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hands employed in manufacturing these articles of raw materials, which were formerly thipped to Europe, and returned to us in a manufactured ftate. Of these may be mentioned iron, leather, barley, tobacco, and furs, which we now manufacture into nails and steel, shoes, boots, and saddlery, porter and beer, snuff and hats, in quantities more than sufficient for our own consumption a considerable quantity of these and other articles, formerly imported are now manufactured by our own citizens, and form a respectable part of our exports : among
may be enumerated, as the molt important, beef, pork, butter, cheese, muftard, loaf sugar, chocolate, houshold furniture, carriages, soap, candles, hair-powder, starch, paper, and pasteboard. Upon an examination of the exports, many valuable articles will be found not enumerated : this arises from the fame cause, which prevents ascertaining the amount of dry goods : namely, the impoffibility of knowing either the value or contents of packages, which pay, no duty or inspection consequent'y are only entered in a general way, without any attention to their contents. Of goods under the last description, the exportation is very great; being articles particularly demanded by the southern states, feveral of which re
ceive their principal supplies of these articles from this city; among them, the chief are, shoes, boots, hats, gloves, printed books, and other sta*tionary, saddlery, copper, tin and brafs wares, and ship chandlery, Number of vesels entered at the Custom-kouse, Philadelphia, in the years 1786 and 1787.
1787. Ships, 91
450 Schooners, 163
173 Snows, Cutters,
870 From the foregoing list of articles exported from the state, it is easy to see that her manufactures and agriculture have been already advanced to a degree of improvement superior to any of her sister states. The people called Quakers, and the Germans, have contributed their full proportions towards this improvement.
Since the introduction of the carding and spinning machines,' says a Philadelphian writer, it is found that jeans can be made so as to undersell those imported from England, with the unavoidable charges of importation. Every public-spirited man may be supplied with this article at THE FACTORY, where the sale is very rapid, and purchases have been made by every description of the citizens of Pennsylvania, by the citizens of the adjacent states, and by some foreigners of distinction.
Another article calls for the attention of the friends of American manufactures, and of every frugal man--thread, cotton, and worsted hosiery. Several gentlemen have made a careful and impartial examination of the stockings manufactured in this city, in German-town, in the
town and county of Lancaster, Bethlehem, and Reading, and they find that the thread stockings made in Pennsylvania, and fold generally at a dollar per pair, are of the same fineness with imported stockings which are fold at 8s. 4d. and 8s. 6d. They also find that mixed stockings of thread and cotton, made in Pennsylvania, are sold lower in proportion compared with those of Great-Britain. Besides this difference in price, it is a well known fact that three pair of Pennsylvania made stockings will wear longer than four pair of those imported. There are now, (1788) about 250 stocking looms in the different parts of the city and state, each of which makes on a medium, one pair and a half of stockings every day. These, deducting Sundays, will amount 117,375 pair per annum, which, at 75. 6d. a pair, is £44015 12 6. The increase of wool and fax, the reduction of labor, provisions and rents, the cultivation of cotton in the southern states, and above all, the use of machines to card, spin, and twist cotton thread, will greatly promote this article, of which, at two pair to each person annually, the United States require a yearly supply of near fix millions of pairs-a capital domestic demand, certain, and steadily increasing with our population. The charges of importing hosiery, under the general impoft of five per cent. will be twenty-three per cent. exclufive of any profit to the importer or retailer. Should the adoption of the constitution tempt any, either Americans or foreigners, to push manufactures here, this branch promises great profit, and will no doubt be among the first that will
their attention. As many as two-thirds of the Pennsylvanians fubfift by agriculture. The articles they raise have been enumerated in the list of exports.
