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tion is high and healthy. It lies open to Sandy-Hook, and has one of the best harbours on the continent. Vessels from fca may enter it in one tide, in almost any weather. Great efforts have been made, and legislative encouragements offered, to render it a place of trade, but without success. This town was early incorporated with city privileges, and continued to send two members to the general assembly until the revolution. Until this event, it was the capital of East- Jersey; and the legislature and supreme court used to fit here and at Burlington alternately.
BRUNSWICK (City) was incorporated in 1784, and is fituated on the south-west side of Raritan river, twelve miles above Amboy. It contains about two hundred houses, and fixteen hundred inhabitants, one half of which are Dutch. Its situation is low and unpleasant, being on the bank of the river, and under a high hill, which rises back of the town. The ice, at the breaking up of the river in winter, frequently lodges on the shallow fording-place, just opposite the town, and forms a temporary dam, which occasions the water to rise many feet above its usual height, and sometimes to -overflow the lower floors of those houses: which are not guarded against this inconvenience, by having their foundations elevated. The water in the springs and wells is generaliy bad. The inhabitants are beginning to build on the hill above the town, which is very pleasant, and commands a pretty prospect. The citizens have a considerable inland trade, and several small vessels belonging to the port.
PRINCETON is a pleasant, healthy village, of about eighty houses, fifty-two miles from New-York, and forty-three from Philadelphia. Its public buildings are a large college edifice of stone, already described, and a Presbyterian church, built of brick.
ELIZABETH-TOWN (City) is fifteen miles from New York. situation is pleasant, and its foil is equal in fertility to any in the state. In the compact part of the town, there are about one hundred and fifty houses. The public buildings are, a very handsome prefbyterian brick church, lately built, an episcopal church, also of brick, and an academy. Governor Livingston's seat is about a mile westward of the compact part of the town. Its fine situation--the elegance and convenience of the buildings—the arrangement and variety of fruit-trees--the gardens the artificial fish-ponds, &c. discover a refined and judicious taste. Ornament and utility are happily united. It is, indeed, a feat worthy of a Republican patriot, and of the author of the · Philosophical Soli tude*.'
This is one of the oldest towns in the state. It was purchased of the Indians as early as 1664, and was settled soon after.
Newark is nine miles from New York. It is a handsome, flourishing town, about the size of Elizabeth-town, and has two presbyterian churches, one of which is of stone, and unfinished, and is the largeft and most elegant building in the state. Besides these there is an episcopal church, a court-houle and gaol. This town has the fame of making the best cyder in the world.
* A celebrated Ode, written by Governor Living fton in early life.
SHREWSBURY is between thirty and forty miles southwest by fouth from New York, on the sea coast, and is the largest and most populous town in the county of Monmouth. The foil in this and the neighbouring towns of Freehold and Middletown, are remarkably fertile. The inhabitants, 4321 in number, in the whole township, are a mixture of friends, episcopalians, presbyterians and methodists. Each has a house of worship. The friends are the most numerous. Among the first settlers of this town, which is one of the oldest in the state, were a number of families from New England. | MIDDLETOWN is fifty miles east by north from Trenton, and thirty south-west by fouth from New York, adjoining Shrewbury. SandyHook '(so called from its shape and foil) is included in this township. On the point of the Hook stands the light house, one hundred feet high, built by the citizens of New-York.
Practice of Phyfic.] There is a Medical Society' in this state, confisting of about thirty of their most respectable physicians, who meet twice a year. No person is admitted to the practice of physic, without a licence from the supreme court, founded on a certificate from this fociety, or at least two of its members, testifying his skill and abilities. It is remarkable that in the county of Cape May, no regular physician has ever found support. Medicine has been administered by women, except in some extraordinary cases.
Praktice of Law.] No person is permitted to practise as an attorney in any court without a licence from the governor. This cannot be obtained, unless the candidate fhall be above twenty-one years
and fall have served a regular clerkfhip with fome licensed attorney for four years, and have taken a degree in some public cellege, otherwise he muit' serve five years. He must also submit to an examination by three of the most eminent counsellors in the state, in the presence of the judges of the supreme court.
