תמונות בעמוד
PDF
ePub

any

o'clock. Their recreations (for they are to be indulged in nothing which the world calls play,) are gardening, walking, riding and bathing without doors, and within doors, the carpenters, joiners, cabinet-makers, or turners business. Suitable provision is made for these several occupations, which are to be considered, not as matters of drudgery and constraint, but as pleasing and healthful recreations, both for the body and mind. Another of their rules, which though new and singular, is favourable to the health and vigour of the body and mind, is, that the ftudents shall not sleep on feather beds, but on mattresses, and each one by himself. Particular attention is paid to the morals and religion of the students.

There are a few other literary institutions, of inferior note, in different parts of the state, and provision is made for free-schools in most of the countries; though some are entirely neglected, and very few carried on with success : so that a great proportion of the lower class of people are ignorant; and there are not a few who cannot write their names. But the revolution, among other happy effects, has roused the fpirit of education, which is faft spreading its salutary influences over this, and the other southern states.

Natural Curiofities.] There are several remarkable caves in the western part of this state, but particular and accurate descriptions of them have not been received,

Expences of Government and Taxes.] The annual expences of government are estimated at about 6.20,000 currency. The revenue arises from duties and imports on imports and exports, and taxes on real and personal property,

Constitution.] The legislature is composed of two distinct branches, à Şenate and House of Delegates, and filed, The General Asembly of Maryland.

The senators are elected in the following manner. On the first of September, every fifth year, the freemen choose two men in each county to be electors of the senate, and one elector for the city of Annapolis, and one for the town of Baltimore. These electors must have the qualifications necessary for county delegates. They meet at Annapolis, or such other place as shall be appointed for convening the legislature, nthe third Monday in September, every fifth year, and elect by ballot fteen senators out of their own body, or from the people at large, Nine of these must be residents on the western shore, and fix on the eastern-they must be more than twenty-five years of age-must have resided in the state more than three years next preceeding the election, and have real and personal property about the value of a thousand pounds. In case of the death, refignation, or inability of a senator, during the five years for which he is elected, the vacancy is filled by the senate. The senate may originate any bills, except money bills,, to which they can only give their affent or diffent.

Ae The senate choose their president by ballot.

The house of delegates is composed of four members for each county, chosen annually on the first Monday in October. The city of Annapolis and town of Baltimore send each two delegates. The qualifications of a delegate, are,' full: age, one year's residence in the county where he is

chofen,

[ocr errors]

chosen and real or personal property above the value of five hundred pounds.

Both houses choose their own officers, and judge of the election of their members. A majority of each is a quorum,

"The election of senators and delegates is viva voce, and sheriffs the returning officers, except in Baltimore town, where the commissioners superintend the elections and make retums. The stated session of the legislature is on the first Monday in November.

The qualifications of a freeman are fall age, a freehold eftate of fifty acres of land, and actual refidence in the county where he offers to vote,property to the value of thirty pounds in any part of the state, and a year's refidence in the county where he offers to vote.

On the second Monday in November, annually, a government is appointed by the joint ballot of both houses, taken in each house respectively, and deposited in a conference room; where the boxes are examined by a joint committee of both houses, and the number of votes severally reported. The governor cannot continue in office longer than three years successively, nor be elected until the expiration of four years after he has been out of office.

The qualifications for the chief magistracy are twenty-five years of age, five years residence in the state, next preceding the election, and real and personal estate above the value of five thousand pounds, one thousand of which must be freehold estate.'

On the second Tuesday of November, annually, the senators and delegates eleet by joint ballot, five able, discreet men, above twenty-five years of age, residents in the state three years next preceding the election, and possessing a freehold of lands and tenements above the value of a thousand pounds, to be a council for aflifting the governor in the duties of his office.

Senator, delegates and members of council, while such, can hold no other office of profit, nor receive the profits of any office exercised by another.

Ministers of the gospel are excluded from civil offices.
The

governor, with the advice of his council, appoints the chancellor, all judges and justices, the attorney general, naval and militia officers, registers of the land office, surveyors, and all other civil officers, except constables, assessors and overseers of the roads.

