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however, is to be made between clearing and cultivating a country. While clearing a country makes it fickly in the manner that has been mentioned, cultivating a country, that is, draining swamps, destroying weeds, burning brush, and exhaling the unwholesome and fuperfluous moisture of the earth, by means of frequent crops of grain, grasses and vegetables of all kinds, render it healthy. Several parts of the United States have pressed through the several stages that have been described. The first settlers received their country from the hand of nature, pure
and healthy. Fevers foon followed their improvements, nor were they finally banished, until the higher degrees of cultivation took place. Nor even then, where the falutary effects of cultivation were rendered abortive by the neighbourhood of mill-ponds.
As a third cause of this increase of fevers, the unequal quantities of rain which have fallen of late years, has been assigned. While the creeks and rivers were confined within steady bounds, there was little or no exhalation of febrile miasmata from their shores. But the dry summers of 1780, 1781, and 1782, by reducing the rivers and creeks far below their ancient marks; while the wet springs of 1784 and 1785, by swelling them beyond their natural heights, have, when they have fallen, as in the former case, left a large and extenfive surface of moist ground exposed to the action of the sun, and of course to the generation and exhalation of febrile miasmata *.
This itate, having been settled but little more than a hundred years, is not sufficiently old to determine from facts the state of longevity. Among the people called Quakers, who are the oldest settlers, there are instances of longevity, occafioned by their living in the old, cultivated counties, and the temperance imposed on them by their religion. There are fewer long-lived people among the Germans, than among other nations, occasioned by their excess of labour and low diet. They live chiefly upon vegetables and watery food, that affords edo little nourishment to repair the waste of their strength by hard labour.
Nearly one half of the children born in Philadelphia, die under two years of age, and chiefly with a disease in the stomach and bowels. Very few die at this age in the country.
Population, character, manners, &c.] In the grand convention which was held in Philadelphia, in the summer of 1787, the inhabitants in Pennsylvania were reckoned at 360,000. It is probable they are now more numerous : perhaps 400,000. If we fix them at this, the population for every square mile will be only nine ; by which it appears that Pennsylvania is only one-fifth as populous as Connecticut.
But Connecticut was settled nearly half a century before Pennfylvania ; so that in order to do justice to Pennsylvania in the comparison, we must anticipate her probable population fifty years hence. At this period, if we admit that the number of inhabitants is doubled once in twenty-five years, by natural increase, without the aid of foreign emigrations, the population will be equal to thirty-fix for every square mile. Add to this, 400,000 for the increase by emigrants and their descen
Inquiry into the causes of the increase of fevers in Pennsylvania.
dents, which is probably not too large a number, considering the length of time--the extensive tracts of rich and vacant lands—the spirit of emigration in the eastern states--the probable influx of inhabitants, upon the establishment and falutary operation of the new government
and the inducements wbich are held up to encourage settlers to fix in this ftate. All these things taken into view, we may venture to predict, that Pennsylvania, at the end of half a century from this time, will contain two millions of souls, which is about forty-five for every square mile, equal to the present population of Connecticut. Statement of the number of taxable inhabitants in Pennsylvania, in the years
1760, 1770, 1779, and 1786*.
The number of militia in Pennsylvania, are reckoned at 85,000, between eighteen and fifty-three years of age.
The inhabitants of Pennsylvania consist of emigrants from England, Ireland, Germany and Scotland. The Friends and Episcopalians are chiefly of English extraction, and compose about one-third of the inhabitants. They live principally in the city of Philadelphia, and in the
* So often have the counties of this state been divided and subdivided and the boundaries altered, that a comparison in this statement can hardly be made, except between the several totals: as, for infiance, it would appear from the above table that Philadelphia county had decreased in population between the years 1779 and 1786m whereas the contrary is the case--for Montgomery county was ftruck off from it. The fame is obfervable of all the counties wherein a decrease appears. 7 No return.
counties of Chester, Philadelphia, Bucks and Montgomery. The Irish are mostly Presbyterians. Their ancestors came from the north of Ireland, which was originally settled from Scotland; hence they have sometimes been called Scotch-Irish, to denote their double defcent. But they are commonly and more properly called Irish, or the descendents of people from the north of Ireland. They inhabit the western and frontier counties, and are numerous.
