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rous accessions which are made almost every month. In 1783, in the county of Lincoln * only, there were, on the militia rolls, 3570 men, chiefly emigrants from the lower parts of Virginia. In 1784, the number of inhabitants were reckoned at upwards of 30,000. From the accounts of their astonishing increase fince, we may now fafely efimate them at 100,000. It is asierted that at least 20,000 migrated here in the year 1787. These peopie, collected from different states, of different manners, cuftoms, religions, and political sentiments, have not been long enough together to form a uniform and distinguisting character. Among the settlers there are many gentlemen of abilities, and many genteel families, from several of the states, who give dignity and respectability to the fettlement. They are in general, more orderly, perhaps, than any people who have settled a new country:

Religion.] The Baptifts are the most numerous religious feet in Kentucky. In 1787 they had 16 churches established, belides several congregations where churches were not conflituted. These were supplied with upwards of 30 minifters or teachers. There are several large congregations of Presbyterians, and some few of other denominations.

Government.] The same as Virginia. But they expect to be admitted into the union as an independent itate, in a convenient time after the new government is put in operation. The inconveniencies to which they are necessarily subjected, from their connection with Virginia, are great.

These inconveniencies the legislature of Virginia have considered; and, in their fesiion of 1786, passed an act, providing, on their part, for the erec tion of the district of Kentucky into an independent state. In no part of the United States is justice administered with more popriety and dispatch.

Literature and Improvements.] The legislature of Virginia have made provision for a college in Kentucky, and have endowed it with very confiderable landed funds. The Rev. John Todd has given a very handsome library for its use. Schools are established in the several towns, and, in general, regularly and handsomely supported. They have a printing office, and publish a weekly Gazette. They have erected a paper-mii, an oil mill, fulling mills, faw inills, and a great number of valuable grist mills. Their falt works are more than fufficient to supply all the inhabitants, at a low price. They have considerable quantities of sugar from the sugar trees. Labourers, particularly tradesmen, are exceedingly wanted here. No tradesman will work for less than fifty per cent. advance upon the Philadelphia price.

Curiofities.] The banks, or rather precipices, of Kentucky and Dick's rivers, are to be reckoned among the natural curiosities of this country. Here the astonished eye beholds 3 or 400 feet of folid perpendicular rock, in some parts of the lime-stone kind, and in others of fine white marble curiously chequered with strata of astonishing regularity. These rivers have the appearance of deep, artificial canals. Their banks are level, and covered with red-cedar groves.

Caves have been discovered in this country, of several miles in length, under a fine lime-stone rock, supported by curious arches and pillars. * This county, it is to be remembered, has since been divided.


Springs that emit sulphurcus matter have been found in several parts of the country. One is near a falt spring, in the ncighbourl.cod cf Boon!borough. There are three springs or ponds of bitumen near G:een river, which do not form a tream, but empty themselves into a common refervcir, and when used in lamps, answer all the purposes of the best oil. Copperas and alum are among the minerals of Kentucky.----Near Lexington are found curious fepulchres full of human skeletons. I have been told that a man, in or near Lexington, having dug 5 or 6 feet below the surface of the ground, came to a large fiat store, under which was a well of common depth, regularly and artificially itoned.

History. 1 *The first white man we have certain accounts of, who discovered this province, was one James M-Bride, who in company wit fome others, in the year 1754, passing down the Ohio in canoes, landed at the mouth of Kentucky river, and there marked a tree, with the first letters of his name, and the date, which remains to this day. Thiese men reconnoitred the country, and returned home with the piealing news of their discovery of the beit tract of land in North America, and probably in the world. From this period it remained concealed till about the year 1767, when one Jolin Finley and some others, trading with the Indians, fortunately travelled over the fertile region, now called Kentucky, then but known to the Indians, by the name of the Dark and Bloody Grounds, and sometimes the Middle Ground. This country greatly engaged Mr. Finley's attention. Some time after disputes arising between the Indians traders, he was obliged to decamp; and returned to his place of residence in North-Carolina, where he communicated his discovery to Col. Daniel Boon, and a few more, who conceiving it to be an interesting object, agreed in the year 1769 to undertake a journey in order to explore it. After a long fatiguing march, over a mountainous wilderness, in a westward direction, they at length arrived upon its borders; and from the top of an eminence, with joy and wonder, descried the beautiful landscape of Kentucky. Here they encamped, and some went to hunt provisions, which were readily procured, there being plenty of game, while Col. Boon and John Finley made a tour through the country, which they found far exceeding their cxpectations, and returning to camp, informed their companions of their discoveries: But in spite of this promising beginning, this company, meeting with nothing but hardships and adverfity, grew exceedingly ditheartened, and was plundered, dispersed and killed by the Indians, except Col. Boon, who continued an inhabitant of the wilderness until the year 1771, when he returned home.

