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them, and the purity of the air in this lofty fituation, aided by a lively imagination, have as great efficacy in curing the patient as the waters.
Caves, Mountains, &c.] In the township of Shrewsbury, in Monmouth county, on the side of a branch of Navesink river, is a remarkable cave, in which there are three rooms. The cave is about thirty feet long, and fifteen feet broad. Each of the rooms is arched. The centre of the arch is about five feet from the bottom of the cave; the sides not more than two and an half. The mouth of the cave is small; the bottom is a loose sand; and the arch is formed in a soft rock, through the pores of which the moisture is slowly exudated, and falls in drops on the sand below.
On Sandy Hook, about a mile from the light-house, is a monument, which was erected to commemorate a very melancholy event that took place just at the close of the late war. The following inscription, which is upon a marble plate on one side of the monument, will afford fufficient information of the matter.
“ Here lies the remains of the Honourable Hamilton Douglafs Halliburton, son of Sholto Charles Earl of Morton, and heir of the ancient family of Halliburton of Pitcurr in Scotland; who perished on this coast with twelve more young gentlemen, and one common failor, in the spirited discharge of duty, the zoth or 31st of December, 1783: Born October the 10th, 1763; a youth who, in contempt of hardship and danger, though posesied of an ample fortune, served seven years in the British navy with a manly courage. He seemed to be deserving of a better fate. To his dear memory, and that of his unfortunate companions, this monumental stone is erected by his unhappy mother, Katharine, Countess Dowager of Morton.
JAMES CHAMPION, Lieutenant of Marines.
Character, Manners, and Customs.] Many circumstances concur to render these various in different parts of the state. The inhabitants are a collection of Low Dutch, Germans, English, Scotch, Irish, and New Englanders, or their descendents. National attachment and mutual convenience have generally induced these several kinds of people to settle together in a body--and in this way their peculiar national manners, customs, and character, are still preserved, especially among the lower clafs of people, who have little intercourse with any but those of their own nation. Religion; although its tendency is to unite people in those things that are
essential to happiness, occasions wide differences as to manners, customs, and even character. The Presbyterian, the Quaker, the Episcopalian, the Baptist, the German and Low Dutch Calvinist, the Methodist and the Moravian, have each their distinguishing characteristics, either in their worship, their discipline, or their dress. There is still another very perceptible characteristical difference, diftin&t from either of the others, which arises from the intercourse of the inhabitants with different states. The people in Weft- Jersey trade to Philadelphia, and of course imitate their fashions, and imbibe their manners. The inhabitants of Eaft-Jersey trade to New-York, and regulate their fashions and manners according to those of New-York. So that the difference in regard to fashions and manners between Eaft and West-Jersey, is nearly as great as between New-York and Philadelphia.-Add to all these the differences common in all countries, arising from the various occupations of men, such as the Civilian, the Divine, the Lawyer, the Physician, the Mechanic, the clownish, the decent, and the respectable Farmer, all of whom have different pursuits, or pursue the same thing differently, and of course must have a different set of ideas and manners ;-when we take into view all these differences, (and all these differences exist in New- Jersey, and many of them in all the other states) it cannot be expected that many general observations will apply. It may, however, in truth be said, that the people of New- Jersey are generally industrious, frugal and hospitable. There are comparatively but few men of learning in the state, nor can it be said that the people in general have a taste for the sciences.' The lower class, in which may be included three-fifths of the inhabitants of the whole ftate, are ignorant, and are criminally neglectful in the education of their children. There are, however, a number of gentlemen of the first rank in abilities and learning in the civil offices of the state, and in the several learned professions.
It is not the business of a geographer to compliment the ladies ; nor would we be thought to do it when we say, that there is at least as great a number of industrious, discreet, amiable, genteel and handsome women in New- Jersey, in proportion to the number of inhabitants, as in any of the thirteen states. Whether an adequate degree of solid mental improvement, answering to the personal and other useful qualities we have mentioned, is to be found among the fair of this state, is a more weighty concern. Perhaps it may be laid with justice, that in general, though there is not the same universal taste for knowledge, discernible among the ladies here, as in some other of the states, owing in a great measure to the state of society, and the means of improvement, there are, however, many signal instances of improved talents among them, not surpassed by those of their fisters in any of the other states.
