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miles within this bar, lis a hard fand shoal, called the Sw.nh, lying across the channel. On cach side of the channel are dangerous ihoals, sometimes dry. There is from 8 10 9 feet water at full tide, according to the winds, on the Swash. Common tides rise 18 inches on the bar, and 10 on the Swan. Between the bar and the Swath is good anchoring ground, called the Upper and Lower cachorages. Ships drawing 10 feet water do not come farther than the soft anchorage, till lightened. Few inariners, though acquainted with t'e inlets, choose to bring in their own veffels, as the bar often shifts during their absence on a voyage. North of Pamlico found, and communicating with it, is Albemarle found, 60 miles in length, and from 8 to 12 in breadth.

Core found lies south of Parlico, and communicates with it. These founds are so large when compared with their inlets from the sea, that no tide can be perceived in any of the rivers whici empty into them, nor is the water salt even in the moucis of thefo rivers.

Cape Hatteras is in lat. 35° 15'. In oil charts the hoals of this cape are marked as having in one places only 3, 4 aid 5 reet water upon them. Experienced pilots and mariners, si ustuver, now say that there is in no place, after you get two miles from the land, lets than nine feet wa

The beit channer for veficls is about a league and a half from the land at the cape, having in no place, at this dirance, leij than two and a half fathoms of water. Vesiels from the northward, by displaying a jack from the fore top-mast, are usually boarded by a pilot from the land. Some of the pilots carry branches, and fome good ones carry none. This cape has been dreaded by mariners failing southward when they have been in large vessels ; for if they come within 20 miles of the land at the cape, it is in some places too shoal for them; if they stand further off they are in danger of falling into the Gulph Stream, which woull set them 3 or 4 miles an hour northward. It is obiervable that violent storms of rain and guits of wind, are uncommonly frequent around this cape.

Cape Lookout is south of Cape Hatteras, opposite Core found, and has already been mentioned as having had an excellent harbour entirely filled up with land since the year 1777:

Cape Fear is remarkable for a dangerous shoal, called, from its form, the Frying-pan. This shoal lies at the entrance of Cape Fear river.

Dismal Swamp spreads over the whole tract of country which lies between Pamlico and Albemarle sounds, and needs no other description than is conveyed by its name. There is another large swamp north of Edenton, which lies partly in this state, and parly in Virginia.

This swamp is owned by two companies; the Virginia campany, of which General Washington is a member, hold 100,000 acres; and the North-Carolina company, who hold about 40,000 acres.

It is in contemplation to cut a canal through this swamp, from the head of Pafquetank, to the head of Elizabeth river, in Virginia, 12 or 14 miles in length.

Civil Divisions.] This state is divided into 8 distriệts, which are fubdivided into 58 counties, as follows:


Districts Counties.


r Chowan,





7 counties. Perquimins,

9 counties




New Hanover,



Wilmington, Robinson,

9 counties.

Sampson, 8 counties, Duplin,






Carteret, Salisbury,

Newbern, Pitt,

8 counties. Montgomery, 8 counties. Dobbs,




The above three districts are on

Green, the sea coaft, extending from


Morgan, the Virginia line fouth-west

Washington, ward to South-Carolina.

Sullivan, Davidson, 7 Davidson,

Lincoln, 2 counties. Summer.

(Hawkins. These five diftricts, beginning on the Virginia line, cover the whole state west of the three maritime districts before mentioned; and the greater part of them extend quite across the state from north to fouth.

Principal Towns.] Newbern, Edenton, Wilmington, Halifax, Hillfborough and Fayetteville, each in their turns have been considered as the capital of the state. At present they have no capital. The convention which met to cosider the new constitution, fixed on a place in Wake county to be the seat of government, but the town is not yet built.

NEWgern is the largest town in the state. It stands on a flat, sandy point of land, formed by the confluence of the rivers Neus on the north, and Trent on the south. Opposite the town, the Neus is about a mile and a half, and the 'Trent three quarters of a mile wide. The town contains abcut 4.00 houses, ail built of wood, excepting the palace, the church, the gaol and two dwelling houses, which are of brick. The palace is a building erected by the province before the revolution, and was formerly the relidence of the governors. It is large and elegant, two stories high, with

7 counties.