About this time Kentucky had drawn the attention of several gentlemen. Doctor Walker of Virginia, with a number more, made a tour westward for discoveries, endeavouring to find the Ohio river; and afterwards he and General Lewis, at Fort Stanwix, purchased from the Five Nations of Indians the lands lying on the north side of Kentucky. Col. Donaldson, of Virginia, being employed by the ftate to run a line from fix milcs above the Long Island, on Holstein, to the mouth of the Great

* The follozving history is mostly taken from Mr. John Filson's account of the discovery and settlement of Kentucky. To this gentleman I am indebted for much of the information contained in the foregoing defcription.


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Kanhaway, and finding thereby that an extensive tract of excellent country would be cut off to the Indians, was solicited, by the inhabitants of Clench and Holstein, to purchase the lands lying on the north-side of Kentucky river from the Five nations. This purchase he completed for five hundred pounds, specie. It was then agreed, to fix a boundary line, running from the Long Island on Holstein to the head of Kentucky river ; thence down the same to the mouth ; thence up the Ohio to the mouth of Great Kanhaway; but this valuable purchase the state refused to confirm.

Col. Henderson, of North-Carolina, being informed of this country by Col. Boon, he, and some other gentlemen, held a treaty with the Cherokee Indians at Wataga, in March 1775, and then purchased from them the lands lying on the south side of Kentucky river for goods, at valuable rates, to the amount of £.6000 specie. Soon after this purchase, the state of Virginia took the alarm, agreed


money Col. Donaldson had contracted for, and then disputed Col. Henderson's right of purchase, as a private gentleman of another state, in behalf of himself: However, for his eminent services to this country, and for having been instrumental in making so valuable an acquisition to Virginia, that state was pleased to reward him with a tract of land, at the mouth of Green river, to the amount of 200,000 acres ; and the ftate of North-Carolina gave him the like quantity in Powels Valley. This region was formerly claimed by various tribes of Indians; whose title, if they had any, originated in such a manner, as to render it doubtful which ought to poffefs it: Hence this fertile spot became an object of contention, a theatre of war, from which it was properly denominated the Bloody Grounds. Their contentions not being likely to decide the right to any particular tribe, as soon as Mr. Henderson and his friends proposed to purchase, the Indians agreed to sell ; and notwithstanding the valuable consideration they received, have continued ever since troublesome neighbours to the new settlers.'

The progress in improvements and cultivation which have been made in this country, almost exceeds belief.-Eleven years ago Kentucky lay in forest, almost uninhabited but by wild beasts. Now, notwithstanding the united opposition of all the western Indians, she exhibits an extensive settlement, divided into several large and populous counties, in which are a number of flourishing little towns--containing more inhabitants than are in Georgia, Delaware, or Rhode-Island states—and nearly or quite as many as in New Hampshire. An instance of the like kind, where a settlement has had so large and so rapid a growth, can scarcely be produced from the page of history.


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OUNDED north, by Virginia ; cait, by the Atlantic

Ocean ; fouth, by South Carolina and Georgia; welt, by the Missisippi*.

Rivers.] Chowan river is formed by the confluence of three rivers, viz. the Meherrin, Nottaway and Black rivers; all of which rise in Virginia. It falls into the north-west corner of Albemarle found, and is three miles wide at its mouth, but narrows fast as you ascend it.

Roanoke is a long rapid river, formed by two principal branches, Staunton river, which rises in Virginia, and Dan river, which rises in NorthCarolina. This river is subjeet to inundations, and is navigable but for shallops, nor for these but about 60 or 70 miles, on account of falls, which in a great measure obstruct the water communication with the back country. It empties, by several mouths, into the south-west end of Albemarle found. The planters on the banks of this river are supposed to be the wealthiest in North-Carolina. One of them, it is said, raises about 3000 barrels of corn, and 4000 bushels of peas annually.