A court of appeals is established for the final determination of all causes, which may be brought from the general court * of adiniralty or of chancery.

This conftitution was established by a convention of delegates, at Annapolis, August 14, 1776.

History.] Maryland was granted by king Charles I. to Cecilius Calvert, baron of Baltimore, in Ireland, June 20, 1632. The government of the province was, by charter, vested in the proprietary ; but it appears that he either never exercised these prowers alone, or but for a short time; for we find that in 1637, the freemen rejected à body of laws drawn up

in * In some of the eastern states the legislature is called The General Court. In some of the southern, the General Court is the Supreme Judicial Court.

England

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

England, and transmitted by his Lordship, in order to be passed for the government of the province. In the place of these, they proposed fortytwo bills to be enacted into laws, by the consent of the proprietary. These were however never enacted; at least they are not on record.

The hon. Leonard Calvert, Esq; lord Baltimore's brother, was the first governor, or lieutenant general. In 1638, a law was passed, conftituting the first regular House of Assembly, which was to consist of such representatives, called Burgeses, as should be elected pursuant to writs issued by the governor. These burgesses poffessed all the powers of the perfons eleeting them; but any other freemen who did not affent to the election, might take their seats in person. Twelve burgesses or freemen, with the lieutenant general and secretary, constituted the assembly or legislature. This assembly sat at St. Mary's, one of the southern counties, which was the firit settled part of Maryland.

In 1642, it was enected that ten members of the assembly, of whom the governor and fix burgesies were to be seven, should be a house; and if fickness should prevent that number from attending, the members present should make a house.

In 1644, one Ingle excited a rebellion, forced the governor to fly to Virginia for aid and protection, and seized the records and the great seal; the last of which, with most of the records of the province, were lost or destroyed. From this period, to the year 1647, when order was restored, the proceedings of the province are involved in obscurity.

In July 1642, the house of assembly, or more properly, the burgesses, requested they might be seperated into two benches--the burgeffes by themselves, with a negative upon bills. This was not granted by the lieutenant general at that time ; but in 1650, an act was passed dividing the assembly into two houses. The governor, secretary, and any one or more of the council formed the Upper House; the delegates from the sevaral hundreds, who now represent the freemen, formed the Lower House. At this time there were in the province but two counties, St. Mary's and the Isle of Kent; but Ann Arundel was added, the same session. This was during the Administration of governor Stone.

In 1654, during Cromwell's usurpation in England, an act was passed, restraining the exercise of the Roman Catholic religion. This must have been procured by the mere terror of Cromwell's power, for the first and principal inhabitants were Catholics. Indeed the power of Cromwell was not eitablished in Maryland without force and bloodshed. His friends and foes came to an open rupture, an engagement ensued, governor Stone was taken prisoner and condemned to be mot. This sentence however was not executed, but he was kept a long time in confinement. In March, 1658, Josiah Fendall

, Esq; was appointed lieutenant general of Maryland by commission from Oliver Cromwell. He dissolved the upper house, and surrendered the powers of government into the hands of the delegates.

Upon the restoration in 1660, the hon. Philip Calvert, Esq; was appointed governor; the old form of government was revived; Fendall, and one Gerrard, a counsellor, were indicted, found guilty and condemned to banishment, with the loss of their eftates : but upon petition they were pardoned.

government.

[ocr errors]

In 1689, the government was taken out of the lands of lord Baltimore by the grand convention of England; and in 1692 Mr. Copley was appointed governor by commission from William and Mary.

In 1692, the Protestant religion was established by law.

In 1699, under the adminiftration of governor Blackiston, it was enacted that Annapolis should be the seat of

In 1716, the government of this province was restored to the proprietary, and continued in his hands till the late revolution, when being an absentee, his property in the lands was confiscated, and the government assumed by the freemen of the province, who formed the constitution now existing. At the close of the war, Henry, Harford, Esq; the natural son and heir of lord Baltimore, petitioned the legislature of Maryland for his estate ; but his petition was not granted. Mr. Harford estimated his loss of quit-rents, valued at twenty years purchase, and including arrears, at 4.259,488:5:0, dollars at 75. 60.--and the value of his manors and reserved lands at 6.327,441 of the same money.

