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Each of the counties sends four Representatives to the House of Delegates, befides which the city of Annapolis, and town of Baltimore, send each two, making in the whole 76 members.
Climate.] Generally mild and agreeable, suited to agricultural productions, and a great variety of fruit trees. In the interior hilly country the inhabitants are healthy ; but in the flat country, in the neighbourhood of the marshes and stagnant waters, they are, as in the other southern ftates, subject to intermittents.
Days and Rivers.] Chesapeek-Bay, as we have already hinted, divides this state into the eastern and weltern divisions. This Bay, which is the largelt in the United States, was particularly described, page 47. It affords several good fisheries ; and, in a commercial view, is of immense advantage to the state. It receives a number of the largest rivers in the United-States. From the eastern shore in Maryland, among other smaller ones, it receives Pokomoke, Choptank, Chester, and Elk rivers. From the north the rapid Susquehannah; and from the weit, Patapsco, Severn, Patuxent and Patomak, half of which is in Maryland, and half in Virginia. Except the Susquehannah and Patomak, these are small * rivers. Patapsco river is but about 30 or 40 yards wide at the ferry, just before it empties into the bason upon which Baltimore itands. Its source is in York county, in Pennfylvania. Its course fouthwardly, till it reaches Elkridge landing, about 8 miles westward of Baltimore; it then turns eartward, in a broad bay-like stream, by Baltimore, which it leaves on the north, and paffes into the Chesapeek.
The entrance into Baltimore harbour, about a mile below Fell's-Point, is haudly pistol-Ihot across, and of course may be easily defended against naval force.
Severn is a short, inconsiderable river, passing by Annapolis, which it leaves to the south, emptying, by a broad mouih, into the ChesapeckBay.
Patuxent is a larger river than the Patapsco. It rises in Ann Arundel county, and runs fouth-eastwardly, and then eat into the bay, 15 or 20 iniles north of the mouth of Patomak. There are several finall rivers, such as Wighcocomico, Eastern Branch, Monocaly, and Conegocheague, which empty into Pato inak river, from the Maryland fide.
l'uce of iive Country, Soil, and Prouluctions.] East of the blue ridge of mountains, which stretches across the western part of this state, the land, like that in all the southern states, is generally level and free of stones ; and appears tv liave been made much in the same way; of course the foil inuit be similar, and the natural growth not noticeably different.
The soil of the goo.. land in Maryland, is of such a nature and quality as to produce from 12 to 16 buhels of wheat, or from 20 to 30 bushels of Indian corn per acre.
Ten bushels of wheài, and 15 bushels of coru per acre, may be the annual average crops in the itate at large.
Wheat and tobacco are the staple commodities of Maryland. Tobacco is generally cultivated by negroes, in setts, in the following manner: The feed is fowed in beds of fine mould, and transplanted the beginning of May. The plants are set at the distance of
feet from each other, and are hilled and kept continuaily free of weeds. When as many leaves have shot out as the coil will nourith to advantage, the top of the
plant is broken off, which prevents its growing higher. It is carefully kept clear of worms, and the suckers, which put out between the leaves, are taken off at proper times, till the plant arrives at perfection, which is in Auguit. When the leaves turn of a brownish colour, and begin to be spotted, the plant is cut down and hanged up to dry, after having sweated in heaps one night. When it can be handled without crumbling, which is always in moist weather, the leaves are stripped from the stalk, tied in bundles, and packed for exportation in hogsheads containing 8 or 900 pounds. No suckers nor ground leaves are allowed to be merchantable. An industrious person may manage 6000 plants of tobacco, (which yield 1000lb.) and four acres of land.
In the interior country, on the uplands, considerable quantities of hemp and flax is raised. As long ago as 1751, in the month of October, no less than 60 waggons, loaded with flax seed, came down to Baltimore from the back country.
Among other kinds of timber is the oak of several kinds, which is of a strait grain, and easily rives into staves, for exportation. The black walnut is in demand for cabinets, tables, and other furniture. The apples of this state are large, but mealy; their peaches plenty and good. From these the inhabitants distil cyder brandy, and peach brandy.
The forests abound with nuts of various kinds, which are collectively called Maft. On this Mast vast numbers of swine are fed, which run wild in the woods. Their swine, when fatted, are caught, killed, barrelled and exported in great quantities. Douglas says, that in the year 1733, which was a good mafting year, one gentleman, a planter and merchant, in Virginia, salted up 3000 barrels of pork.'
Population and Character.] The population of this state is exhibited in the foregoing table. By that it appears that the number of inhabitants in the state, including the negroes, is 254,050; which is 18 for every square mile.
