been, and still are harrassed by the Creek and Cherokee Indians, who have done considerable damage, and killed many of the inhabitants. The latest accounts from this state are, that the assembly have voted to raise an army of 1500 men, not only to prevent the incursions of the enemy, but to carry war into their own country, and to compel them to sue for peace.
SOUTH CARO Į I N A.
SITUATION and EXTENT,
329 and 35° 30 North Latitude.
4° and 9° West Longitude. Boundaries.] B North Carotinta ; " Youth-well and fouth, by Savannah
; river, which divides it from Georgia. The western boundary has not yet, with accuracy, been ascertained *
Climate.] The climate is different in different parts of the state. Along the sea-coast, bilious diseases and fevers of all kinds are prevalent between July and October. The probability of dying is much greater between
in the year.
the 20th of June and the 20th of October, than in the other eight months
One cause of these diseases is, a low marshy country, which is overflowed for the sake of cultivating rice. The exhalations from these stagnated waters--from the rivers and from the neighbouring ocean and the profule perspiration of vegetables of all kinds, which cover the ground, fill the air with moisture. This moisture falls in frequent rains, and copious dews. From actual observation it was found that the average annual fall of rain for ten years was 42 inches; without regarding the moisture that fell in fogs and dews. The great heat of the day relaxes the body, and the agreeable cooleness of the evening invites to an expofure of these heavy dews. But a second, and probably a more operative cause in producing diseases, is the indolence of the inhabitants. On this, physicians say, more than on any unavoidable injurious qualities in the air, are chargeable the diseases so common in this country. The upper country, situated in the medium, between heat and cold, is as healthful as any part of the United States.
Rivers.] This state is watered by four large, navigable rivers, besides a great number of smaller ones, which are passable in boats. The river Savannah washes it in its whole length from north-west to south-east. The Edifto rises in two branches from a remarkable ridge in the interior part of the state. These branches unite a little below Orangeburgh, which stands on the Nork Folk, and form Edisto river, which, having palled Jacksonsburgh, branches and embraces Edifto island.
Santee is the largest and longest river in this state. It empties into the ocean by two mouths, a little south of Georgetown. miles, in a direct line from its mouth, it branches into the Congaree and Wateree; the latter or northern branch passes the Catabaw nation of Indians, and bears the name of the Catabaw river from this settlement to its source. The Congaree branches into Saluda and Broad rivers. Broad river again branches into Enoree, Tyger and Pacolet rivers ; on the latter of which are the celebrated Pacolet Springs. Just below the junction of Sa. luda and Broad Rivers, on the Congaree, stands the town of COLUMBIA, which is intended to be the future feat of government in this state.
Pedee river rises in North-Carolina, where it is called Yadkin river. In this state however, it takes the name of Pedee, and receiving Lynche's creek and Wakkamaw river, passes by George-town, which it leaves on the east, and i 2 miles below, it empties into the ocean. All the foremen. tioned rivers, except Edisto, rise from various sources in that ridge of mountains which divides the waters which flow into the Atlantic Ocean from those which fall into the Milliúppi.
“The rivers of a secondary size, many of which are no more than arms of the sea; the others rising from swamps or savannahs, are Caasaw, Com. bahee, Wakkamaw, Ashley, Cooper and Black rivers.
The tide, in no part of the state, flows more than 25 miles from the sea shore.
Mountains.] The Tryon and Hogback mountains, are 220 miles northwest from Charleston, in latitude 35°, and longitude 6° 30' from Philadelphia. The elevation of these mountains above their ba
is 3840 feet; and above the sea-coast 4640.--The ascent from the sea-lore being
eight times as great as the difference between the sphere of the horizon and that of an even plane, there is exhibited from the top of these moun. tains an extensive view of this state, North-Carolina and Georgia. And as no object intervenes to obstruct the view, a man with telescopic eyes, might discern vessels at sea. The mountains welt and north-welt rise much higher than these, and from a ridge, which divides the waters of Tennes, see and Santee rivers.
Harbours.] The only harbours of note are those of Charleston, Port Royal and George-town. Charleston harbour is spacious, convenient and fafé. It is formed by the junction of Athly and Cooper rivers. Its entrance is guarded by Fort Johnson. Twelve miles from che city is a bar, over which are four channels : One by the name of Ship Channel, has 18 feet water ; another 16, the other two are for finaller vetlels. The tide rises about 9 feet. Port Royal l.is an excellent harbour, of sufficient exa tent to contain the largeit fleet in the world.
The entrance into George-town harbour is impaffable to large ships, which is a great obstruction to the growth of that place,
Islands.] The sea coast is bordered with a chain of fine sea islands, around which the sea flows, opening an excellent iniand navigation for tic conveyance of produce to market.
The principal of these are James Island, opposite Charleston, on which are about
families. - Further south-west is John's Island, larger than James. Next is Edisto. Each of these islands has a Presbyterian church.
On the other side of St. Helena sound, from E listo, lies a cluster of islands, one of the largest of which is Port Royal. Adjacent to Port Royal lie St. Helena, Ladies Ifland, Paris Island, and the Hunting Ilands, s or 6 in number, bordering on the ocean, so called from the number of deer and other wild game found upon them; and over across Broad river, is Hilton Head Island. All these islands, except the three first mentioned, belong to St. Helena parish.
The soil and natural growth of these islands are not noticeably different from the adjacent main land. They are in general favorable for the culture of indigo.
Civil Divifons.] The proprietors who first fent settlers to Carolina, divided it into counties and parishes. The counties were generally named after the proprietors. No county courts, however, were eitablished, and this divifion, though for a long time kept up in the province, became in a great measure obsolete, previous to the revolution. Since the revolution, county courts have been established, and this itate is now divided into diftricts and counties--and the counties are subdivided ; in the lower country, into parishes--and in the upper country, into smaller or voting diftricts.
There are seven districts, in which are 35 counties, as follow: