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earth: but most of them are variegated with red, blue, and purple. None of it has been ever worked. It forms a very large precipice, which hangs over a navigable part of the river. It is said there is marble at Kentucky,
• But one vein of lime-stone is known below the Blue Ridge. Its first appearance, in our country, is in Prince William, two miles below the Pignut Ridge of mountains; thence it paffes on nearly parallel with that, and colles the Rivannna about five miles below it, where it is called the Southwet Ridge. It then crosses Hardware, above the mouth of Hudson's creek, James river at the mouth of Rockfish, at the marble quarry before spoken of, probably runs up that river to where it appears again at Ross's iron-wo ks, and so passes off south-westwardly by Flat creek of Otter river. It is never more than 100 yards wide. From the Blue Ridge weitwardly the whole country seems to be founded on a rock of limeftone, besides infinite quantities on the surface, both loole and fixed. This is cut into beds, which range, as the mountains and fea-coast do, from south-weit to north-east, the lamina of each bed declining from the horizon towards a parellelisin with the axis of the earth. Being struck with this observation, I made, with a quadrant, a great number of trials on the angles of their declination, and found them to vary from 22° to 60°, but avaraging all my trials, the result was within one-third of a degree of the elevation of the pole or latitude of the place, and much the greatest part of them taken separately were little different from that : by which it appears, that these lamina are, in the main, parallel with the axis of the earth. In fome instances, indeed, I found them perpendicular, and even reclining the other way: but these were extremely rare, and always attended with figns of convulfion, or other circumstances of fingularity, which admitted a possibility of removal from their original polition. These trials were made between Madison's cave and the Patomak. We hear of lime-Itone on the Millifippi and Ohio, and in all the mountainous country between the eastern and weitern waters, not on the mountains themselves, but occupying the valleys between them.
• Near the weitern foot of the North Mountains are immense bodies of Schil, containing impression of thells in a variety of forms. I have received petrified Thells of very different kinds from the first sources of the Kentucky, which bear no resemblance to any I have ever seen on the tide
It is iad that shells are found in the Andes, in South-America, 15,000 feet above the level of the ocean.
Medicinal Springs.] * There are several medicinal springs, some of which are indubitably efficacious, while others seem to owe their reputation as much to fancy, and change of air and regimen, as to their real virtues. None of them having undergone a chymical analyfis in skilful hands, nor been so far the subject of observation as to have produced a reduction into claires of the disorders which they relieve, it is in my power to give little more than an enumeration of them.
• The most efficacious of these are two springs in Augusta, near the first fources of James river, where it is called Jackson's river. They rise near the foot of the ridge of mountains generally called the Warm Spring mountain, but in the maps Jackson's mountains. The one is diftinguished by the name of the Warm Spring, and the other of the Hot Bb 2
Spring. The Warm Spring issues with a very bold stream, fufficient to work a grift-mill, and to keep the waters of its bason, which is 30 feet in diameter, at the vital warmth, viz. 96° of Farenheit's thermometer. The matter with which these waters is allied is very volatile ; its smell indicates it to be fulphureous, as also does the circumstance of turning filver black. They relieve rheumatisms. Other complaints also of very different natures have been removed or lessened by them. It rains here four or five days in every week.
* The Hot Spring is about fix miles from the Warm, is much smaller, and has been so hot as to have boiled an egg. Some believe its degree of heat to be lessened, It raises the mercury in Farenheit's thermometer to 1!2 degrees, which is fever heat. It sometimes relieves where the Warm Spring fails. A fountain of common water, issuing within a few inches of its margin, gives it a fingular appearance. Comparing the temperature of these with that of the hot springs of Kamschatka, of which Krachininnikow gives an account, the difference is very great, the latter raising the mercury to 200°, which is within 12° of boiling water. These springs are very much resorted to in spite of a total want of accommodation for the sick. Their waters are strongest in the hottest months, which occafions their being visited in July and August principally.
• The sweet Iprings are in the county of Botetourt, at the eastern foot of the Allegany, about 42 miles from the warm springs. They are still less known. Having been found to relieve cases in which the others had been ineffectually tried, it is probable their composition is different. They are different also in their temperature, being as cold as common water: which is not mentioned, however, as a proof of a distinct impregnation. This is among the first sources of James river.
• On Patomak river, in Berkeley county, about the North mountain, are medicinal springs, much more frequented than those of Augusta. Their powers, however, are less, the water weakly mineralized, and scarcely
They are more visited, because situated in a fertile, plentiful, and populous country, better provided with accommodations, always safe from the Indians, and nearest to the more populous states.
• In Louisa county, on the head waters of the South Anna branch of York river, are springs of some medicinal virtue. They are not much used, however. There is a weak chalybeate at Richmond ; and many others in various parts of the country, which are of too little worth, or too little note to be enumerated after those before-mentioned.
!! We are told of a Sulphur Spring on Howard's creek of Green Briar, and another at Boonsborough on Kentucky.
