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NDIANA, so called, is a tract of land lying on the Ohio river, in

the state of Virginia, ceded to William Trent and twenty two others, Indian traders, by the Shawanese, Delaware, and Huron tribes, as a compensation for the losses the former had sufiained by the depredations of the latter, in the year 1763. This cession was made in a congress of the representatives of the Six nations, at Fort Stanwix, by an indenture, figned the 3d of November, 1768, witnesling, “That for and in confideration of 1.85,916 10 8, York currency, (the fame being the amount of the goods feized and taken by faid Indians from Trent, &c.) they did grant, bargain, fell, &c. to his majesty, his heirs and fucceffors, for the only use of faid William Trent, &c. all that tract or parcel of land, beginning at the southerly fide of the little Kanhaway creek, where it empties itself into the river Ohio; and running thence south-east to the Laurel Hill; thence along the Laurel Hill until it strikes the river Monongahela; thence down the stream of the said river according to the several courses thereof, to the southern boundary line of the province of Pennsylvania ; thence westwardly along the course of the said province boundary line as far as the same shall extend; thence by the same course to the river Ohio, and then down the river Ohio to the place of beginning, inclusively.' This indenture was signed by fix Indian chiefs, in presence of twelve witnesses.

Since the Indians had an undisputed title to the above limited territory, either from pre-occupancy or conquest; and their right was expressly acknowledged by the above deed of cession to the crown, it is very

evident that Mr. Trent, in his own right, and as attorney for the traders, hath a good, lawful, and sufficient title to the land granted by the said deed of conveyance.

This matter was laid before congress in the year 1782, and à committee appointed to consider it, who, in May, reported as follows: On the whole, your committee are of opinion, that the purchases of Colonel Croghan and the Indian company, were made bona fide for a valuable confideration, according to the then usage and customs of purchasing Indian lands from the Indians, with the knowledge, consent and approbation of the crown of Great Britain, the then government of New York and Virginia, and therefore do recommend that it be

Resolved, That if the said lands are finally ceded or adjudged to the United States in point of jurisdi&tion, that congress will confirm to fuch of the faid purchasers who are, and shall be, citizens of the United States, or either of them, their respective shares and proportions of said lands, making a reasonable deduction for the value of the quit-rents reserved by the crown of Engleur.'

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[Belonging, at present, to the State of Virginia.]

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Length 250 2


Ş 36° 30' and 39° 30' North Latitude. Breadth 200

{80 and 15o Wett Longitude. Boundaries.] OUNDED north-west, by the river Ohio; west, by by Sandy river, and a line drawn due fouth from its source, till it strikes the northern boundary of North Carolina.

Civil division.] Kentucky was originally divided into two counties, Lincoln and Jefferson. It has since been subdivided into seven, which follow: Counties. Chief towns.


Chief town. Jefferson, LOUISVILLE, Nelson



Lincoln, Mercer,

Harrod own, As most of these counties are very large, it is probable that subdivisions, will continue to be made, as population increases.

Rivers.] The river Ohio waihes the north-western side of Kentucky, in its whole extent. Its principal branches, which water this fertile tract of country, are Sandy, Licking, Kentucky, Salt, Green, and Cumberland rivers. These again branch in various directions, into rivulets of different magnitudes, fertilizing the country in all its parts. At the bottoms of these water-courses the lime-stone rock, which is common to this country, appears of a greyith colour ; and where it lies exposed to the air, in its natural state, it looks like brown free stone. On the banks of these rivers and rivulets, this stone has the appearance of fine marble, being of the same texture, and is found in the greatest plenty.

Sandy, Liking and Kentucky rivers ride near each other, in the Cumberland Mountains. Of these, Sandy river only breaks through the mountains. This river conftitutes a part of the eaitern boundary of Kentucky.

Liking river runs in a north-west direction, upwards of 100 miles, and is about 100 yards broad at its mouth.

Kentucky is a very crooked river, and after running a course of more than 200 miles, empries into the Ohio by a mouth of 150 yards broad.

Salt river rises at four different places near each other. The windings of this river are curious. The four branches, after a circuitous course around a fine tract of land, unite ; and after running about 15 miles, empty into the Ohio, 20 miles below the falls. Its general courte is westward--its length about 90 miles--and at its mouth is 80 yards wide.