The Germans compose one quarter at least, if not a third of the inhabitants of Pennsylvania. They inhabit the north parts of the city of Philadelphia, and the counties of Philadelphia, Montgomery, Bucks, Dauphin, Lancaster, York and Northampton ; mostly in the four laft. They consist of Lutherans, (who are the most numerous feet) Calvinists, Moravians, Mennonits, Tunkers (corruptly called Dunkers) and Swingfelters, who are a species of Quakers. These are all distinguished for their temperance, industry and oeconomy.
The Germans have usually fifteen of fixty-nine members in the assembly ; and some of them have arisen to the first honours in the state, and now fill a number of the higher offices. Yet the lower class are very ignorant and superstitious. It is not uncommon to see them going to market with a little bag of salt tied to their horses manes, for the purpose, they say, of keeping off the witches.
The Baptists (except the Mennonist and Tunker Baptists, who are Gere mans) are chiefly the descendants of emigrants from Wales, and are not numerous. A proportionate afsemblage of the national prejudices, the manners, customs, religions, and political sentiments of all these, will form the Pennsylvanian character. As the leading traits in this character. thus conftituted, we may venture to mention industry, frugality, bordering in some instances on parfimony, enterprize, a taste and ability for improvements in mechanics, in manufactures, in agriculture, in commerce, and in the liberal sciences; temperance, plainness and fimplicity in dress and manners; pride and humility in their extremes ; inoffensiveness and intrigue ; in regard to religion, variety and harmony; liberality and its opposites, superstition and bigotry; and in politics an unhappy jargon. Such appear to be the distinguishing traits in the collective Pennfylvanian character.
In this connection, and in a work of this kind, the remarks of a citizen of Philadelphia, on the progress of population, agriculture, manners and government in Pennsylvania, in a letter to his friend in England,' are too valuable to be omitted.
“ The first settler in the woods is generally a man who has out-lived his credit or fortune in the cultivated parts of the state. His time for migrating is in the month of April. His first object is to build a small cabin of rough logs for himself and family. The floor of this cabin is of earth, the roof is of split logs--the light is received through the door, and, in some instances, through a small window made of greased paper. A coarser building adjoining this cabin affords a shelter to a cow, and a pair of poor horses. The labour of erecting these buildings is succeeded by killing the trees on a few acres of ground near his cabin; this is done by cutting a circle round the trees, two or three feet from the ground. The ground around thate trees is then ploughed, and
Indian corn planted in it. The season for planting this grain is about the 20th of May. It grows generally on new ground, with but little cultivation, and yields in the month of October following, from 40 to 50 bushels per acre.
After the first of September it affords a good deal of nourishment to his family, in its green or unripe ftate, in the form of what is called roasting ears. His family is fed during the summer by a small quantity of grain, which he carries with him, and by fish and game. His cows and horses feed upon wild grass, or the fucculent twigs of the woods. For the first year he endures a great deal of distress from hunger -cold-and a variety of accidental causes, but he seldom complains or finks under them. As he lives in the neighbourhood of Indians, he soon acquires a strong tincture of their manners. His exertions, while they continue, are violent; but they are succeeded by long intervals of rest. His pleasures confift chiefly in fishing and hunting. He loves spirituous liquors, and he eats, drinks and sleeps in dirt and rags in his little cabin. In his intercourse with the world he manifests all the art which characterize the Indians of our country. In this situation he passes two or three years. In proportion as population increases around him, he becomes uneasy and dissatisfied. Formerly his cattle ranged at large, but now his neighbours call upon him to confine them within fences, to prevent their trespassing upon their fields of grain. Formerly he fed his family with wild animals, but these, which fly from the face of man, now cease to afford him an easy subsistence, and he is compelled to raise domestic animals for the support of his family. Above all, he revolts against the operation of laws. He cannot bear to surrender up a single natural right for all the benefits of government; and therefore he abandons his little settlement, and seeks a retreat in the woods, where he again submits to all the toils which have been mentioned. There are instances of many men who have broken ground on bare creation, no less than four different times in this way, in different and more advanced parts of the state. It has been remarked, that the flight of this class of people is always increased by the preaching of the gospel. This will not surprise us when we consider how opposite its precepts are to their licentious manner of living. If our first settler was the owner of the spot of land which he began to cultivate, he fells it at a considerable profit to his successor ; but if (as is oftener the case) he was a tenant to some rich landholder, he abandons it in debt; however, the small improvements he leaves behind him, generally makes it an object of immediate demand to a fecond species of settler.
