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As carly as the year 1608, or 1609, Henry Hudson, an Englishman, under a commission from the king his master, discovered Long Iland, New York, and the river which stills bears his name, and afterwards sold the country, or rather his right, to the Dutch. Their writers, however, contend that Hudson was sent out by the East-India company in 1609, to discover a northwest passage to China ; and that having first discovered Delaware Bay, he came and penetrated Hudson's river as far as latitude 43°. It is said however that there was a sale, and that the English objected to it, though for some time they neglected to oppose the Dutch settlement of the country.

1610.] In 1610, Hudson failed again to this country, then called by the Dutch New Netherlands, and four years after, the States-General grant

ed a patent to sundry merchants for an exclusive trade on the 1614 North river, who the same year, (1614) built a fort on the west fide

near Albany. From this time we may date the settlement of NewYork, the history of which will be annexed to a description of the State.

Conception Bay, on the Inland of Newfoundland, was settled in the year 1610, by about forty planters under governor Jotin Guy, to whom king James had given a patent of incorporation.

Champlain, a Frenchman, had begun a fettlement at Quebec, 1608. St. Croix, Mount Mansel, and Port Royal were settled about the same time. These settlements remained undisturbed till 1613, when the Virginians, hearing that the French had settled within their limits, sent Capt. Argal to dislodge them. For this purpose he failed to Sagadahok, took their forts at Mount Mansel, St. Croix, and Port Royal, with their vessels, ordnance, cattle, and provisions, and carried them to James-Town in Virginia. Quebec was left in poffeffion of the French.

1614.] This year Capt. John Smith, with two ships and forty-five men and boys, made a voyage to North Virginia, to make experiments upon a gold and copper mine. His orders were, to fish and trade with the na. tives, if he should fail in his expectations with regard to the mine. To facilitate this business, he took with him Tantum, an Indian, perhaps one that Capt. Weymouth carried to England in 1605. In April he reached the Iand Monahigan in latitue 43° 30'. Here Capt. Smith was directed to stay and keep poffeffion, with ten men, for the purpose of making a trial of the whaling business ; butbeing disappointed in this, he built seven boats, in which thirty-seven men made a very successful fishing voyage. In the mean time the captain himself, with eight men only, in a small boat, coasted from Penobscot to Sagadahok, Acocisco, Passataquack, Tragabizanda, now called Cape Ann,

thence to Acomak, where he skirinished with fome Indians; thence to Cape Cod where he set his Indian Tantum ashore and left him, and returned to Monahigan. In this voyage he found two French ships in the Bay of Massachusetts, who had come there fix weeks before, and during that time, had been trading very advantageously with the Indians. It was conjectured there were, at this time, three thoufand Indians upon the Massachusetts Ilands.

In July, Capt. Smith embarked for England in one of the vessels, leaving the other under the command of Capt. Thomas Hunt to equip for a voyage to Spain. After Capt. Smith's departure, Hunt perfidiously allured twenty Indians (one of whom was Squanto, afterwarde so serviceable to


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the English) to come on board his ship at Patuxit, and seven more at Naulit, and carried them to the Illand of Malaga, where he sold them for twenty pounds each, to be saves for life. This conduct, which fixes an indelible fligna upon the character of Hunt, excited in the breasts of the Indians such an inveterate hatred of the English, as that, for many years after, all commercial intercourse with them was rendered exceedingly dangerous.

Capt. Smith arrived at London the last of August, where he drew a map of the country, and called it New-ENGLAND. From this time North Virginia affumed the name of New-England, and the name Virginia. was confined to the southern colony.

Between the years 1614 and 1620, several attempts were made by the Plymouth company to settle New England, but by various means they were all rendered ineffectual. During this time, however, an advantageous trade was carried on with the natives.

1617.] In the year 1617, Mr. Robinson and his congregation, influenced by several weighty reasons, meditated a removal to America. Vari

ous difficulties intervened to prevent the success of their designs, 1620 until the year of 1620, when a part of Mr. Robinson's congregation

came over and settled at Plymouth. At this time commenced the settlement of New-England.

