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cept Thunder Hill, in the western part of Newcastle county, and is generally level, except some small parts, which are ftony and uneven.

Chief Towns.] Dover, in the county of Kent, is the seat of government. It stands on Jones' creck, a fe:v miles from the Delaware river, and consilis of about 100 houses, principally of brick. Four ftreets intersect each other at right angles, in the centre of the town, whose incidencies form a spacious parade, on the east side of which is an clegarit Itate-house of brick. The town has a lively appearance, and drives on a considerable trade with Philadelphia. Wheat is the principal article of export. The landing is five or six miles from the town of Dover.

Newcastle is 35 miles below Philadelphia, on the west bank of Delaware river. It was first settled by the Swedes, about the year 1627, and called Stockholm. It was afterwards taken by the Dutch, and called New Amsterdam. When it fell into the hands of the English, it was called by its present name. It contains about 60 houses, which have the aspeet of decay, and was formerly the seat of government. This is the first town that was settled on Delaware river.

WILMINGTON is situated a mile and a half west of Delaware river, on Christiana creek, 28 miles southward from Philadelphia. It is much the largest and pleasantet town in the state, containing about 400 houses, which are handsomely built upon a gentle ascent of an eminence, and how to great advantage as you fail up the Delaware.

Besides other public buildings, there is a flourishing academy of about 40 or 50 scholars, who are taught the languages, and lome of the sciences, by an able instructor. This academy, in proper time, is intended to be erected into a college. There is another academy at Newark, in this couniy, which was incorporated in 1769, and then had

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trustees. MILFORD, the little emporium of Sussex county, is situated at the fource of a small river, 15 miles from Delaware bay, and 150 fouthward of Philadelphia. This town, which contains about 80 houses, has been built, except one house, since the revolution. It is laid out with much talte, and is by no means disagreeable. The inhabitants are Episcopadians, Quakers and Methodists.

Duck Creek, is 12 miles north-west from Dover, and has about 60 houses, which stand on one strect. It carries on a confiderable trade with Philadelphia--and certainly merits a more pompous name. A mile, fouth from this is situated Governor Collin's plantation. His house, which is large and elegant, ftands a quarter of a mile from the road, and has a pleasing effect upon the eye of the traveller.

Trade.] The trade of this state, which is inconfiderable, is carried en principally with Philadelphia, in boats and shallops. The articles exported are principally wheat, corn, lamber and hay.

Religion.) There are, in this state 21 Prefbyterian congregations, belonging to the Synod of Philadelphia-Seven Episcopal churches-Six congregations of Baptists, conting about 218 souls Four congregations of the people cailed Quakurs; besides a Swedish church at Wilmington, which is one of the oldest churches in the United States, and a number of Methodists. All these denominations have free toleration by the constitution, and live together in harmony,

Population

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Population and Charakler.] In the convention held at Philadelphia, in the summer of 1787, the inhabitants of this state were reckoned at 37,000, which is about 26 for every square mile. There is no obvious characteristical difference between the inhabitants of this state and the Pennsylvanians.

Constitution.] At the revolution, the three lower counties on Delaware became independent by the name of The Delaware State. Under their pre ent conftitution, which was established in September, 1776, the legislature is divided into two distinct branches, which together are ftil-d The General Assembly of Delaware. One branch, called the House of Arsembly, consists of seven representatives from each of the tree counties, chosen annually by the freeholders. The other branchi, called the Council, confifts of nine members, three for a county, wlio muit be more than twenty-five years of age, chosen likewise by the freeholders. A rotation of members is established by displacing one member for a county at the end of every year.

All money bills must originate in the house of assembly, but they may be altered, amended or rejected by the legiiletive council*.

A president or chief magistrate is chosen by ine joint ballot of both houses, and continues in office three years; at the expiration of which period, he is ineligible the three succeeding years. If his office becomes vacant during the recess of the legislature, or he is unable to attend to business, the speaker of the legislative council is vice president for the time ; and in his absence, the powers of the vice prefident devolve on the speaker of the assembly.