This species of settler is generally a man of some property; he pays one-third or one-fourth part in cash for his plantation, which consists of three or four hundred acres, and the rest in gales or instalments, as it is called here; that is, a ceriain sum yearly, without intereft, till the whole is paid. The first object of this settler is to build an addition to his cabin; this is done with hewed logs : and as faw mills generally follow fettlements, his floors are made of boards; his roof is made of what are called clapboards, which are a kind of coarse shingles, split out of short oak logs. This house is divided by two floors, on each of which are two rooms : under the whole is a cellar walled with itone. The cabin ferves as a kitchen to this house. His next object is to clear a little mea
dow ground, and plant an orchard of two or three hundred apple-trees His ftable is likewise enlarged ; and, in the course of a year or two, he builds a large log barn, the roof of which is commonly thatched with rye straw: he moreover increases the quantity of his arable land ; and, instead of cultivating Indian corn alone, he raises a quantity of wheat and rye: the latter is cultivated chiefly for the purpose of being distilled into whiskey. This species of settler by no means extracts all from the earth, which it is able and willing to give. His fields yield but a scanty increase, owing to the ground not being sufficiently ploughed. The hopes of the year are often blafted by his cattle breaking through his half-made fences, and destroying his grain. His horses perform but half the labour that might be expected from thein, if they were better fed; and his cattle often die in the spring from the want of provision, and the delay of grass.. His house, as well as his farm, bear many marks of a weak tone of mind. His windows are unglazed, or, if they have had glass in them, the ruins of it are supplied with old hats or pillows. This species of settler is feldom a good member of civil or religious society : with a large portion of an hereditary mechanical kind of religion, he neglects to contribute sufficiently towards building a church, or maintaining
a regular administration of the ordinances of the gospel : he is equally indisposed to support civil government : with high ideas of liberty, he refuses to bear his proportion of the debt contracted by its establishment in our country : he delights chiefly in company--sometimes drinks fpirituous liquors to excess will spend a day or two in every week, in attending political meetings; and thus he contrac's debts, which, (if he cannot discharge in a depreciated paper currency) compel him to sell his plantation, generally in the course of a few years, to the third and last species of settler.
This species of settler is commonly a man of property and good charater; sometimes he is the son of a wealthy farmer in one of the interior and ancient counties of the state. His first object is to convert every spot of ground, over which he is able to draw water, into meadow: where this cannot be done, he selects the most fertile spots on the farm, and devotes it by manure to that purpose. His next object is to build a barn, which he prefers of stone. This building is, in some instances, one hundred feet in front, and forty in depth : it is made very compact, so as to Thut out the cold in winter; for our farmers find that their horses and cattle, when kept warm, do not require near as much food, as when they are exposed to the cold. He uses economy, likewise, in the consumption of his wood. Hence he keeps himself warm in winter, by means of stoves, which save an immense deal of labour to himself and his horses, in cutting and hawling wood in cold and wet weather. His fences are every where repaired, so as to secure his grain from his own and his neighbour's cattle. But further, he increases the number of the articles of his cultivation, and, instead of raising corn, wheat, and rye alone, he raises oats, buck-wheat (the fagopyrum of Linnæus) and spelts. Near his house, he allots an acre or two of ground for a garden, in which he raifes a large quantity of cabbage and potatoes. His newly cleared fields afford him every year a large increase of turnips. Over the spring which supplies him wit.. water, he builds a milk-house : he