Green river purlues a westward course upwards of 150 miles, and by a mouth 80 yards wide, falls into the Ohio, 120 miles below the Rapids.


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Cumberland river interlocirs with the northern branch of Kentucky, and rolling round the other arms of Kentucky, among the mountains, in a southern course, 100 milcc--then in a south-western course for above 200 more-than in a fouchern and south-weitern course for about 250 more, finds the Ohio, 413 miles below the Falls. At Nashville, this river is 200 yards broad, and at its mouth 300. The river is about half its course, palies through North Carolina,

These rivers are navigable for boats almost to their sources, without rapids, for the greatest part of the year. The little rivulets which chequer the country, begin to lessen in June, and quite disappear in the months of august, September, and October. The autumnal rains, however, in November, replenish them again. The method of getting a supply of water in the dry season is by sinking wells, which are easily-dug, and afford excellent water. The want of water in autumn, is the great complaint. Mills that may be supplied with water, eight months in a year, may be erected in a thousand different places. Wind mills and horse mills may supply th er four months.

The banks of the rivers are generally high and composed of lime-stone. After heavy rains the water in the rivers rises from 10 to 30 feet.

Springs.] There are five noted salt springs or licks in this country; viz. The higher and lower Blue Springs, on Licking river, from some of which, it is said, islue itreams of brinish water-the Big Bone lick, Drennon's licks, and Bullet's lick, at Saltíburgh. The last of these licks, though in low order, has supplied this country and Cumberland with salt at 20 shillings the bushel. Virginia currency; and some is exported to the Illinois country. The method of procuring water from these licks, is by finking wells from 30 to 40 feet deep. The water drawn from these wells is more strongly impregnated with salt than the water from the fea. A straight road, 40 feet wide, has been cut from Saltsburg to Louisville, 24 miles.

Face of the country, foil and produce.] This whole country, as far as has yet been discovered, lies upon a bed of lime-stone, which in general lies about fix feet below the surface, exceptin the vallies, where the soil is much thinner. A tract of about 20 miles wide, along the banks of the Ohio, is hilly, broken land, interspersed with many fertile spots. The rest of the country is agreeably uneven, gently ascending and descending at no great distances. The angles of ascent are from 8 to 24. degrees, and sometimes more. The vallies in common are very narrow,

and the soil in them is very thin, and of an inferior quality: and that along the ascending ground is frequently not much better; for where you see a tree blown up, you find the roots clinging to the upper parts of the rock. The soil, on these agreeable ascents, (for they cannot be called hills) is sufficiently deep, as is evident from the fize of the trees. The soil is either black or tinged with a lighter or deeper vermillion, or is of the colour of dark ashes. In many places there are appearances of

potters clay, and coal in abundance. The country promises to be well supplied with wholesome, well-tafted water. In Nelson county, north-west of Rolling fork, a branch of Salt river, is a tract of about 40 miles fquare, mostly barren, interspersed with plains and stripes of good land, which are advantageous fituations for railing cattle, as the neighbouring barrens

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are covered with grass, and afford good pastures. The lands east of Nolin creek, a branch of Green river, are in general of an inferior quality; but the banks of Green river afford many desirable situations.

Towards the head waters of Kentucky river, which interlock with the water of Cumberland and Sandy rivers, and the whole country eastward and south-eastward as far as the Holstein river, is broken, mountainous, and almost impenetrable; and from the description given by hunters, it is much doubted whether it will ever be pracicable to make a passable road from Kentucky across to Wincheiter, in Virginia, on the east side of the mountains, which, on a straight line, is not perhaps more than 400 miles, and the way now travelled is 600.

No country will admit of being thicker settled with farmers, who confine themselves to agriculture, than this. But large stocks of cattle, except in the neighbourhood of barrens, cannot be raised.

Elkhorn river, a branch of the Kentucky, from the south-east, waters a country fine beyond description. Indeed, the country cast and south of this including the head waters of Licking river, Hickman's and Jeffamine creeks, and the remarkable bend in Kentucky river, may be called an extensive garden. The foil is deep and black, and the natural growth, large walnuts, honey and black locuit, poplar, elm, oak, hickory, fugar tree, &c. Grape vines, running to the tops of the trees; and the furface covered with clover, blue grass, and wild rye. On this fertile tract, and on the Licking river, and the head waters of Salt river, are the bulk of the settlements in this country. The oil within a mile or two of Kentucky river is generally of the third and fourth rates ; advance towards the Ohio, the land is poor and hilly.