Religion.) There are, in this state, about fifty Presbyterian congregations, subject to the care of three Presbyteries, viz. that of New York, of New-Brunswick, and Philadelphia. A part of the charge of NewYork and Philadelphia Presbyteries lies in New- Jersey, and part in their own respective states. To supply these congregations, there are at prefent about twenty-five ministers.
There are upwards of forty congregations of Friends, commonly called Quakers ; who are in general sober, plain, industrious, good citizens. For an account of their religious tenets see Pennsylvania.
There are thirty affociated congregations of Baptifts, in New Jersey, whose religious tenets are similar to those already mentioned under Connecticut, (page 220.) The Episcopalian interest consists of twenty-five congregations.
There are, in this fate, two classes belonging to the Dutch Reformed Synod of New-York and New Jersey. The claffis of Hakkensak, to which belongs thirteen congregations; and the classis of New Brunswick, to which belong fifteen congregations. We have already given an account of their church government, discipline, &c, (page 269.)
The Moravians have a flourishing settlement at Hope, in Sussex county. This settlement was begun in 1771, and now consists of upwards of 100 souls.
The Methodist interest is small in this state. The Swedes have a church in Gloucester county : and there are three congregations of the Seventh-Day Baptifts. All these religious denominations live together in peace and harmony; and are allowed, by the constitution of the state, to worship Almighty God agreeably to the dictates of their own consciences ; and are not compelled to attend or support any worship contrary to their own faith and judgment. All Proteftant inhabitants, of peaceable behaviour, are eligible to the civil offices of the ftate.
Colleges, Academies, and Schools.] There are two colleges in New- fersey ; one at Princeton, called Nassau Hall, the other at Brunswick, called Queen's College. The College at Princeton was first founded by charter from John Hamilton, Esq; President of the Council, about the year 1738, and enlarged by Governor Belcher in 1747. The charter delegates a power of granting to “ the students of said college, or to any others thought worthy of them, all such degrees as are granted in either of our universities, or any other college in Great-Britain." It has twenty-three trustees. The governor of the state, and the president of the college are, ex oficiis, two of them. It has an annual income of about £.900 currency; of which £.200 arises from funded public securities and lands, and the reft from the fees of the students.
The president of the college is also professor of eloquence, criticism, and chronology. The vice-president is also professor of divinity and moral philosophy. There is also a professor of mathematics, and natural philofophy, and two masters of languages. The four classes in college contain about seventy students. There is a grammar-school, of about thirty scholars, connected with the college, under the superintendance of the president, and taught by two masters.
Before the war this college was furnished with a philosophical apparatus, worth 6.500, which (except the elegant orrery constructed by Mr. Rittenhouse) was almost entirely destroyed by the British army in the late war, as was also the library, which now consists of between 2 and
The college edifice is handsomely built with stone, and is 180 feet in length, 54 in breadth, and 4 stories high; and is divided into forty-two
convenient chambers for the accommodation of the students, besides a dining hall, chapel room, and a room for the library. Its situation is exceedingly pleasant and healthful. The view from the college balcony is extensive and charming.
This college has been under the care of a succession of Presidents eminent for piety and learning ; and has furnished a number of Civilians, Divines, and Physicians of the first rank in America. It is remarkable, that all the Presidents of this college, except Dr. Witherspoon, who is now President, were removed by death very soon after their election into office*.
The charter for Queen's college, at Brunswick, was granted just before the war, in consequence of an application from a body of the Dutch church. Its funds, raised wholly by free donations, amounted, foon after its establishment, to four thousand pounds ; but they were considerably diminished by the war. The students are under the care of President Hardenberg. The grammar-school, which is connected with the college, consists of between thirty and forty students, under the care of the trustees. This college has lately increased both in numbers and reputation.