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two wings for offices, a little advanced in front towards the town; these wings are connected with the principal building by a circular arcade. This once handsome and well furnished building is now much out of repair. One of the halls is used for a dancing, and another for a school room; which are the only present uses of this palace. The arms of the king of Great-Britain still appear in a pediment in front of the building. The Episcopal church is a small brick building, with a bell. It is the only house for public worship in the place. A rum distillery has been lately erected in this town.

It is the county town of Craven county, and has a courthouse and goal. The court-house is raised on brick arches, so as to render the lower part a convenient market-place; but the principal marketing is done with the people in their canoes and boats at the river side.

EDENTON is situated on the north side of Albemarle sound, and has about 150 indifferent wood houses, and a few handsome buildings. It has a brick church for Episcopalians, which for many years has been much neglected, and serves only to fhew that the people once had a regard, at least, for the externals of religion. Its local situation is advantageous for trade, but not for health. It is the county town of Chowan county, and has a court-house and goal. In or near this town lived the proprietory, and the first of the royal governors.

WILMINGTON is a town of about 180 houses, situated on the east side of the eastern branch of Cape Fear river, 34 miles from the sea. The course of the river, as it passes by the town, is from north to fouth, and is about 150 yards wide.

In 1786, a fire broke out, supposed to have been kindled by negroes. and consumed about 25 or 30 houses. The town is rebuilding flowly, A printing-office was establithed here in 1788.

WASHINGTON and TARBOROUGH are two flourishing, trading towns on Tar river. About 130 small vessels enter annually at the customhouse for this river.

HILLSBOROUGH is an inland town, situated in a high, healthy, and fertile country, 180 miles north of the weit from Newbern. It is settled by about 60 or 70 families, and has an academy of 60 or 80 students, under the care of suitable. instructors, and patronized by the principal gentlemen in the state, who have been liberal in their donations.

Face of the Gouniry, Scil and Productions.] North-Carolina, in its whole width, for 60 miles from the sea, is a dead level. A great proportion of this trait lies in foreit, and is barren. On the banks of some of the rivers, particularly of the Roanoke, the land is fertile and good. Interspersed through the other parts, are glades of rich swamp, and ridges of oak land, of a black, fertile soil. In all this champagne country, marine productions are found by digging 18 or 20 feet below the surface of the ground. The sea coast, the sounds, inlets, and lower parts of the rivers, have uniformly a muddy, soft bottom. Sixty and eighty miles from the fea, the country rises into hills and mountains, as described under this head in South Carolina and Georgia.

That part of North Carolina which lies wel of the mountains, a tract about 500 miles in length, east and west, and upwards of 100 in breadth, (except the Cumberland barrens, and some broken lands) is a fine fertile country, watered by the broad Tennellee, and abounds with


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oaks, lccuf trees of several kindi, walnut, clm, linn, and cherry trees, fome of which are three feet in diameter.

Whicat, rye, boole;, Câts and fax grow well in the back hilly country. Indian corn and pulie of all kids in all parts. Ground peas run on the fnrface cf the earih, and are covered by hand with a light ‘mould, and the pods greu? underground. They are eaten raw or roaited, and taste much like a laulerut. Coiton is also confiderably cultivated here, and might be raised in much greater plenty. It is planted yearly : the ftalk dies with the fiol.

Trade.] A great proportion of the produce of the back country, conhifting of tobacco, wheat, india corn, &c. is carried to market in SouthCarolina and Virginia. The fouthern interior counties carry their produce to Charleton; and the northern to Petersburg, in Virginia. The exports from the lorer parts of the state, are, tar, pitch, turpentine, rofin, Indian corn, hoards, feantling, staves, fringles, furs, tobacco, pork, lard, tailow, bees-wax, my: ile-wax, and a few other articles. Their trade is chiefly wit's the West-Indies, and the northern states. From the latter they receive flour, cheese, cyder, apples, potatoes, iron wares, cabinet wares, hats, and dry goods of all kinds, imported from GreatBritain, France, and Holland, teas, &c. From the West-Indies, rum, sugar, and coffee.