• In the low grounds of the Great Kanhaway, 7 miles above the mouth of Elk River, and 67 above that of the Kanhaway itself, is a hole in the earth of the capacity of 30 or 40 gallons, from which iffues constantly a bituminous vapour in so strong a current, as to give to the sand abpat its orifice the motion which it has in a boiling spring. On presenting a lighted candle or torch within 18 inches of the hole, it fames up in a column of 18 inches diameter, and four or five feet in height, which sometimes burns out within 20 minutes, and at other times has been known to continue three days, and then has been left ftill burning: The flame is unsteady, of the density of that of burning spirits, and smells
like burning pit coal. Water sometimes collects in the bason, which is remarkably cold, and is kept in ebullition by the vapour issuing through it. If the vapour be fired in that state, the water soon becomes so warm that the hand cannot bear it, and evaporates wholly in a short time. This, with the circumjacent lands, is the property of his Excellency General Washington and of General Lewis.
There is a similar one on Sandy river, the name of which is a column of about 12 inches diameter, and 3 feet high. General Clark, who informs me of it, kindled the vapour, staid about an hour, and left it burning.
The mention of uncommon springs leads me to that of Syphon fountains. There is one of these near the intersection of the lord Fairfax's houndary with the North mountain, not far from Brock's gap, on the stream of which is a grist-mill, which grinds two bushels of grain at every food of the spring. Another near the Cow-pasture river, a mile and a half below its confuence with the Bull-pasture river, and 16 or 17 miles from the Hot-Springs, which intermits one in every twelve hours. One also near the mouth of the North Holston.
After these may be mentioned the Natural Well, on the lands of a Mr. Lewis in Frederick county. It is somewhat larger than a common well: the water rises in it as near the sạrface of the earth as in the neighbouring artificial wells, and is of a depth as yet unknown. It is said there is a current in it tending sensibly downwards. If this be true, it probably feeds fome fountain, of which it is the natural reservoir, diftinguished from others, like that of Madison's cave, by being accessible. It is used with a bucket and windlass as an ordinary well.
Population.] · The following table shews the number of persons imported for the establishment of our colony in its infant state, and the census of inhabitants at different periods, extracted from our historians and public records, as particularly as I have had opportunities and leisure to examine them. Successive lines in the same year shew successive periods of time in that year. I have stated the census in two different columns, the whole inhabitants having been sometimes numbered, and sometimes the tythes only. This term, with us, includes the free males above 16 years
age, and slaves above that age of both sexes.
Τ Α Β L Ε.
Settlers Cenius of
Selliers Cenius of Census of Year imported. Inhabitants. Years imported. Inhabitants. Tythes.
A further examination of our records would render this history of our polat.on much more fatisfactory and perfect, by furnishing a greater
number of intermediate terms. These however which are here ftated will enable us to calculate, with a considerable degree of precifion, the rate at which we have increased. During the infancy of the colony, while numbers were small, wars, importations, and other accidental circumstances, render the progression Auctuating and irregular. By the year 1654. however, it becomes tolerably uniform, importations having in a great measure ceased from the dissolution of the company, and the inhabitants become too numerous to be sensibly affe&ted by Indian wars. Beginning at that period, therefore, we find that from thence to the
year 1772, our tythes had increased form 7209 to 153,000. The whole term being of 118 years, yields a duplication once in every 274 years. The intermediate enumerations taken in 1700, 1748, and 1759, furnish proofs of the uniformity of this progreffion. Siould this rate of increase continue, we shall have between fix and seven millions of inhabitants within 95 years. If we suppose our country to be boun led, at some future day, by the meridian of the mout'i of the Great Kanhaway, (within which it has been before conjectured are 64,491 square miles) there will then be 100 inhabitants for every square mile, waich is nearly the state of population in the British islands.
• Here I will beg leave to propose a doubt. The present desire of America is to produce rapid population by as great importations of foreigners as posible. But is this founded in good policy? The advantage proposed is the multiplication of numbers. Now let us suppose (for example only) that in this state, we could double our numbers in one year by the importation of foreigners ; and this is a greater acceslion than the most fanguine advocate for emigration has a right to expect. Then I say, beginning with a double stock, we shall attain any given degree of population only 27 years and 3 months sooner, than if we proceed on our single stock. If we propose 4,500,000 as a competent population for this staie, we should be 541 years attaining it, could we at once double our numbers ; and 81 years, if we rely on natural propagation, as may be seen by the following table,
T A B L E.
our present stock. a double stock.
4,540,912 | 186211
4,540,912 In the first column are stated periods of 275 years ; in the second are our numbers, at each period, as they will be if we proceed on our actual stock; and in the third are what they would be, at the same periods, were we to set out from the double of our present stock. I have taken the term of
4,500,000 inhabitants for example’s fake only. Yet I am perfuaded it is a greater number than the country spoken of, considering how much inarable land it contains, can clothe and feed without a mate