The inhabitants, except in the populous towns, live on their plantations, often several miles distant from each other. To an inhabitant of the middle, and especially of the eastern states, which are thickly populated, they appear to live very retired and unsocial lives. The effects of this comparative solitude are visible in the countenances, as well as in the manners and dress of the country people. You observe very little of that chearful sprightliness of look and action which is the invariable and genuine offspring of social intercourse. Nor do you find that attention paid to dress, which is common, and which decency and propriety have rendered necessary, among people who are liable to receive company
almost every day. Unaccustomed, in a great measure, to these frequent and friendly visits, they often suffer a negligence, in their dress which borders on floveliness. There is apparently a disconsolate wildness in their countenances, and an indolence and inactivity in their whole behaviour, which are evidently the effects of solitude and slavery. As the negroes perform all the manual labour, their masters are left to faunter away life in floth, and too often in ignorance. These observations, however, must in justice be limited to the people in the country, and to those particularly, whose poverty or parsimony prevents their spending a part of their time in populous towns, or otherwise mingling with the world. And with thele limitations they will equally apply to all the
southern states. The inhabitants of the populous towns, and those from the country who have intercourse with them, are in their manners and customs like the people of the other states in like situations.
That pride which grows on slavery, and is habitual to those who;, from their infancy, are taught to believe and to feel their superiority, is a vifible characteristic of the inhabitants of Maryland. But with this characteristic we must not fail to connect that of hospitality to strangers, which is equally universal and obvious, and is, perhaps, in part, the offspring of it. The inhabitants are made up of various nations of many
different religious sentiments ; few general observations, therefore, of a characteristical kind will apply.
Chief Towns.] ANNAPOLIS (city) is the capital of Maryland, and the wealthiest town of its fize in America. It is situated just at the mouth of Severn river, 30 miles south of Baltimore. It is a place of little note in the commercial world. The houses, about 260 in number, are generally large and elegant, indicative of great wealth. The design of those who planned the city, was to have the whole in the form of a circle, with the ftreets, like radii
, beginning at the center where the Stadt House stands, and thence diverging in every direction. The principal part of the buildings are arranged agreeable to this awkward plan. The Stadt House is the noblest building of the kind in America.
BALTIMOR E has had the most rapid growth of any town in the continent, and is the fourth in size, and the fifth in trade in the United States*. It lies in lat. 39° 21', on the north side of Patapsco river, around what is called the Bason, in which the water, at common tides, is about five or fix feet deep. Baltimore is divided into the town and Fell's Point by a creek, over which are two bridges; but the houses extend, in a sparse situation, from one to the other. At Fell's Point the water is deep enough for ships of burden; but small vessels only go up to the town. The situation of the town is low, and was formerly unhealthy; but the increase of houses, and of course of smoke, the tendency of which is to destroy or to dispel damp and unwholesome vapours, and the improvements that have been made, particularly that of paving the streets, have rendered it tolerably healthy. The houses were numbered in 1787, and found to be 1955 ; about 1200 of which were in the town, and the rest at Fell's Point. The number of stores was 152, and of churches nine ; which belong to German Calvinists and Lutherans, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Roman Catholics, Baptists, Methodists, Quakers, Nicolites, or New Quakers. The number of inhabitants is between 10 and 11,000. Not more than one in five of these attend public worship of any
kind, notwithstanding they have such a variety in their choice. Their main object (in which, indeed, they are far from being peculiar) appears to be to make their fortunes for this world; while preparation for another is either unthought of, or deferred to a more convenient season. There are many very respectable families in Baltimore, who live genteely—are hos
* In point of size, the towns in the United States may be ranked in this oro der; Philadelphia, New-York, Boston, Baltimore, Charleston, &c. In point of trade, New-York, Philadelphia, Boston, Charleston, Baltimore, &c.
pitable to strangers, and maintain a friendly and improving intercourse with each other; but the bulk of the inhabitants, recently collected from almost all quarters of the world--bent on the pursuit of wealth-varying in their habits, their manners, and their religions, (if they have any) are unsocial, unimproved, and inhospitable.
Market-street is the principal street in the town, and runs nearly east and west, a mile in length, parallel with the water. This is crossed by several other streets leading from the water, a number of which, particularly Calvert, South and Gay streets, are well built. North and east of the town the land rises, and affords a fine prospect of the town and bay. Belvidera, the seat of Col. Howard, exhibits one of the finest landscapes in nature. The town--the point-the shipping both in the bason and at Fell's Point--the bay as far as the eye can reach-rising ground on the right and left of the harbour-a grove of trees on the declivity at the right-ma stream of water breaking over the rocks at the foot of the hill on the left, all conspire to complete the beauty and grandeur of the prospect.
