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ministry. There are interspersed fome settlements of Germans, both Lutherans and Calvinists, but they have very few ministers.
The Moravians have several flourishing settlements in this state. In 1751, they purchaled of Lord Granville one hundred thousand acres of land, between Dan and Yadkin rivers, about 10 miles south of Pilot mountain, in Surry county, and called it Wachovia, after an eftate of Count Zinzendorf, in Auitria. In 1755, this tract, by an act of aflembly, was made a separate parish by the name of Dobb's parish. The first settlement, called Bethabara, was begun in 1753, by a number of the brethren from Pennsylvania, in a very wild, uninhabited country, which, from that time, began to be rapidly settled by farmers from the middle ftates.
In 1759, Bethany, a regular village, was laid out and settled. In 1766, Salem, which is now the principal settlement, and nearly in the centre of Wachovia, was settled by a collection of tradesmen. The same conftitution and regulations are established here, as in other regular fettlements of the united brethren. Besides, there are in Wachovia three churches, one in Friedland, one in Friedberg, and another at Hope, each of which has a minister of the Brethren's church. These people, by their industry and attention to various branches of manufacture, are very useful to the country around them.
The Friends, or Quakers, have a settlement in New-Garden, in Guilford county, and several congregations at Perquimins and Pasquetank. The Methodists and Baptists are numerous and increasing. Besides the denominations already mentioned, there is a very númerous body of people in this, and in all the southern states, who cannot properly be classed with any feet of christians, having never made any profession of christianity, and are literally, as te religion, NOTHINGARIANS.
The inhabitants of Wilmington, Newbern, Edenton, and Halifax diftricts, making about three-fifths of the fate, one professed themselves of the Episcopal church. The clergy, in these districts, were chiefly missionaries; and in forming their political attachments, at the commencement of the late war, personal safety, or real interest, or perhaps a thorough conviction of the injustice and impolicy of opposing Great Britain from whence they received their salaries, induced them almost universally to declare themselves in favour of the British government, and to emigrate. There may be one or two of the original clergy remaining, but at present they have no particular pastoral charge. Indeed the inhabitants in the diftricts above-mentioned, feem now 'to be making the experiment, whether christianity can exist long in a country where there is no visible christian church. Thirteen years experience has proved that it probably cannot; for there is very little external appearance of religion among the people in general. The Baptists and Methodists have sent a number of missionary preachers into these districts; and some of them have pretty large congregations. It is not improbable that one or the other of the denominations, and perhaps both, may acquire confiftency and establish permanent churches.
College and Academies.] There is no university or college in the state. In the original constitution it is declared, that. There shall be one or more feminaries of learning maintained at the public expence.' But the legif
ture, hitherto, have not considered that clause as binding. Probably they do not like it. Academies are established at Newbern, Salisbury, and Hillsborough. The latter has been already mentioned and described. The one at Salisbury had, in 1786, about fity scholars, under the tuition of a worthy clergyman. It is situated in a rich, healthy country, and is flourishing
Population, Character, Manners, and Customs.] The inhabitants of this state are reckoned at 270,000, of which 60,000 are negroes. The NorthCarolinians are mostly planters, and live from half a mile to 3 or 4 miles from each other, on their plantations. They have a plentiful countryno ready market for their produce-Ittle intercourse with strangers, and a natural fondness for society, which induce them to be hospitable to travellers. In the lower districts the inhabitants have very few places for public and weekly worship of any kind; and these few, being destitute of ministers, are suffered to stand neglected. The fabbath of course, which, in most civilized countries, is professionally and externally, at least, regarded as holy time, and which, confidered merely in a civil view, is an excellent establishment for the promotion of cleanliness, friendship, harmony, and all the social virtues, is here generally disregarded, or diltinguished by the convivial visitings of the white inhabitants, and the noisy diversions of the negroes. The women, except in some of the populous towns, have very little intercourse with each other, and are almost entirely destitute of the bloom and vivacity of the north: yet they porsess a great deal of kindness, and, except that they suffer their infant babes to suck the breasts of their black nurses, are good mothers, and obedient wives.
