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ers of the first distinction in Europe. This is an evidence of the increaring respectability and improvement of the society.
Their charter allows them to hold lands, gifts, &c. to the amount of the clear yearly value of ten thousand bushels of wheat. The number of members is not limited.
2. The Society for PROMOTING POLITICAL INQUIRIES; confisting of fifty members, instituted in February, 1787.
3. The College op PHYSICIANS, instituted in 1787, for the promotion of medical, anatomical and chemical knowledge.
4. THE UNION LIBRARY COMPANY OF PHILADELPHIA, which was begun in 1731, incorporated hy the proprietors of the province in 1742, and united with other companies, upon a similar establishment, in 1769. The number of members in 1773 was upwards of 400. They possess (except the library of Harvard college) the most valuable collection of books in America, consisting of upwards of 7000 volumes, which are kept in Carpenters Hall. Under the same roof they have a museum, containing a collection of curious medals, manuscripts, ancient relicks, fossils, &c. and a philosophical apparatus.
5. The PennsyLVANIA HOSPITAL, a humane institution, which was first meditated in 1750, and carried into effect by means of a liberal subscription of about €3000, and by the assistance of the assembly, who in 1751, granted as much more for the purpose. The present building was begun in 1754, and finished in 1756. This hospital is under the direction of twelve managers, chosen annually, and is visited every year by a committee of the assembly. The accounts of the managers are submitted to the inspection of the legislature. Six physicians attend gratis, and generally prescribe twice or three times in a week, in their
This hospital is the general receptacle of lunaticks and madmen, and of those affected with other disorders, and are unable to support themselves. Here they are humanely treated, and well provided for.
6. The PHILADELPHIA DISPENSÁRY, for the medical relief of the poor. This benevolent inftitution was established on the 12th of April, 1786, and is supported by annual subscriptions of thirty-five shillings each perfon. No less than 1800 patients were admitted, within fixteen months after the first opening of the dispensary. It is under the direction of twelve managers, and fix physicians, all of whom attend gratis. This inftitution cxhibits an application of something like the mechanical powers, to the purposes of humanity. The greatest quantity of good is produced in this way with the least money. Five hundred pounds a year defrays all the expences of the institution. The poor are taken care of in their own houses, and provide every thing for themselves, except medicines, cordial drinks, &c.
7. The PENNSYLVANIA Society for promoting the ABOLITION OF SLAVERY, and the relief of Free NEGROEs unlawfully held in bondage. This fociety was begun in 1774, and enlarged on the 23d of April, 1787. The officers of the society consist of a president, two vice-prefidents, two decretaries, a treasurer, four counsellors, an electing committee of twelve, and an acting committee of fix members ; all of whom, except the laft, are to be chosen annually by ballot, on the first Monday in January. The fociery meet quarterly, and each member contributes ten shillings
annually, in quarterly payments, towards defraying its contingent expences.
The legislature of this state have favoured the humane designs of this fociety, by An Act for the gradual Abolition of Slavery ; passed on the ift of March, 1780; wherein, among other things, it is ordained, that no person born within the state, after the passing of the act, thall be considered as a servant for life ; and all perpetual Ilavery is, by this act, for ever abolished. The act provides, that those who would, in case this act had not been made, have been born servants or flaves, shall be deemed such, till they shall attain to the age
of twenty-eight years ; but they are to be treated in all respects as servants bound by indenture
for four years.
8. The Society of the United Brethren for propagating the Gospel among the Heathens, instituted in 1787, to be held statedly at Bethlehem. An act, incorporating this society, and investing it with all necessary powers and privileges for accomplishing its pious designs, was passed by the legislature of the state, on the 27th of February, 1788.
They can hold lands, houses, &c. to the annual amount of two thousand pounds.
These pious Brethren, commonly called Moravians, began a mission among the Mahikan, Wampano, Delaware, Shawanoe, Nantikok, and other Indians, near fifty years ago, and were so successful as to add more than one thousand souls to the Christian church by baptism. Six hundred of these have died in the Chriftian faith ; about 300 live with the misfionaries near Lake Erie, and the rest are either dead or apotates in the wilderness*.
9. The PenNSYLVANIA SOCIETY, for the Encouragement of Manufactures and useful Arts, instituted in 1787, open for the reception every citizen of the United States, which will fulfil the engagements of a member of the same. The society is under the direction of a president, four vicepresidents, and twelve managers, besides subordinate officers. Each member, on his admission, pays ten shillings at least into the general fund; and the same fum annually, till he shall cease to be a member. Besides this, they have a manufacturing fund, made up of subscriptions of not less than ten pounds, for the purpose of establishing factories in suitable places, for the employment of the industrious poor. The subscribers have all the profits arising from the business. The meetings of this society are held quarterly:
Besides these, there is a Society FOR ALLEVIATING THE Mıseries OF PRISONS ; and a HUMANE Society, for recovering and restoring to life the bodies of drowned persons; instituted in 1770, under the direction of thirteen managers.
Also, an Agricultural Society; a Society for German Emigrants; a Marine Society, consisting of Captains of vessels ; a Charitable Society for the Support of the Widows and Families of Presbyterian Clergymen; and St. George's, St. Patrick's, and St. Andrew's Charitable Societies ; also the Society of Free And Accepted Mafons.
* An affecting history of the Brethren's mission among the Indians, will pertly be published.
Colleges, Academies, and Schools.] From the enterprizing and literary fpirit of the Pennsylvanians, we should naturally conclude, what is fact, that there are numerous.
In Philadelphia is a UNIVERSITY, founded during the war. Its funds were partly given by the state, and partly taken from the old college of Philadelphia.