Climate, Diferfes, E'c.] In the flat country near the sea coast, the inhabitants, during tic summer and autumn, are subject to intermitting fevers, which often prove fatal, as bilious or nervous symptoms prevail. These fevers are seldom immediately dangerous to the natives who are temperate, or to strangers who are prudent. They, however, if suffered to continue for any length of time, bring on other disorders, which gteatly impair the naiural vigor of the mind, debilitate the constitution, and terminate in death. The countenances of the inhabitants, during tiefe seasons, have generally a pale yellowish calt, occafioned by the prevalence of bilious symptoms. They have very little of the bloom and freshness of the people in the northern states.

It has been observed that more of the inhabitants, of the men especially, die during the winter, by the pleurifies and peripneumonies, than during the warm months by bilicus complaints. Theie pleurisies are brought on by intemperance, and by an imprudent exposure to the weather. Were the inhabitants cautious and prudent in these respects, it is alledged by their physicians, that they might, in general, escape the danger of these fatal diseases. The use of flannel next to the skin is reckoned an excellent preventative, during the winter, of the diseases incident to this climate. The western hilly parts of the state are as healthy as any of the United Statcs. That country is fertile, full of springs and rivulets of pure water. The air there is lerene a great part of the year, and the inhabitants live to old age, which cannot lo generally be faid of the inhabitants of the flat country. Though the days in summer are extremely hot, the nights are cool and icireting: Autumn is very pleasant, both in regard to the temperature and serenity of the weather, and the richness and variety of the vegetable productions which the season affords. The winters are fo mild in some years, that autumn may be said to countinue till spring. Wheat harvest is the beginning of June, and that of Indian corn early in September.


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Natural bijtory.] The large natural growth of the plains in the low country, is almost universally pitch pine ; which is a tall, handsome trec, far fuperior to the pitch pine of the northern states. This tree may be called the ftaple commodity of North-Carolina. It affords pitch, tar, turpentine, and various kinds of lumber, which together constitute at least one-half of the exports of this state. This pine is of two kinds, the comion and the long leaved. The latter has a leaf mhaped like other pines, but is nearly half a yard in length, hanging in large clusters. No coun-try produces finer white and red oak for itaves. The fivamps abound with cypress and bay trees. The latter is an ever-green, and is food for cattle in the winter. The leaves are shaped like those of the peach trec, but larger. The inost common kinds of timber in the back country, are, oak, walnut, and pine. A species of oak grows in the moist, gravelly foil. called Black Jack. It feldom grows larger than 8 or 9 inches diameter, It is worthy of remark, that the trees in the low country, near the sea coast, are loaded with valt quantities of a long, spongy kind of moss, which, by absorbing the noxious vapour that is exhaled from itagnated waters, contributes much, it is supposed, to the healthiness of the climate. This hypothesis is confirmed by experience, since it is commonly observed, that the country is much less healthy after having been cleared, than while in a state of nature.

The Milletoe is common in the black country. This is a shrub which differs in kind, perhaps, from all others. It never grows out of the earth, but on the tops of trees. The roots (if they may be fo called) run under the bark of the tree, and incorporate with the wood. It is an ever-green, resembling the garden box-wood.

The principal wild fruits are plums, grapes, strawberries, and blackberries.

The country is generally covered with herbage of various kinds, and a fpecies of wild grais. It abounds with medicinal plants and roots. Among others are the ginseng, Virginia snake root, Seneca snake root, an herb of the cinetic kind, like the ipecacuanha. Lyons heart, which is a fovereign remedy for the bite of a ferpant. A species of the sensitive plant is also found here; it is a sort of brier, the stalk of which dies with the froit, but the root lives through the winter, and shoots again in the spring. The lightest touch of a leaf causes it to run and cling close to the flaik. Although it fo erlily takes the alarm, and apparently shrinks from danger, in the space of two minutes after it is touched, it perfectly recovers its former situation. The inucipula veneris is also found here. The rich bottoms are overgrown with canes.

Their leaves are green all the winter, and afford an excellent food for cattle. They are of a sweetish taste like the stalks of green corn, which they in many respects resemble,

Religion.] The weitern parts of this state, which have been settled within the last 35 years, are chiefly inhabited by Presbyterians from Pennsylvania, the deicendents of the people from the North of Ireland, and are exceedingly attached to the doctrines, discipline, and usages of the church of Scotland. They are a regular industrious people. Almoit all the inhabitants between the Catawby and Yadkin rivers, are of vis denomination, and they are in general well supplied with a. sensible and learned


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