Cusai is a small river, which empties into Albemarle found, between Chowan and the Roanoke.

Pamlico or Tar river opens into Pamlico found. Its course is from north-west to south-east. It is navigable for vessels drawing nine feet water to the town of Washington, about 40 miles from its mouth ; and for

* The charter limits of North-Carolina are, a line beginning on the sea side, at a cedar stake, at or near the mouth of a little river, (being the southern extremity of Brunswick county) and running thence a north-west course through the boundary house, in lat. 33° 56' to lat. 35o, and on that parallel zvest as far as is mentioned in the charter of King Charles II. to the original proprietors of Carolina, viz. to the South Sea. Their northern line begins on the sea coast in lat. 36° 30', and runs due west to the termination of the southern line. This line strikes the Missippi 15 miles below the mouth of the Ohio. These limits were ascertained and confirmed agreeable to an order of George II. in council

Greai-Britaiu, by the treaty of 1763, gave up her claim to all territory to the west ward of the Milippi, and the courts of France and Spain, at the same time, gave her the free navigation of the Misisippi. By the treaty of 1783, Great-Briiain yielded her interest in that river to the United States. But since Spain now claims the exclusive right of navigating the Mifsippi, which right she had given up by the treaty of 1763 as abovementioned,

North-Carolina resumes her claim to the lands beyond the Milliappi, included within the limits of her original.charter.


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scows or flats, carrying 30 or 40 hogheads, 50 miles further, to the town of Tarborough. Beyond this place the river is inconsiderable and is not navigable.

Neus river empties into Pamlico found, below Newbern. It is navigable for sea vessels about 12 miles above the town of Newbern; for icows 50 miles, and for small boats 200 miles.

Trent river, from the south-west, falls into the Neus at Newbern. It is navigable for sea vessels about 12 miles above the town, and for boats thirty.

There are several other rivers of less note, among which are the Pasquetank, Perquimins, Little River, Alligator, &c. which discharge themselves into Albemarle sound. All the rivers in North-Carolina, and, it may be added, in South-Carolina, Georgia, and the Floridas, which empty into the Atlantic Ocean, are navigable by any vefiel that can pass the bar at their mouths. While the water courses continue broad enough for vessels to run round, there is generally a sufficient depth of water for them to proceed.

Cape Fear river opens into the sea at Cape Fear, in about lat. 33° 45'. As you ascend it, you pass Brunswick on the left, and Wilmington on the right. The river then divides into north-east and north-west branches, as they are called. It is navigable for large veslels to Wilmington, and for boats to Fayetteville, near 90 miles farther. This river affords the best navigation in North-Carolina. Yadkin river rises in this state, and running south-eastwardly, croffes into South Carolina, where it takes the name of Pedee, and passes to sea at George-town.

Pelison Holstein, Noley Chuckey and Frank rivers, are all branches of the Broad Tennesee, falling into it from the north-east. This noble river crosses the parallel of 35° north latitude into the state of Georgia, juft before it passes through Cumberland or Laurel Mountains. The passage of the river through these mountains, occasions a remarkable whirl. The river, which a few miles above is half a mile wide, is here compressed to the width of about 100 yards. Just as it enters the mountain, a large rock projects from the northern shore in an oblique direction, which renders the bed of the river still narrower, and causes a sudden bend; the water of the river is of course thrown with great rapidity against the southern thore, whence it rebounds around the point of the rock, and produces the whirl, which is about 80 yards in circumference. Canoes have often been carried into this whirl, and escaped without damage.--In less than a mile beiow the whirl, the river spreads into its common width, and, except muscle shoals, flows beautiful and placid, till it mingles with the Ohio.

Sounds, Capes, Inlets, Swamps, &c.] Pamlico found is a kind of lake or inland sea, from 10 to 20 miles broad, and nearly 100 miles in length. It is separated from the sea, in its whole length, by a beach of fand hardly a mile wide, generally covered with small trees or bushes. Through this bank are feveral small inlets, by which boats may pass. But Ocrecok inlet is the only one that will admit vessels of burden into the districts of Edenton and Newbern. This inlet is in lat. 35° 10', and opens into Pamlico found, between Ocrecok island and Core bank; the land on the north is called Ocrecok; and on the south Portfmouth. A bar of hard {and crosses this inlet, on which, at low tide, there are 14 feet water. Six

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