A gentleman in the vicinity of Philadelphia, in the year 1788, planted one acre of carrots, which yielded him thirty toris—also an acre of pumpkins, which produced the same quantity. He fows his carrots with a drill plough, and plants his pumpkins between the 1st and 10th of June. with these carrots and pumpkins only, he yearly fats a number of the beft beeves that are driven to Philadelphia market,
The produce of the country east of the Susquehannah river is carried to Philadelphia in waggons drawn by horses, except what is brought down the rivers in boats. The produce of the counties of York, Cumberland and Franklin, which is principally wheat, is generally carried to Baltimore in waggons. It is probable that Pennsylvania will continue to lose the trade of these three productive countries, till good roads are made to the Susquehannah, and two free ferries established, one to Yorktown, and the other to Carlisle, These inducements would probably turn the channel of the trade of these counties from Baltimore to Philadelphia, The produce of the counties west of the Allegany mountains is principally purchased as a supply for the troops stationed in those parts, and for the numerous emigrants into the western country. Large herds of cattle are raised here with
In the northern parts of Pennsylvania there is a creek called Oil creek, which empties into the Allegany river. It issues from a spring, on the top of which floats an oil, fimiliar to that called Barbadoes tar; and from which one man may gather several gallons in a day. The troops fent to guard the western posts, halted at this spring, collected fome of the oil, and bathed their joints with it. This gave them great relief from the rheumatic complaints with which they were affected. The waters, of which the troops drank freely, operated as a gentle purge.
Remarkable caves.] There are three remarkable grottos or caves in this ftate; one near Carlisle, in Cumberland county; one in the township of Durham, in Bucks county; and the other at Swetara, in Lancaster county. Of the two former I have received no particular defcriptions. The latter is on the east bank of Swetara river, about two miles above its confluence with the Susquehannah. Its entrance is spacious, and defcends so much as that the surface of the river is rather higher than the bottom of the cave. "The vault of this cave is of solid lime stone rock, perhaps 20 feet thick. It contains several apartments, fome of them very high and spacious. The water is incessantly percolating through the roof, and falls in drops to the bottom of the cave. These drops petrify as they fall, and have gradually formed solid pillars which appear as fupports to the roof. Thirty years ago there were ten such pillars, each fix inches in diameter, and fix feet high; all fo ranged that the place they enclosed resembled a fanctuary in a Roman church. No royal throne ever exhibited more grandeur than this lufus naturæ.
The resemblance of several monuments are found indented in the walls on the sides of the cave, which appear like the tombs of departed heroes. Suspended from the roof is the bell,' (which is nothing more than a stone projected in an unusual form) fo called from the found that it occafions when ftruck, which is similar to that of a bell.
Some of the stalactites are of a colour like sugar-candy, and others resemble loaf fugar; but their beauty is much dcfaced by the country people. The water, which percolates through the rcof, fo much of it'as is not petrified in its course, runs down the declivity, and is both pleasant and wholesome to drink. There are several holes in the bottom of the cave,
descending perpendicularly, perhaps into an abyss below, which render mit dangerous to walk without a light. At the end of the cave is a pretty
brook, which, after a short courfe, loses itself among the rocks. Beyond this brook is an outlet from the ca by a very narrow aperture. Through this the vapeurs continually pass outwards with a strong current of air, - and ascend, resembling, at night, the finoak of a furnace. Part of these vapours and fogs appear, on ascending, to be condensed at the head of this great alembic, and the more volatile parts to be carried off, through the aperture communicating with the exterior air before mentioned, by the force of the air in its passage*.
Antiquities.] On a high hill, near the Tyoga river, a little to the fouthward of the line which divides New-York from Pennsylvania, are to be seen the remains of an ancient fortification. The form of it is circalar, and it is encompaffed with an entrenchment. From appearances it
* Amer. Phil. Trans. Vol. II. P. 177.
is conje&tured that pits were funk in a number of places, and lightly covered over, so as to decoy the afiailants in case of an attack, and defeat their attempts in storming the works. The entrenchment only remains ; but it appears to have been formerly stockaded. The Indians are entirely ignorant of the origin of these works, but fuppofe they were erected by the Spanish Indians. The hill is an excellent station for a fort, and commands a delightful view of the country around it, which is low and fertile. There is a fortification, of a similar kind, at Unadilla, in the fat lands.