There are a number of flourishing academies in this state. One at Trenton, in which are about eighty students in the different branches. It has a fund of about one hundred and fifty pounds per annum, arifing from the interest on public securities. Another in Hakkensak, in the county of Bergen, of upwards of an hundred scholars. Instruction and board are faid to be cheaper here than in any part of the state. There is another flourishing academy at Orangedale, in the county of Eflex, confifting of nearly as many scholars as either of the others, furnished with able instructors, and good accommodations. Another has lately been opened at Elizabeth town, and consists of upwards of twenty students in the languages, and is increasing. There is also an academy in Burlington, in which young ladies and gentlemen are taught the English language grammatically, geography, and the learned languages. Besides these, there are grammar-schools at Newark, Springfield, Morristown, Bordentown, and Amboy. There are no regular establishments for common schools in the state. The usual mode of education is for the inhabitants of a village or neighbourhood to join in affording a temporary support for a school-master, upon such terms as is mutually agreeable. But the encouragement which these occasional teachers meet with, is generally such, as that no person of abilities adequate to the business, will undertake it; and of course, little advantage is derived from these schools. The improvement in these common schools is generally in proportion to the wages
of the teacher.
1746, 1748, 1758, 1758, 1761, 1767,
Rev. Samuel Finley, D. D.
1747 1757 1758. 1760. 1766.
Chief Towns.] There are a number of towns in this state, nearly of equal size and importance, and none that has more than two hundred houses, compactly built. Trenton is the largest town in New- Jersey. It is situated on the north-east side of the river Delaware, opposite the falls, nearly in the centre of the state, from north to fouth, in lat. 40° 15', and about 20' east of the meridian of Philadelphia. The river is not navigable above these falls, except for boats, which will carry from five to feven hundred bushels of wheat. . This town, with Lamberton, which joins it on the south, contains two hundred houses, and about fifteen hundred inhabitants. Here the legislature meets, the supreme court fits, and the public offices are all kept, except the secretary's, which is at Burlington. On these accounts, it is considered as the capital of the state. In the neighbourhood of this pleasant town, are feveral gentlemen's seats, finely lituated on the banks of the Delaware, and ornamented with taste and elegance. This town, being a thoroughfare between the eastern parts of the state and Philadelphia, has a considerable inland trade..
BURLINGTON (City) extends three miles along the Delaware, and one mile back, at right angles, into the county of Burlington, and is twenty miles above Philadelphia by water, and seventeen by land. The island, which is the most populous part of the city, is a mile and a quarter in length, and three quarters of a mile in breadth. It has four en, trances over bridges and causeways, and a quantity of bank meadow adjoining. On the island are one hundred and fixty houses, nine hundred white, and one hundred black inhabitants. But few of the negroes are llaves. The main streets are conveniently spacious, and mostly ornamented with trees in the fronts of the houses, which are regularly arranged. The Delaware, opposite the town, is about a mile wide; and, under shelter of Mittinnicunk and Burlington Islands, affords a safe and convenient harbour. It is commodiously situated for trade, but is too near the opulent city of Philadelphia to admit of any considerable increase. There are two houses for public worship in the town, one for the Friends or Quakers, who are the most numerous, and one for Episcopalians. The other public buildings are two market-houses, a courthouse, and the beit gaol in the state. Besides these, there is an academy, already mentioned, a free school, a nail manufactory, and an excellent distillery, if that can be called excellent, which produces a poison both of health and morals. The city is a
mayor, recorder, and aldermen hold a commercial court, when the matter in controversy is between foreigners and foreigners, or between foreigners and citizens. The island of Burlington was laid out, and the first settlements made as early as 1677. In 1682, the island Mittinnicunk, or Free-School inland, was given for the use of the island of Burlington ; the yearly profits arising from it (which amount to one hundred and eighty pounds) are appropriated for the edu
children. Perth AMBOY (City) took its name from James Drummond, earl of Perth ; and Ambo, the Indian word for point, and stands on a neck of land included between Raritan river and Arthur Kull found. Its situa
cation of poor