The general topics of conversation among the men, when cards, the bottle, and occurrences of the day do not intervene, are negroes, the prices of indigo, rice, tobacco, &c. They appear to have as little tafte for the sciences as for religion. Political enquiries, and philosophical disquisitions are attended to but by a few men of genius and industry, and are too laborious for the indolent minds of the people at large. Less attention and respect are paid to the women here, than in those parts of the United States where the inhabitants have made greater progress in the arts of civilized life. Indeed, it is a truth, confirmed by observation, that in proportion to the advancement of civilization, in the same proportion will respect for the women be increased ; so that the progress of civilization in countries, in states, in towns, and in families, may be marked by the degree of attention which is paid by husbands to their wives, and by the young men to the young women.
Temperance and indultry are not to be reckoned among the virtues of the North-Carolinians. The time which they waste in drinking, idling, and gambling, leaves them very little opportunity to improve their plantations to their minds. The improvement of the former is left to their overseers and negroes; the improvement of the latter is too often nego lected. Were the time, which is thus wasted, spent in cultivating the soil, and in treasuring up knowledge, they might be both wealthy and learned; for they have a productive country, and are by no means deftitute of genius.
• Time that is not employed in ftudy or useful labour, in every country, is generally spent in hurtful or innocent exercises, according to the cuftom of the place, or the taste of the parties. The citizens of NorthCarolina, who are not better employed, spend their time in drinking, or gaming at cards or dice, in cock-fighting, or horse-racing. Many of the interludes are filled up with a boxing match; and these matches frequently become memorable by feats of gouging *.
In a country that preterds to any degree of civilization, one would hardly expect to find a prevailing cultom of putting out the eyes of each
Yet this more than barbarous cuftom is prevalent in both the Carolinas, and in Georgia, among the lower class of people. Of the origin of this custom we are not informed. We prefume there are few "competitors for the honour of having originated it; and equally as few who are envious of the pleasure of those who have the bonour to continue it.
North-Carolina has had a rapid growth. In the year 1710, it contained but about 1200 fencible men. It is now, in point of numbers, the fourth state in the union. During this amazing progress in popula- tion, which has been greatly aided by emigrations from Pennsylvania, Virginia, and other states, while each has been endeavouring to increase his fortune, the human mind, like an unweeded garden, has been suffered to fhoot up in wild disorder. But when we consider that, during the late - revolution, this state produced many
distinguished patriots and politicians, that the fent her thousands to the defence of Georgia and South-Carolina, and gave occasional succours to Virginia-when we consider too the difficulties she has had to encounter from a mixture of inhabitants, collected from different parts, strangers to each other, and intent
upon gain, we înall find many things worthy of praise in her general character.
Conftitution.) By the constitution of this state, which was ratified in December, 1776, all legislative authority is vested in two distinct branches, both dependent on the people, viz. A Senate and House of Commons, which, when convened for bufiness, are styled the General Asembly.
The Senate is composed of representatives, one for each country, chosen annually by ballot.
The House of Commons consists of representatives chosen in the same way, two for each county, and one for each of the towns of Edenton, Newbern, Wilmington, Salisbury, Hillsborough, and Halifax.
The qualifications for a senator, are one year's residence, immediately preceding his election, in the county in which he is chosen, and
300 acres of land in fee.
* The delicate and entertaining diversion, with propriety called gouging, is thus performed. When two boxers are worried with fighting and bruising each other, they come, as it is called, to close quarters, and each endeavours to twijf his forefingers in the ear-locks of his antagonist. When these are fast clenched, the thumbs are extended each way to the nose, and the eyes gently turned out of their fockets. The victor, for his expertness, receives froouts of applaufe from the sportive throng, while his poor eyeless antagonist is laughed at for his misfortune.
A member of the House of Commons must have usually resided in the county in which he is elected, one year immediately preceding his election, and for six months shall have posseiled, and continue to possess, in the. county which he represents, not less than 100 acres of land in fee, or for the term of his own life.
A freeman of 21 years of age, who has been an inhabitant in the state twelve months immediately preceding the day of any election, and who had possessed a freehold of hfry acres of land within the county for fix months next before, and at the day of election, is entitled to vote for a member of the senate.
All freemen, of 21 years of age, who have been inhabitants of the itate the year next before the election, and have paid public taxes, may vote for members of the House of Commons.