Constitution.] By the present constitution of Pennsylvania, which was established in September, 1776, all legislative powers are lodged in a fingle body of men, which is ftiled The general assembly of representatives of the freemen of Pennsylvania. The qualifications required to render a person eligible to this assembly is, two years residence in the city or country for which he is chosen; no member of the house can hold any other office, except in the militia.
The qualifications of the electors, are, full age, and one year's residence in the Rate, with payment of public taxes during that time. But the fons of freeholders are intitled to vote for representatives, without any qualification, except full age.
No man can be elected as a member of the assembly more than four years in seven.
The representatives are chosen annually on the second Tuesday in October, and they meet on the fourth Monday of the fame month. A quorum of the house consists of two thirds of the whole number of members elected; and the members, before they take their seats, are obliged to take an oath or affirmation of fidelity to the state; aud also fubscribe a declaration or test, acknowledging their belief in one God, and the inspiration of the scriptures of the Old and New Teftament. The house chuse their own speaker, who, in the transaction of business, never leaves the chair. A journal of the proceedings of the affembly is pubJished regularly, and any
infert the reasons of his vote upon the minutes of the house. To prevent hasty determinations on matters of importance, all bills of a public nature are printed before the last reading, and, except in cases of necessity, are not passed into laws before the next feffion. The power of impeachment is vested in the general affembly.
The supreme executive power is lodged in a president, and a council consisting of a member from each county. The president is elected annually by the joint ballot of the assembly and council, and from the members of council. A vice president is chosen at the fame time.
The counsellors are chosen by the freemen, every third year, and having ferved three years, they are ineligible for the four succeeding years. The appointments of one third only of the members expire every year, by which rotation no more than one third can be new members. A counsellor is, ·by his office, a justice of the peace for the whole state. . The president and council form a court for the trial of impeachments.
The council meet at the same time and place with the general assembly.
The president and council appoint and commission judges of courts, naval officers, judge of the admiralty, attorney general, and other officers, the appointment of whom is not expressly vested in the people or general assembly. But the freemen chuse the justices of peace, the colonels of militia, and the inferior military officers, and make a return of the perfons elected, to the president and council, who are empowered to commission them. The justices of peace hold their commissions for seven years, removeable however for misconduct by the general assembly. A justice, while in office, cannot be a representative in assembly, nor take any
fees but such as shall be allowed by the legislature. The judges of the supreme court hold their office for seven
and at the end of that term, may be re-appointed. They have a fixed salary, and are not permitted to take any fees or perquisites, or to hold any
other office, civil or military.
Courts of common pleas, sessions and orphans courts, are held quarterly in each city and county.
The supreme court, and courts of common pleas, have the powers of chancery courts, so far as is necessary for the perpetuating of testimony, obtaining evidence from places out of the state, and the care of the perfons and estates of those who are non compotes mentis.
Sheriffs and coroners are chosen annually by the freemen; but they can serve but three successive years, at the end of which they are ineligible during four years.
A register's office for the probate of wills, and granting letters of administration, and an office for the recording of deeds, are kept in each city and county : The officers are appointed by the general assembly, removable at their pleasure, and commissioned by the president and council.
The constitution of this state ordains, that the legislature shall regulate entails in such a manner as to prevent perpetuities.
Any foreigner of a good character may purchase and hold lands and other property, having first taken the oath of allegiance; and a year's refidence entitles him to the privileges of a natural born subject; except that of being eligible to a seat in the legislature.
A Council of Cenfors, composed of two members from each county, chosen by the freemen, on the second Tuesday of October every seventh year, is instituted for the purpose of enquiring whether the constitution has been preserved inviolate—whether the different branches of government have performed their duty as guardians of the people whether the public taxes have been juftly laid and collected, and in what manner the monies have been dispołed of--and also whether the laws have been duly executed. For these purposes, they have power to send for persons, papers and records—to pass public censures, order impeachments, and to recommend to the legislature the repeal of laws which they deem unconftitutional. They have power also to order a convention for the purpose of amending the constitution ; publishing the articles proposed to be amended fix months before the election of the delegates. These powers continue in the council of censors for one year.
The people of Pennsylvania have different political sentiments, according to their progress in industry and civilized life. The first class of