List of the Governors, with the dates of their appointments.
Hon. Leonard Calvert, Esq; appointed Governor

1637 Thomas Green, Esq;

1647 William Stone, Esq;

1649 The government remained in the hands of the parliament commiffioners during the time of Oliver Cromwell's usurpation

1654 The commissioners, by certain articles of agreement then entered into, delivered up the government into the hands of Jonah Fendale, Esq; then Governor

1658 Hon. Philip Calvert made Governor

1660 Charles Calvert, Esq;

1662 Upon the death of Cecilius, the government descended to Charles, Lord Baltimore, who came into the province

1675 Thomas Notley, Esq; Governor

1678 Who continued till his Lordship returned a second time to the province in

1681 King William and Queen Mary took upon them the government, and appointed Lyonel Copley, Esq; Governor

1692 Francis Nicholson, Erg;

1694 Upon the death of Queen Mary, the government was altogether in the hands of king William III.

1696 Nathaniel Blackiston, Esq; Governor

1699 By the death of King William III. Queen Anne took upon

her the government--and the same governor was continued

1701-2 Thomas Finch, Esq; President

1703 John Seymour, Esq; Governor

1704 Edward Lloyd, Esq; President

1704 John Hart, Esq; Governor

1714 Upon the death of Queen Anne, King George I. took upon him the government--and the fame Governor was continued

1715 The government was restored to Charles, Lord Baltimore, who issued a new commission to John Hart, Esq; Charles Calvert, Efq; Governor

1720 Benedict Leonard Calvert, Esq; Governor

1727 The

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

1716

[ocr errors]

1733 1734 1737 1742 1747

The Proprietor came into the province in
And returned to England ..
Samuel Ogle, Esq; Governor
Thomas Bladen, Esq; Governor
Samuel Ogle, Esq; Governor

By the death of Charles, Lord Baltimore, the province descended to his son Frederick. Governor Ogle died the same year

1751 Benjamin Tafker, Esq; President

1751 Horatio Sharp, Esq; Governor

1753 Robert Eden, Esq; Governor

1769 Frederick, Lord Baron of Baltimore, died

1771 Robert Eden, Esq; Governor

1773 The list of the governors of this state, with the times of their election into office, since the revolution, has not been received.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

} {x Boundaries.] B Pennfylvania and the river Ohio; weft, by the Mini

[ocr errors]

SITUATION and extent.
Miles.
Length 758

36° 30' and 40° North Latitude.

Between Breadth 224

The Meridian of Philadelphia, and

14* West Longitude.

, the , by, fippi; fouth, by North Carolina. Mr. Jefferson describes the boundaries more particularly, as follows;

Virginia is bounded on the east, by the Atlantic; on the north, by a line of latitude, crossing the eastern shore through Watkins's Point, being about 370.57' north latitude; from thence by a streight line to Cinquac. near the mouth of Patomak; thence by the Patomak, which is common to Virginia and Maryland, to the first fountain of its northern branch; thence by a meridian line, passing through that fountain till it intersects a line running east and west, in latitude 39° 43' 42.4", which divides Maryland from Pennsylvania, and which was marked by. Messrs. Mason and Dixon; thence by that line, and a continuation of it westwardly to the completion of five degrees of longitude from the castern boundary of Pennsylvania, in the fame latitude, and thence by a meridian line to the Ohio; on the weít, by the Ohio and Missisippi, to

* In the following description of Virginia, what is included between inverted commas (except in the infiances where the reader is otherwise informed) is taken from the · History of Virginia, by THOMAS JEFPERSON, Esq. to which is prefixed a large whole sheet map of Virginia, drawn with the utmost accuracy.--Such readers as may wish for further information relating to Virginia, will find themselves highly gratified by the perufal of Mr. Jefferson's Hifiory.

latitude

« הקודםהמשך »