The Senate and House of Commons, when convened, choose each their own speaker, and are judges of the qualifications and elections of their members. They jointly, by ballot at their first meeting after each annual election, choose a governor for one year, who is not eligible to that office longer than three years in fix successive years; and who must possess a freehold of more than 6.1000, and have been an inhabitant of the state above five years. They, in the same manner and at the same time, elect seven persons to be a council of state for one year,
to advise the governor in the execution of his office. They appoint a treasurer or treafurers for the state. They triennially choose a state-secretary. They jointly appoint judges of the supreme courts of law and equity-judges of admiralty, and the attorney-general, who are commissioned by the governor, and hold their oflices during good behaviour. They prepare bilis--which must be read three times in each house, and be signed by the speaker of both houses, before they pass into laws.
Judges of the supreme court-members of council-judges of admiralty --treasurers--secretaries-attorney-generals for the statcm-clerks of record--ciergymen-perfons denying the Being of a God--the truth of the protestant religion, or the divine authority of the Old or New Testament --receivers of public monies, whose accounts are unsettled-inilitary officers in actual service are all ineligible to a feat either in the Senate or House of Commons. Juftices of the peace, being recommended by the representatives, are commiliioned by the governor, and hold their offices during good behaviour. The constitution allows of no religious establish
The legislature are authorized to regulate entails as to prevent perpetuitieca majority of both houses is neceísary to do business.
New Settlements, Roads, &c.] Davidson county, in this state, is one of the most western settlements in the United States. This county was established by the name of Davidson, in honour of. Brigadier-general William Davidson, who fell opposing the army under Lord Cornwallis, across the Yadkin river, in the year 1781, and begins where the river Tennessee or Cherokee intersects the north boundary of the state ; thence due eallwith the said boundary to the second interiection of the said boundary, by the Cumberland or Shawanee river, being 140 miles ; thence south 55 geographical miles; thence weit to the Tennessee; thence down the meanders thereof to the beginning. The Tennesiee crosses the north boundary of the itate 58 miles, and the south boundary thereof about 80 miles east E e 2
of the Misfifippi. In the year 1782, the legislature of North Carolina appointed commissioners to explore the western part of the state, (by which is meant, as well the lands at present included in Davidson county, as those between the south boundary of the state and the south boundary of this county, and those between the rivers Millifippi and Tennessee) and report to the succeeding legislature, which part was best for the payment of the bounty promised to the officers and soldiers of the Continental Line of that state; and they accordingly did explore the before described tract of country, and reported to the legislature in the spring of the year 1783.Although this county was not established by law before the last-mentioned period, yet a few families had settled in the year 1780, principally under the guidance and direction of James Robertson (at present colonel of that county) on Cumberland river, and called the place Nashville, in honour of Brigadier-general Francis Nash, who fell at German-town in the year 1777, but he had but few followers until the year 1783, after the
peace had taken place, and after an act had passed directing the military or bounty warrants of the officers and soldiers to be located in this county. These circumstances induced many officers and soldiers to repair immediately thither, to secure and settle their lands; and such as did not choose to go fold their warrants to citizens who did go. Many people from almost every state in the Union became purchasers of these military warrants, and are since become residents of this county; and many valuable and opulent families have removed to it from the Natches.-Colonel Robertfon, when he settled at Nashville, was upwards of 200 miles distant (to the westward) from any other settlement in his own state, and was equally distant from the settled parts of Kentucky. Hence it will readily be supposed that himself and party were in danger every hour of being cut off by the Indians, againft whom his principal security was, that he was nearly as distant from them as from the white people ; and slender as this fecurity may appear, his party never sustained any damage from the In- . dians, but what was done by parties of hunters who happened to find out his settlements. The face of this country is in general level, and the soil very rich, equal to any other part of America, and produces in abundance every thing that can be expected from so temperate a climate and so rich
It is common for the planter to gather from his fields, upon an average, 60 bushels of Indian corn per acre. This county is well watered by the rivers Tennesiee and Cumberland, and their branches. Both of these rivers empty into the Ohio shortly after they pass the north boundary of the state. As the waters of the Cumberland from Nashville, and of the Tennessee from the Muscle Shoals to the Ohio, are equally deep as the waters of the Ohio and Misisippi, the people, of course, who live in this county, or the adjacent country, have the same advantages of water conveyance for trade, as those who live on the Ohio or Missippi, to NewOrleans, or elsewhere.
Besides, there is another probable avenue through which trade will be carried on with this county and the adjacent country, which is from Mobille, up the waters of the Mobille river as far as navigable, thence by a land carriage of about 50 miles. (at most) to Ocochappo creek, which empties into the Tennessee at the lower end of the Muscle Shoals. The