Dick's river runs through a great body of first rate land, abounding with cane, and affords many excellent mill feats.

Salt river has good lands on its head waters except that they are low and unhealthy, but for 25 miles before it empties into the Ohio, the land on each side is level and poor, and abounds with ponds.

Cumberland river, so much of it as passes through Kentucky, traverses, some few parts excepted, a hilly poor country,

Green river overfloivs its banks a confiderable way up, at the season when the Ohio fwells, which is in April. This swell in Green river, occasions several of its large branches to overflow, and cover the low grounds with water, leaves and vegetable fubitances, which in summer become noxious and unhealthy. Its barks are fine and fertile. There is a great body of good land near the fails or rapids in the Ohio, called Bare grafs ; but the climate is rendered unhealthy by ponds of kagnant water, which

may be easily drained. This country in general is well timbered. Of the natural growth which is peculiar to this country, we may reckon the sugar, the coffee, the

papaw, and the cucumber tree. The two lait are a soft wood, and bear a fruit of the lhape and size of a cucumber. The coffee tree resembles the black oak, and bears a pod, which encloses good coffee. Befides these there is the honey locuft, black mulberry, wild cherry, of a large size, buckeye, an exceedingly soft wood--the magnolia, which bears a beautisul blossom of a rich and exquisite fragrance. Such is the variety and beauty of the flowering thrubs and plants which grow spontaneously in

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this country, that in the proper season the wilderness appears in blorfom.

The accounts of the fertility of the soil in this country have, in fome infances, exceeded belief; and probably have been exaggerated.—That fome parts of Kentucky, particularly the high grounds, are remarkably good, all accounts agree. The lands of the first rate are too rich for wheat, and will produce 50 and 60, and in some instances, it is afirmed, 100' bushels of good corn, an acre. In common, the land will produce 30 bushels of wheat or rye an acre. Barley, cats, coiton, flax, hemp, and, vegetables of all kinds common in this climate, yield abundantly. The old Virginia planters say, that if the climate does not prove too moist, few soils known will yield more and better tobacco.

In the rivers are plenty of buffalo and catfish of uncommon fize, fal·mon, mullet, rock, perch, garfish, eel, fuckers, sunfish, &c.— Trout, shad and herrings have not been caught in the western-waters.

Swamps are rare in Kentucky; and of course the reptiles which they produce, such as snakes, frogs, &c. are not numerous. The honey-bee may be called a domestic insect, as it is not found but in civilized countries. This is confirmed by a saying which is said to be common among the Indians, when they see a swarm of bees in the woods, "Well, brothers, it is time for us to decamp, for the white people are coming.'

The quadrupeds, except the buffalo, are the same as in Virginia and Carolinas.

Climate.] Healthy and delightful, fome few places in the neighbourhood of ponds and low grounds excepted. The inhabitants do not experience the extreme of heats and cold. Snow seldom falls deep, or lies long:- The winter, which begins about Christmas, is never longer than three months, and is commonly but two, and is fo mild as that cattle can fubfift without fodder.

Chief Towns.] LEXINGTON, which stands on the head water of Elkhorn river, is reckoned the capital of Kentucky. Here the courts are held, and business regularly conducted. In 1786, it contained about 100 houses and several stores, with a good assortment of dry goods. It must have greatly increased since.

LeEstown is weit of Lexington on the eastern bank of Kentucky river. It is regularly laid out, and is flourishing. The banks of Kentucky river are remarkably high, in fome places 3 and 400 feet, composed generally of stupendous perpendicular rocks; the consequence is, there are few crossing places. "The best is at Leeltown, which is a circumstance that must contribute much to its increase.

Louisville stands on the Kentucky side of the Ohio, opposite Clarksville, at the falls, in a fertile country, and promises to be a place of great trade. Its unhealthiness, owing to ftagnated waters back of the town, has considerably retarded its growili. Besides these there is Bardítown, in Nelson county, and Harrodsberg, in Mercer county, both on the head waters of Salt river; Danville, Boonsborough and Granville are also increafing towns.

Population and Character.] It is impossible to ascertain, with any degree of accuracy, the present number of inhabitants ; owing to the nume

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