After three years practice as an attorney, he becomes a candidate for a counsellor's licence, which is granted on a like examination. In consequence of these wife regulations, the practice of law in this state is respectable. Many of the people here, however, as in other tates, think (because perhaps they are instruments in obliging them to pay their debts) that the lawyers know too much. But their knowledge will not injure those who are innocent, and who will let them alone. Experience has verified this observation in the county of Cape May. No lawyer lives within sixty miles of that county, and it is seldom that any attend their courts. The consequence is, that no person's landed eitate was ever sold in this county, by a sheriff, for the payment of a debt. It is wished that this county may ever form this singular exception, perhaps, from all the counties in the United States.
Confitution.] The government of this state, agreeably to their constitution, is vested in a governor, legislative council, and general assembly. The governor is chosen annually, by the council and assembly jointly, and is stiled" " Governor and commander in chief in and over the state of New Jersey, and the territories thereunto belonging, chancellor and ordinary in the same.” The legislative council is composed of one member from each county, chosen annually by the people. They must be worth one thousand pounds in real and personal estate within the county,
and have been freeholders and inhabitants of the counties they represent for one year. The general assembly is composed of three members from each county, chosen as above; each of them must be worth five hundred pounds, in real and personal estate within the county, and have been freeholders and inhabitants as above. All these, on taking their feats in the legislature, must swear “ that he will not afsent to any law, vote or proceeding, WHICH
HIM injurious to the public welfare of the state, or that shall annul or repeal that part of the conftitution which establishes annual elections, nor that part respecting trial by jury, nor that part which secures liberty of conscience.”
The governor fits in, and presides over the legislative council, and has a casting vote in their debates. His privy or executive council is composed of any three members of the legislative council ; and the governor and
any seven members of the council are a court of appeals in the last resort, as to points of law in civil cases, and possess a power of pardoning criminals in all cases whatsoever. The council chuse one of their members to be vice president, who, when the governor is absent from the ftate, poffefses the supreme executive power. The council may ginate any bills, excepting preparing and altering any money bill, which is the sole prerogative of the assembly. In every other respect their powers are equal. Every bill is read three times in each house. None of the judges of the supreme court, or other courts, sheriffs, or any person poffeffed of any post of profit under the governor, except justices of the peace, is entitled to a seat in the assembly. The estate of a suicide is not forfeited for his offence.
Courts of Justice, Laws, &c.] The courts of justice in this state are, first, Justices Courts. A competent number of persons are appointed in each county by the council and assembly, in joint meeting, who are called justices of the peace, and continue in office five years, who, besides being conservators of the peace, agreeably to the English laws, are authorized to hold courts for the trial of causes under twelve pounds. From this court, persons aggrieved, may appeal to the quarter seffions. Secondly, Courts of quarter Sessions of the peace, are held quarterly in every county, by at lealt three of the justices. This court takes cognizance of breaches of the peace, and is generally regulated by the rules of the Englifh law,
Thirdly, Courts of common pleas, which are held quarterly, by judges appointed for that purpose, in the same manner as the justices of the peace, and who are commonly of their number, and hold their commillions five years. This court may be held by a single judge, and has cognizance of demands to any amount, and is constructed on, and governed by the principles of the English laws.
Fourthiy, Supreme Courts, which are held four times a year, at Trenton, by three judges appointed for that purpose, who hold their offices three years, but one judge only is necessary to the holding this court. This court has cognizance of all actions, both civil and criminal throughout the state, having the united authority of the courts of king's bench, common pleas and exchequer in England. The courts of oyer and terminer and nifi prius, commonly held once a year in each county, for the trial of causes arising in the county, and brought to issue in the
supreme court, are properly branches of this court, and are held by one of the judges of it, except that in the courts of oyer and terminer, fome of the gentlemen of the county are always added in the commission, as assistants to the judge ; but they cannot hold the court without him.
Fifthly, Orphan's Courts, lately established by act of assembly, are held by the judges of the court of common pleas, ex officio, and have cognizance of all matters relating to wills, administrations, &c.
Sixthly, Court of Chancery, held by the governor, ex officio, always open. It is a court of law and equity, founded on the same principles, and governed by the same rules, as the court of chancery in England.
Seventhly, High Court of Errors and Appeals, composed of the governor, and seven of the council, and is a court of appeals in the last resort, in all cases of law.
All the English laws which had been practised upon in the state, and which were not repugnant to revolution principles, were adopted by the conftitution, and very few alterations of consequence have fince been made, except in the descent of real estates, which, instead of descending to the eldest son, agreeably to the old feudal system, as formerly, are now divided (where there is no will) equally among the children, both male and female, except that the eldest son has two shares ; a mode of desceno much more consistent with republican principles.