A privy council, consisting of four members, two from each house, chosen by ballot, is conftituted to assist the chief magistrate in the administration of the government.

The three justices of the supreme court, a judge of admiralty, and four justices of the common pleas and orphans courts, are appointed by the joint ballot of the president and general assembly, and commissioned by the president—to hold their offices during good behaviour. The prefident and privy council appoint the secretary, the attorney-general, registers for the probate of wills, registers in chancery, clerks of the com

* The first part of this clause is found in several of the American constitutions, and seems to have been servitely copied from the practice of originating money bills in the British house of commons. In Great-Britain this is deemed a privilege, and yet it is difficult to discover the privilege, while the house of commons have a negative upon all bills whatever. But in America, where the property of both houses is taxed alike, and the men who compose them ere, at different sessions, changed from one house to the other, there seems to be not a fhow of reason for giving one branch the exclufive privilege of originating money bills. To prove with how little reason this article of the constitution is introduced in America, it might be useful to read a short history of the customs in the parliament of Great-Britain-acustom introduced merely for the conver nience of doing business. For this useful piece of history, the reader is referred to the American Magazine, published in New-York, 1788, by Noah Webfer, Esquire, Ne. VII. page 456.

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mon pleas, and orphans courts, and clerks of the peace, who hold their offices during five years, unless sooner removed for mal-conduct.

The house of assembly name twenty-four persons in each county for justices of peace, from which number the president, with the advice of his council, appoints and commissions twelve, who serve for seven years, unless fooner dismissed for mal-administration. The members of the legislative and privy councils are justices of the peace for the whole state.

The courts of common pleas and orphans courts have power to hold chancery courts in certain cafes.

The clerk of the supreme court is appointed by the chief justice, and the recorders of deeds, by the justices of the common pleas, for five years, unless sooner dismissed.

All the military and marine officers are appointed by the general alsembly,

The Court of Appeals consists of seven persons--the president, who is a member, and presides by virtue of his office, and fix others, three to be chosen by the legislative council, and three by the house of assembly. To this court appeals lie from the supreme court, in all matters of law and equity. The judges hold their office during good behaviour.

The justices of the several courts, the members of the privy council, secretary, trustees of the loan office, clerks of the common pleas, and all persons concerned in army or navy contracts, are ineligible to either house of assembly. Every member, before taking his feat, must take the oath of ailegiance, and subscribe a religious test, declaring his belief in God the Father, in Jesus Chrift, and the Holy Ghost; and in the infpiration of the Scriptures.

The house of assembly have the privileges of impeaching delinquent of ficers of government, and impeachments are to be prosecuted by the attorney-general, or other person appointed by the assembly, and tried before the legislative council. The punishment may extend to temporary or perpetual disability to hold-offices under government, or to such other penalties as the laws shall direct.

There is, in Delaware, no establishment of one religious fect in preference to another, nor can any preacher or clergyman, while in his pastoral employment, hold any civil office in the state.

Hiftory.] The Dutch, under the pretended purchase made of Henry Hudson*, took possession of the lands on both sides the river Delaware ; and as early as the year 1623, built a fort at the place, which has since been called Gloucester,

In 1627, by the influence of William Useling, a respectable mer, chant in Sweden, a colony of Swedes and Finns came over, furnished with all the neceffaries of beginning a new settlement, and landed at Cape Henlopen; at which time the Dutch had wholly quitted the country. The Dutch, however, returned in 1630, and built a fort at Lewistown, by them named Hoarkill. The year following the Swedes built a fort near Wilmington, which they called Christein or Christiana. Here also they laid out a small town, which was afterwards demolished by the Dutch. The same year they erected a fort higher up the river, upon Tenecum island, which they called New Gottenburg; they also, * See history of New York,

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about the same time built forts at Chester, Elfinburg, and other places. John Printz then governed the Swedes, who, in 1654, deputed his sonin-law, John Papgoia, and returned to Sweden. Papgoia soon followed his father-in-law to his native country, and John Ryfing succeeded to the government.