A medical school, which was founded in 1765, is attached to the university; and has professors in all the branches of medicine, who prepare the students (whose number, yearly, is 50 or 60) for degrees in that science.
DICKINSON COLLEGE, at Carlisle, 120 miles westward of Philadelphia, was founded in 1783, and has a principal---three profeffors--a philosophical apparatus-a library, consisting of nearly 3000 volumes four thousand pounds in funded certificates, and 10,000 acres of land ; the lait, the donation of the state. In 1787, there were eighty students belonging to this college. This number is annually increasing. It was named after his excellency John Dickinson, formerly president of this ftate.
In 1787, a college was founded at Lancaster, 66 miles from Philadelphia, and honoured with the name of FRANKLIN COLLEGE, after his cxcellency Dr. Franklin. This college is for the Germans ; in which they may educate their youth in their own language, and in conformity to their own habits. The English language, however, is taught in it. Its endowme:its are nearly the same as those of Dickinson college. Its trustees consist of Lutherans, Calvinists, and English; of each an equal number. The principal is a Lutheran, and the vice-principal ia a Calvinift. This college, as it concentres the whole German interest, and has ample funds to support profeffors in every branch of science, has flattering prospects of growing importance and extensive utility.
In Philadelphia, besides the university and medical school already mentioned, there is the PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL ACADEMY, a very flourithing institution—THE ACADEMY FOR YOUNG LADIES-Another for the Friends or Quakers, and one for the Germans ; besides five free schools, one for the people cailed Quakers, one for Presbyterians, one for Catholics, one for Germans, and one for Negroes. The Episcopalians have an academy at York-town, in York-county. There is also an academy at Germani-town, another at Pittsburgh, and another at Washington; there are endowed by donations from the legislature, and by liberal contributions of individuals.
The schools for young men and women in Bethlehem and Nazareth, under the direction of the people called Moravians, have already been mentioned, and are cecidedly upon the best establishment of any schools in America. Besides there, there are private schools in different parts of the state ; and to promote the education of poor children, the state have appropriated a large tract of land for the eitablishment of free schools. A great proportion of the labouring people among the Germans and Irish, are, however, extremely ignora it.
Chief Iowas.] Philadelphia is the Capital, not only of this, but of the United-States. It is ficuated on the west bank of the river Delaware, on an extenfive plain, about 118 miles (some say more) from the sea. The
length of the city east and west, that is, from the Delaware to the Schuylkill, upon the original plan of Mr. Penn, is 10,300 feet, and the breadth, north and fouth, is 4837 feet. Not two fifths of the plot covered by the city charter is
yet built. The inhabitants, however, have not confined themselves within the original limits of the city, but have built north and south along the Delaware, two miles in length. The longest street is Second-street, about 700 feet from Delaware river, and parallel to it. The circumference of that part of the city which is built, if we include Kensington on the north, and Southwark on the south, may be about five miles.
Market-street is 100 feet wide, and runs the whole length of the city from river to river. Near the middle, it is interfected at right angles by Broad-street, 113 feet wide, running nearly nortin and south, quite across the city,
Between Delaware river and Broad-street are 14 streets, nearly equidistant, running parallel with Broad-street, across the city ; and between Broad-street and the Schuylkill, there are nine streets, equidistant from each other. Parallel to Market-street are eight other streets running east and west from river to river, and interfect the cross streets at right angles; all these streets are 50 feet wide, except Arch-street, which is 65 feet wide. All the streets which run north and south, except Broadstreet mentioned above, are 50 feet wide. There were four squares of eight acres each, one at each corner of the city, originally reserved for public and common uses. And in the centre of the city, where Broadstreet and Market-street intersect each other, is a square of ten acres, reserved in like manner, to be planted with rows of trees for public walks.
The first street between Delaware river and the bank, is called Waterstreet. The next, on the top of the bank, is called Front-street; and west of this the streets are numbered, second, third, fourth, &c.
On the river Delaware, there are 16 public landings, at the distance of 4 or 500 feet from each other; and private wharfs suficient for 200 fail of féa vessels to unload at a time; and room to build any necessary number. There are 10 public landings on the Schuylkill, which, as the town does not yet extend so far, are at present of no use.
Philadelphia was founded in 1682, by the celebrated William Penn, who, in Otober 1701, granted a charter, incorporating the town with the privilege of choosing
a mayor, recorder, eight aldermen, twelve common-council men, a sheriff and clerk.
The city charter was vacated by the revolution, and has not been renewed under the new government. A bill for this purpose is now (Nov. 1788) depending before the legislature.
In 1749, the dwelling houses in the several wards in Philadelphia, were as follows.
150 | High-street ward
196 488 '109 IIO 62
Total 2076 At this time the number of inhabitants in the city were estimated at 11,000 whites, and 600 blacks. The number of churches were then as follows, 2 Presbyterian,
1 German Lutheran, 2 Quaker,
Į German Calvinist, 1 Episcopalian,
i Moravin, i Swedish,
I Roman atholic. i Baptist, The following will give the reader an idea of the proportional num. bers of the several religious denominations in Philadelphia. An account of births and burials in the united churches of Chrift
Church and St. Peter's in Philadelphia, from December 25, 1781,
Buried under one year 39
From 30 to 40 From 1 to 3
사랑 3 5
3 Swedes christenings
28 Moravians christenings
5 Ditto First Presbyterian burials 40 Baptists
18 2d do. 28 German Lutherans
219 3d do.
32 German reformed church - 68 Quakers Roman Catholicks
Buried this year
820 Philadelphia now contains about 5000 houses ; in general handsomely built of brick; and 40,000 inhabitants, composed of almost all nations and religions. Their places for religious worship are as follows.