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This state was the seat of war for several years, during the bloody contest between Great Britain and America. Her losses both of men and property, in proportion to the population and wealth of the state, was greater than of any other of the thirteen states. When General Washington was retreating through the Jerseys, almost forsaken by all others, her militia were at all times obedient to his orders ;

and for considerable length of time composed the strength of his army. There is hardly a town in the state that lay in the progress of the British army, that was not rendered signal by some enterprize or exploit. At Trenton the

enemy received a check which may be laid with justice to have turned the tide of the war. At Princeton, the seat of the muses, they received another, which, united, obliged them to retire with precipitation, and to take refuge in disgraceful winter quarters. But whatever honour this ftate might derive from the relation, it is not our business to give a particular description of battles or fieges; we leave this to the

pen

of the historian, and only observe in general, that the many military atchievements performed by the Jersey soldiers, give this state one of the first ranks among her sisters in a military view, and entitle her to a share of praise that bears no proportion to her size, in the accomplishment of the late glorious revolution.

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GOVERNORS of New-JERSEY, from the surrender of the Government by

the PROPRIETORS in 1702, to the present time. + Edward, viscount Cornbury, 1702 to 1708, removed, and succeeded by + John, Lord Lovelace, 1708 to 1709, died, and the government

devolved to Lt. Gov. Richard Ingoldiby, 1709 to 1710, when came in + Brigadier Robert Hunter, 1710 to 1720, who resigned in favour of † William Burnet,

1720 to 1727, removed, and succeeded by + John Montgomery, 1728 to 1731, died, and was succeeded by + William Crosby,

1731 to 1736, died, and the government

devolved to John Anderson, President of the Council, 1736, by whose death, about two

weeks after, the government devolved to John Hamilton, President of the Council, 1736 to 1738.

Those marked + were Governors in chief, and down to this time

were Governors of New York and New Jersey but from 1738

forward, New Jersey has had a separate governor. + Lewis Morris,

1738 to 1746, died, and the government

devolved to John Hamilton, President,

1746,

by whose death it devolved to John Reading, President, 1746 to 1747 + Jonathan Belcher,

1747 to 1757, died, and the government

again devolved to John Reading, President, 1757 to 1758.

Thomas Pownall, then Governor of Massachusetts, being Lieutenant-Governor, arrived on the death of Governor Belcher, but continued in the province a few days only.

+ Francis

+ Francis Bernard,

1758 to 1760, removed to Boston and

fucceeded by + Thomas Boone,

1760 to 1761, removed to S. Carolina,

and succeeded by † Josiah Hardy,

1761 to 1763, removed, and succeeded by # William Franklin,

1763 to 1776, removed, and succeeded by # William Livingston,

1776

Ρ Ε Ν Ν S Y L V Α Ν Ι Α.

SITUATION and EXTENT.

1

Miles.
Length 2881

Between
Breadth 156)

39o 43 and 420 North Latitude.
{

0° 20' East, and 5. West Longitude. Boundaries. B parallel of 420 horex latitude, which 'divides it from

east, by ; , the state of New York; south, by the parallel of 39° 43' 18" north latitude, which divides it from the states of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia west, by a meridian line, drawn from the termination of five degrees of longitude, from a point on Delaware river, near Wilmington, in the parallel of 39° 43' 18" to interfect the parallel of 42o. This line divides the state from a part of Virginia, the Western Territory, (so called) and from a tract of land, 20 miles fquare, which was confirmed to Connecticut by Congress. The northwest corner of Pennsylvania extends about one mile and an half into Lake Erie, and is about twenty miles west of the old French fort at Presque Ife. The state lies in the form of a parallelogram, and contains about 44,900 square miles, equal to about 28,800,000 acres.

Mines and Minerals.] The following table exhibits the number, fituation, and various kinds of mines and minerals in this state. On the west fide of the mountains, vitriolic, aluminous, and other mineral earths are found in great abundance. Beds of coal, lying pretty deep, in a horizontal direction, are almost universal in this western

country ;

but metallic ores of all kinds, especially that of iron, appear to be wanting ; while they are found in great plenty eastward of the mountains. A very probable reason has been assigned why it should be so. It is this : The country eastward of the mountains, as hereafter mentioned, has evidently been torn to pieces by some violent convulfion, while that on the other side has remained undisturbed. During this convulsion, the iron ore was probably thrown up from very great depths, where, by its gravity, it was accumulated, and coal, which lay nearer the surface, was, by the same convulsion, buried immensely deep.

Civil divisions.] Pennsylvania is divided into twenty counties, which, with their county towns, situation, &c. are mentioned in the following

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Τ Α Β L Ε.

COUNTIES. County Towns.

Situation.

Settl'd Mines, &c.

Philadel. (City)| Philadelphia. On Delaware R. All

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Alw

Luzerne. Wilksborough. On Susquehan. R. Coal mines
York.

York. On Susquehan. R. Iron ore.
Cumberland. Carlisle. On Susquehan. R. } Lead mines &c.
Northumberland. Sunbury.

On wett branch S. *16

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Fayette. Union. On Monongahela. Í
Washington. | Washington. S.W.corner state.

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* A very large proportion of the vacant lands in the state are in this county, (Northumberland) to the amount of about eight millions of acres.