In 1655, the Dutch, under the command of Peter Stuyvesant, arrived in Delaware river, from New-Amsterdam (now New-York) in seven vessels, with 6 or 700 men. They difpoflefled the Swedes of their forts on the river, and carried the officers and principal inhabitants prisoners to New-Amsterdam, and from thence to Holland. The common people submitted to the conquerors and remained in the country.

On the first of O&ober, 1664, Sir Robert Carr obtained the submisfion of the Swedes on Delaware river. Four years after, Col. Nicolls, governor of New York, with his council, on the 21st of April, appointed a scout and five other persons, to assist Capt. Carr in the government of the country.

In 1672, the town of Newcastle was incorporated by the government of New-York, to be governed by a bailiff and fix asliftants; after the first year,

the four oldest were to leave their office and four others to be chosen. The bailiff was president, with a double vote; the constable was chosen by the bench. They had power to try causes not exceeding ten pounds, without appeal. The office of scout was converted into that of sneriff, who had jurisdiction in the corporation and along the river, and was annually chosen. They were to have a free trade, without being obliged to make entry at New-York, as had formerly been the practice.

Wampum was, at this time, the principal currency of the country. Governor Lovelace, of New York, by proclamation, ordered that four white grains and three black ones, should pass for the value of a stiver or penny. This proclamation was published at Albany, Esopus, Delaware, Long-Inand, and the parts adjacent.

In 1674, Charles li. by a second patent, dated June 2gth, granted to his brother, duke of York, all that country called by the Dutch New Netherlands, of which the three counties of Newcastle, Kent, and Sussex were a part.

In 1683, the duke of York, by deed, dated August 24th, fold to William Penn the town of Newcastle, with the district of 12 miles round the fame; anů by another deed, of the same date, granted to him the remainder of the territory, which, till the revolution, was called the Three Lower Counties, and has since been called the Delaware State. Till 1776, thele three counties were considered as a part of Pennsylvania, in matters of government. The same governor presided over both, but the assembly and courts of judicature were different ; different as to their constituent members, but în form nearly the same.

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M AR Y

M A RY L AN

A N D.

B

SITUATION and EXTENT.
Miles.
Length 134 )

} Between Breadth 110

{ 37° 56' and 39° 44' North Latitude

0° and 4° 30' West Longitude. Boundaries.] OUNDED north by Pennsylvania ; east, by the

Delaware State ; south-east and south, by the Atlantic Ocean, and a line drawn from the ocean over the peninsula (dividing it from Accomac county in Virginia) to the mouth of Potomak river; thence up the Patonak to its firit fountain ; thence, by a due north line, till it intersects the southern boundary of Pennsylvania, in lat. 39o 43 18", so that it has Virginia on the south, fouth-west, and west. It contains about 14,000 square miles, of which about one-fixth is water.

Civil Divisions.] Maryland is divided into 18 counties, 10 of which are on the weitern, and 3 on the eastern More of Chesapeek-Bay. These, with their population in 1782, are as follows:

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Counties.

Total

age,

St. Mary's,

1173 8,459 of Somerset,

1598 7,787) Calvert,

894 4,012 Montgomery,

2160 10,011 Washington,

2579 11,488 + Queen Ann's,

1742 7,767 + Caroline,

1293 6,230 į Kent,

1394 6,156 Charles,

2115 9,804 + Talbot,

1478 6,744
+ Dorchester, 1828 8,927

Baltimore, 3165 17,878
Ann Arundel,

22299,370
+ Worcester,

733 8,561 Harford,

2243) 9,377
+ Cacil,

2000 7,7491
Frederick, 3785) 20,495
Prince George's, 22591 9,864
Total

35,268170,688 N. B. Those counties marked (+) are on the east, the rest are on the weit fide of the Chesapcek-Bay,

Each

Number of Negroes in the State of Maryland, taken by the

several assessors, in March, 1782.

Males and females, from 8 to 14 years of age,
Negroes under 8 years of age,

Males from 14 to 45 years of age,
Females from 14 to 36 years of age,
Males above 45 years of
Females above 36 years of age,

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