The particulars relating to the first emigrations to this northern part America; the progress of settlement, &c, will be given in the history of New-England, to which the reader is referred. In order to preserve the chronological order in which the several colo

nies, now grown into independent states, were first settled, it will be 5621 necessary that I should just mention, that the next year after the

settlement of Plymouth, Captain John Mason obtained of the Ply

mouth council a grant of a part of the present state of New-Hamp1623 lire. Two years after, under the authority of this grant, a

small colony fixed down near the mouth of Piscataqua river. From this period we may date the settlement of New-HAMPSHIRE.

1627.] In 1627, a colong of Swedes and Fins came over and landed at Cape Henlopen; and afterwards purchased of the Indians the land from Cape Henlopen to the Falls of Delaware on both sides the river, which they called New Swedeland Stream. On this river they built several forts, and made settlements.

1628.] On the 19th of March, 1628, the council for New-England fold to Sir Henry Roswell, and five others, a large tract of land, lying round Massachusetts Bay. The June following, Capt. John Endicot, with his wife and company, came over and settled at Naumkeag, now called Salem. This was the first English settlement which was made in MASSACHUSETTS Bay. Plymouth, indeed, which is now included in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, was settled eight years before, but at this time it was a separate colony, under a distinct government, and continued so until the fecond charter of Massachusetts was granted by William and Mary in 1691 ; by which Plymouth, the Province of Main and Sagadahok were annexed to Massachusetts.

June 13, 1633.] In the reign of Charles the Firit, Lord Baltimore, a Roman Catholic, applied for and obtained a grant of a tract of land


upon Chesapeek Bay, about one hundred and forty miles long and one hundred and thirty broad. Soon after this, in consequence of the rigor of the laws of England against the Roman Catholics, Lord Baltimore, with a number of his persecuted brethren, came over and fettled it, and in honour of queen Henrietta Maria, they called it MARYLAND. The first grant of Connecticut was made by Robert, Earl of Warwick,

president of the council of Plymouth, to Lord Say and Seal, to 1631 Lord Brook and others, in the year 1631. In consequence of

several smaller grants made afterwards by the patentees to particu

lar persons, Mr. Fenwick made a settlement at the mouth of Con1635 necticut river, and called it Saybrook. Four years after a num

ber of people from Massachusetts Bay came and began settlements at Hartford, Wethersfield, and Windsor on Connecticut river. Thus commenced the English settlement of Connecticut.

Rhode Idand was firit fettled in consequence of religious persecution. Mr. Roger Williams, who was among those who early came over to Massachusetts, not agreeing with some of his brethren in sentiment, was

very unjustifiably banished the colony, and went with twelve others, 1955 his adherents, and settled at Providence in 1635. From this be

ginning arose the colony, now state of RHODE-ISLAND. 1664.) On the 20th of March, 1664, Charles the Second granted to the Duke of York, what is now called New-JERSEY, then a part of a large tract of country by the name of New-Netherland. Some parts of New-Jersey were settled by the Dutch as early as about 1615.

1662.] In the year 1662, Charles the Second granted to Edward, Earl of Clarendon, and seven others, almost the whole territory of the three South

ern States, North and South Carolinas and Georgia. Two years 1664 after he granted a second charter, enlarging their boundaries. The

proprietors, by virtue of authority velted in them by their charter, engaged Mr. Locke to frame a system of laws for the government of

their intended colony. Notwithstanding these preparations, no 1669 effectual settlement was made until the year 1669, (though one was

attempted in 1667) when Governor Sayle came over with a colony, and fixed on a neck of land between Ashley and Cooper Rivers. Thus commenced the settlement of CAROLINA, which then included the whole territory between the 29th and 36th degrees north latitude, together with the Bahama Islands, lying between latitude 22o and 27° north. 1681.] The Royal charter for Pennsylvania was granted to William

Penn on the 4th of March, 1685. The first colony came over the 1682 next year, and settled under the proprietor, William Penn, who

acted as Governor from October 1682 to August 1684. The first assembly in the province of Pennsylvania was held at Chester, on the 4th of December, 1682. Thus William Penn, a Quaker, juftly celebrated as a great and good man, has the honour of laying the foundation of the present populous and very flourishing State of PENNSYLVANIA.