Rivers,

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Rivers.] There are six considerable rivers, which, with their numerous branches, peņiņsulate the whole state, viz. The Delaware, Schuylkill, Susquehannah, Yohoganey, Monongahela, and Allegany. We have already given an account of the rise and progress of Delaware river, until it crolíes into Pennsylvania (page 245.) From the mouth of Delaware bay, at Cape Henlopen, to Philadelphia, is reckoned one hundred and eighteen miles. So far there is a sufficient depth of water for a seventyfour

gun fhip. From Philadelphia to Trenton falls is thirty-five miles. This is the head of floop navigation. The river is navigable for boats that carry cight ar nine tons, forty miles further, and for Indian canoes, except fcveral small falls or portages, one hundred and fifty miles. At Easton, it receives the Lehigh from the west, which is navigable thirty miles. The tide sets up as high as Trenton falls, and at Philadelphia rises generally about six fect. A north-east and east wind raises it higher.

On Cape Henlopen * flands the light-house, with a few other houses. Opposite the light-house, on the Jersey shore, twelve miles, is Cape May. Between these Capes is the entrance into the Delaware bay. The entrance into the river is twenty miles further up, at Bombay Hook, where the river is four or five miles wide. From Bombay Hook to Reedy island is twenty miles. This island is the rendezvous of outward bound fhips in autumn and spring, waiting for a favourable wind. The course from this to the sea is S. S. E. so that a N. W. wind, which is the prevailing wind in these seasons, is fair for vessels to put out to sea. This river is generally frozen one or two months in the year so as to prevent navigation.

From Chester to Philadelphia, twenty miles, the channel of the river is narrowed by islands of marsh, which are generally banked and turned into rich and immensely valuable meadows.

Billingsport, twelve miles below Philadelphia, was fortified in the late war for the defence of the channel. Opposite this fort, several large frames of timber, headed with iron spikes, cailed chevaux de frizes, were funk to prevent the British thips from palling. Since the peace, a curious machine has been invented in Philadelphia, to raise them.

The Schuylkill rises north-west of the Kittatinny mountains, through which it.pasles, into a fine champaign country, and runs, from its sources upwards of one hundred and twenty miles in a south-east direction, and falls into the Delaware three miles below Philadelphia. It is navigable from above Reading, eighty-five or ninety-miles, to its mouth. There are three floating bridges thrown across it, made of logs fastened together, and lying upon the water.

The Susquehannah river rises in lake Oisego, in the state of NewYork, and runs in such a winding course as to cross the boundary line between New York and Pennsylvania three times. It receives Tyoga river, one of its principal branches, in lat. 41° 57', three miles south of the boundary line. The Susquehannah branch is navigable for batteaux to its fource, whence to Mohawks river, is but twenty miles. The Tyoga branch is navigable fisty miles, for baitcaux; and its source is but a few miles from the Cheneliee, which empties into lake Ontario. From

* Henlopen is a Swedish word, fignifying 'entering in.'

Tyoga

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Tyoga point, the river proceeds south-east to Wyoming, without any obstruction by falls, and then fouth-west, over Wyoming falls, till at Sunbury, in about lat. 41° it meets the west branch of Suiquehannah, which is navigable ninety miles from its mouth, and some of the branches of it are navigable fifty miles, and are said to approach very near fome of the boatable branches of the Allegany river. From Sunbury the river is paffable with boats to Louisburgh and Middletown, on Swetara ; and with rafts of boards and masts to Lancaster, but it is attended with difficulty and danger on account of the numerous falls below Middletown. About fifteen miles above Louisburgh, it receives the Juniatta, from the northwest, proceeding from the Allegany mountains, and flowing through a mountainous, broken country. It is navigable, however, eighty miles from its mouth.

The Swetara, which falls into the Susquehannah from the north-east, is navigable fifteen miles. It is in contemplation to cut a canal about twenty miles from the Swetara to the Tulpehoken, a branch of the Schuylkill. Should this be effe a passage would be open to Philadelphia from the Juniatta, the Tyoga, and the east and west branches of the Susquehannah, which water at least 15,000,000 of acres.

From this junction, the general course of the river is about fouth-east until it falls into the head of Chesapeek bay, just below Havre-de-Grace. It is about a mile wide at its mouth, and is navigable for sea vessels but about twenty miles, on account of its rapids.

The banks of this river are very romantic, particularly where it passes through the mountains. This paffage has every appearance of having been forced through by the pressure of the water, or of having been burst open by some convulsion in nature.

The several branches of Yohogany river rise on the west side of the Allegany mountains. After running a short distance, they unite and form a large beautiful river, which, in passing some of the most western ridges of the mountains, precipitates itself over a level ledge of rocks, lying nearly at right angles to the course of the river. These falls, cailed the Ohiopyle falls, are about twenty feet in perpendicular height, and the river is perhaps eighty yards wide. For a confiderable distance below the falls, the water is very rapid, and boils and foams vehemently, occasioning a continual mist to rise from it, even at noon day, and in fair weather. The river at this place runs to the south-west, but presently winds round to the north-west, and continuing this course for thirty or forty miles, it loses its name by uniting with the Monongahela, which comes from the southward, and contains, perhaps, twice as much water. These united streams, shortly after their junction, mingle with the waters pf-the-Allegany at Pittlburgh, and together form the grand river Ohio.

The Monongahela has been particularly described, and some observations made on the navigation of the Allegany, (Page 44.) In addition it

may be obferved, that at the junction of French Creek (which comes from the north-west) with the Allegany, are the remains of a British fortification, and about a mile above is a fort, built in 1787, and then guarded by a company of about fixty American soldiers, under the command of Capt. Hart, from Connecticut. The Pennsylvania north line, crosses French Creek about three miles above Le Bauf, where there was formerly a fort. From Le Boeuf to Presque-ifle, fourteen or fifteen miles,

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