Military strength.] The military strength of New- Jersey consists only of the militia about 30,000 in number, who have been too much neglected since the war.
Revenue.] About £.10,000 are raised annually for the support of government, and for the payment of incidental charges, and of the pensions of those who were disabled in the public service during the war; and about £:44,000 raised annually for the payment of the interest on the public debt of this state, and their quota of the debt of the United States. This revenue is raised by a tax on lands, iron works, mills, distilleries, breweries, ferries, fisheries, carriages, stages, taverns, horses, cattle, &c.
History.] It is a task of no small difficulty to give the reader a juft view of the history of New Jersey. Dr. Douglafs observes, in great truth, that the affairs of this colony have always been in a confused state, which occasions an unavoidable confusion in its history.'
The first settlers of New Jersey, were a number of Dutch emigrants from New York, who came over between the years 1614 and 1620, and settled in the county of Bergen. Next after these, in 1627, came over a colony of Swedes and Finns, and settled on the river Delaware. They afterwards purchased of the Indians, the land on both sides NewSwedeland stream, (now called Delaware river) from Cape Henlopen to the falls; and, by presents to the Indian chiefs, obtained peaceable poffeffion of it. The Dutch and Swedes, though not in harmony with each other, kept possession of the country many years. In 1683, the Dutch had a house devoted to religious worship at New Castle ; the Swedes at the same time had three, befides one on the island of Tenecum, one at Christiana, and one at Wicoco. The present Swedish churches in Philadelphia and Gloucester county in New Jersey, are descendants of these first settlers,
In March, 1634, Charles II. granted all the territory, called by the Dutch New-Netherlands, to his brother the Duke of York: And in June, 1664, the duke granted that part now called New Jersey, to Lord Berkley of Stratton, and Sir George Carteret, jointly; who, in 1665, agreed upon certain concessions with the people for the government of the province, and appointed Philip Carteret, Elg. their governor. He purchased considerable tracts of land from the Indians, for small considerations, and the settlements increased.
The Dutch reduced the country in 1672 ; but it was restored by the peace
of Westminster, February 9th, 1674. In consequence of the conquest made by the Dutch, and to obviate any objections that might be made on account of it against the former grant, a new patent was issued, in 1674, to the duke of York, for the fame country. In July of this year, New Jersey was divided, and West Jersey was granted, by the duke of York, to the afligns of Lord Berkley; and East Jersey to Sir G. Carteret. The division line was to run from the south-east point of Little Egg Harbour, on Barnegate Creek, being about the middle between Cape May and Sandy Hook, to a creek, a little below Ancocus creek, on Delaware river, thence about thirty-five miles, ftrait course, along Delaware river, up to 41° 40' north latitude. This line has never been settled, but has ever since continued to be a subject of contention.
In 1675, Welt Jersey, which had been granted to Lord Berkley, was sold to John Fenwick, in truit for Edward Bylinge.
Fenwick came over with a colony, and settled at Salem. These were the first English settlers in West Jersey. In 1676, the interest of Bylinge in West Jersey, was assigned to William Penn, Gavin Lourie, and Nicholas Lūcas, as trustees, for the use of his creditors. Mutual quit claims were executed between Sir George Carteret and the trustees of Bylinge. This partition was confirmed in 1719, by an act of the general affembly of the Jerseys.
In 1678, the duke of York made a new grant of West Jersey to the afligns of Lord Berkley.
Agreeably to Sir George Carteret's will, dated December 5, 1678, Eaft Jersey was fold, in 1882, to twelve proprietors, who by twelve feparate deeds, conveyed one-half of their interest to twelve other persons, separately, in fee fimple. This grant was confirmed to these twentyfour proprietors, by the duke of York, the same year. These twentyfour shares, by fales of small parts of them, and by these small parts being again divided among the children of successive families, became at laft subdivided in such a manner, as that some of the proprietors had only one-40th part, of a 48th part of a 24th share. Weit Jersey was in the same condition. This created much confufion in the management of the general proprietors, particularly in regard to appointing governors. Theic inconveniencies, aided by other causes of complaint, which had been increasing for several years, and were fait advancing to a dangerous crisis, disposed the proprietors to surrender the government to the crown, which was accordingly done, and accepted by queen Ann, on the 17th of April, 1702. Till this time the government of New Jersey was proprietory; it now became royal, and so continued till the memorable fourth of July, 1776.