The proprietory government in Carolina, was attended with so many inconveniencies, and occasioned such violent diffentions among the settlers, that the Parliament of Great-Britain was induced to take the province. under their immediate care. The proprietors (except Lord Granville)


accepted of 6.22,500 sterling, from the crown for the property and juris

diction. This agreement was ratified by act of Parliament in 1729 1729. A clause in this act reserved to Lord Granville his eighth

share of the property and arrears of quit-rents, which continued legally vested in his family 'till the revolution in 1776. Lord Granville's hare made a part of the present state of North Carolina. About the year 1729, the extensive territory belonging to the proprietors, was divided into North and South Carolinas. They remained separate royal governments until they became independent States.

For the relief of poor indigent people of Great Britain and Ireland, and for the security of Carolina, a project was formed for planting a colony between the rivers Savannah and Alatamaha. Accordingly applica

tion being made to king George the Second, he issued letters patent, 1732 bearing date June 9th, 1732, for legally carrying into execution

the benevolent plan. In honour of the king, who greatly encouraged the plan, they called the new province GEORGIA. Twenty-one trustees were appointed to conduct the affairs relating to the settlement of the province. The November following one hundred and fifteen persons, one of whom was General Oglethorpe, embarked for Georgia, where they arrived, and landed at Yamacraw. In exploring the country, they found an elevated pleasant spot of ground on the bank of a navigable river, upon which they marked out a town, and from the Indian name of the river which passed by it, called it Savannah. From this period we may date the settlement of Georgia.

1754.) Kentucky was first discovered by James Macbride, and fome 1769

others who were in company with him, in the year 1754. Cole

Daniel Boon explored it in 1769. 1773.) Four years after Col. Boon and his family, with five other families who were joined by forty men from Powle's valley, began the settlement of KENTUCKY, which is now one of the most growing colonies, perhaps, in the world, and will doubtless be erected into an independent ftate, as soon as the new government shall have been properly organized.

The tract of country called VERMONT, before the late war, was claimed both by New-York and New-Hampshire. When hoftilities commenced between Great Britain and her Colonies, the inhabitants considering themselves as in a state of nature, and not within any legal jurisdiction, associated and formed for themselves a conftitution of civil government. Under this constitution, they have ever since continued to exercise all the powers of an independent State. Although Vermont has not been admitted into union with the other states, nor her jurisdiction acknowledged to be legal by the state of New York, yet we may venture to

date her political existence as a separate government, from the 1777 year 1777, because, since that time, Vermont has, to all intents

and purposes, been a fovereign and independent State. The extensive tract of country lying northwest of the Ohio River within the limits of the United States, was erected into a separate tempo1787

rary government by an Ordinance of Congress passed the 13th of

July, 1787. Thus I have given a summary view of the first discoveries and progres

five settlement of North America in their chronological order. The following recapitulation will comprehend the whole in one view.





Names of places. When settled.

By whom.

1608 By the French.
Virginia, June 10, 1609 By Lord De la War.
Newfoundland, June, 1610 By Governor John Guy.
New Jersey, S

about 1614 By the Dutch. Plymouth,

5 By part of Mr. Robinson's congre1620

gation. New Hampshire,

5 By a small English colony near the 1623

mouth of Pifcataqua river. Delaware, Pennsylvania, 3

1627 By the Swedes and Fins. Massachusetts Bay,

1628 By Capt. John Endicot and company,

By Lord Baltimore, with a colony Maryland,

1633 {of Roman Catholics.

By Mr. Fenwick, at Saybrook, near Connecticut,


the mouth of Connecticut river. Rhode Island,

By Mr. Roger Williams and his

fecuted brethren.
Granted to the Duke of York by

Charles II. and made a distinct New Jersey,

vernment, and settled some time

before this by the English. South-Carolina,

1669 By Governor Sayle.

By William Penn, with a colony of Pennsylvania,



Erected into a separate government, North-Carolina, about 1728

settled before by the English. Georgia,

1732 By General Oglethorpe. Kentucky,

1773 By Col. Daniel Boon. Vermont,

By emigrants from Connecticut and 17775

other parts of New England. Territory N. W.

1987 By the Ohio and other companies. of Ohio river,

The above dates are from the periods, when the first permanent settlements were made.


North ANERICA comprehends all that part of the western continent which lies north of the Isthmus of Darien. This valt extent of country is divided between Spain, Great-Britain, and the Thirteen United States. Spain claims all the land west of the Misillippi, and East and West Florida. According to the treaty of 1783, all the country north of the northern boundary of the United States, and east of the river St. Croix, belongs to Great Britain. The remaining part is the territory of the Thirteen United and Independent States.

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