FREDERICKTown is a fine flourishing inland town, of upwards of 300 houses, built principally of brick and stone, and mostly on one broad street. It is situated in a fertile country, about four miles south of Catokton mountain, and is a place of considerable trade. It has four places for public worship, one for Presbyterians, two for Dutch Lutherans and Calvinists, and one for Baptists; besides a public jail and a brick market-house.
HAGARSTOwn is but little inferior to Fredericktown, and is situated in the beautiful and well cultivated valley of Conegocheague, and carries on a confiderable trade with the western country.
HEAD OF Elk is situated near the head of Chesapeak bay, on a small river which bears the name of the town. It enjoys great advantages from the carrying trade between Baltimore and Philadelphia. The tides ebb and flow to this town.
Mines and Manufa&tures.] Mines of iron ore, of a superior quality, are found in many parts of the state. Furnace for runing this ore into pigs and hollow ware, and forges to refine pig iron into bars, have been erected in a number of places in the neighbourhood of the mines. This is the only manufacture of importance, carried on in the state, except it be that of wheat into flour.
Trade.] On this head I can only fay, that the trade of Maryland is principally carried on from Baltimore with the other states, with the West-Indies, and with fome parts of Europe. To these places they send annually about 30,000 hogsheads of tobacco, besides large quantities of wheat, flour, pig iron, lumber and corn-beans, pork, and flax-feed in smaller quantities; and receive in return clothing for themselves and negroes, and other dry goods, wines, fpirits, sugars, and other Weft-India commodities. The balance is generally in their favour.
Religion.] The Roman Catholics, who were the first settlers in Maryland, are the most numerous religious sect. Besides these there are Protestant Epifcopalians, English, Scotch and Irish Presbyterians, German Calvinifts, German Lutherans, Friends, Baptists, of whome there are
ing is ftiled, « The Convocation
about twenty congregations, Methodists, Mennonifts, Nicolites, or New Quakers.
Seminaries of Learning, &c.] Washington Academy, in Somerset county, was' instituted by law in 1779. It was founded and is supported by voluntary subscriptions and private donations, and is authorised to receive gifts and legacies, and to hold 2000 acres of land. A supplement to the law pafled in 1784, increased the number of trustees from eleven to fifteen.
In 1782, a college was 'instituted at Chestertown, in Kent county, and was honoured with the name of WASHINGTON COLLEGE, after his Excellency General Washington. It is under the management of 24 visitors, or governors, with power to fapply vacancies, and hold estates, whose yearly value shall not exceed £..6000' current money. By a law enacted in 1787, a permanent fund was granted to this inftitution of f.1250 a year currency, out of the monies arifing froin marriage licences, fines and forfeitures, on the Eastern Shore.
St. John's College was instituted in 1784, to have also 24 trustees, with power to keep up the fucceffion by fupplying vacancies, and to receive an annual income of br.9000. A permanent fund is assigned this college, of £.1750 a year out of the monies arising from marriage licences, ordinary licences, fines and forfeitures, on the Western Shore. This college is to be at Annapolis, where a building is now preparing for it. Very liberal fubscriptions were obtained towards founding and carrying on thefe feminiaries. The two colleges constitute one univerfity, by the name of The University of Maryland,' whereof the governor of the ftate, for the time being, is chancellor, and the principal of one of them vice-chancellor, either by feniority or by election, as may hereafter be provided for by rule or by law. The chancellor is empowered to call a meeting of the trustees, or a representation of seven of each, and two of the members of the faculty of each; (the principal being one) which meetare to frame the laws, preserve uniformity of manners and literature in the colleges, confer the higher degrees, determine appeals, &c.
The Roman Catholics have lately elected a college at George Town, on Patomak river, for the promotion of general literature.
In 1785, the methodiits instituted a college at Abingdon, in Harford county, by the name of Cokesbury College, after Thomas Coke, LL. D. and Francis Afbury, Bishops of the Methodift Episcopal Church. The college edifice is of brick, handsomely built, on a healthy spot, enjoying a fine air and a very extensive prospect.
The students, who are to confift of the sons of travelling preachers, the sons of annual subscribers, the fons of the members of the Methodist fociety, and orphans, are to be instructed in Englifh, Latin, Greek, Logic, Rhetoric, Hiftory, Geography, Natural Philosophy and Aftronomy; and when the finances of the college, will admit, they are to be taught the Hebrew, French and German languages.
The college was erected and is fupported wholly by fubfcription and voluntary donations.
The students have regular hours for rifing, for prayers, for their meals, for study and for recreation. They are all to be in bed precisely at nine A a 2