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continue ; and they will probably continue as long as there are unsettled lands with the limits of the United States, on which emigrants can more easily subsist by agriculture, than in their native state.
Trade.] The trade of this state is carried on almost solely with and from those two great commercial cities, New-York on one fide, and Philadelphia on the other; though it wants not good ports of its own. Seyeral attempts have been made by the legislature, to secure to the state its own natural advantages, by granting extraordinary privileges to nerchants, who would settle at Amboy and Burlington, two very commodious ports. But the people having long been accustomed to send their produce to the markets of Philadelphia and New-York, and of Course having their correspondencies established, and their mode of deal"g fixed, they find it difficult to turn their trade from the old channel. B-fides, pounds weight. He followed this vein almost thirty feet, when, the water coming in very fast, the expence became too great for the company’s capital. A stamping-mill was erected, when by reducing the bluish stone to a powder, and washing it in large tubs, the stone was carried off, and the fine copper preserved, by which means many tons of the purest copper was sent to England, without ever passing through the fire; but labour was too high to render it possible for the company to proceed, Sheets of copper about the thickness of two pennies, and three feet square, on an average, have been taken from between the rocks, within four feet of the surface, in several parts of the hill. At about fifty or fixty feet deep, they came to a body of fine solid ore, in the midst of this bluish vein, but between rocks of a white flinty spar, which, however, was worked out in a few days. These works lie now wholly neglected, although the vein when left was richer than ever it had been. There was airo a very rich vein of copper ore discovered at Rocky Hill, in Somerset county, which has also been neglected from the heavy expence attending the working of it. There have been various attempts made to search the hills beyond Boundbrook, known by the name of Van Horne's Mountain, but for the same reason it is now neglected. This mountain discovers the greatest appearance of copper ore, of any place in the state. It may be picked up on the surface of many parts of it. A smelting furnace was erected, before the revolution, in the neighbourhood, by two Germans, who were making very confiderable profit on their work, until the British destroyed it in the beginning of the war. The inhabitants made it worth their while, by collecting the ore from the surface, and by partially digging into the hill, to supply the furnace. Besides, a company opened a very large shaft on the fide of the hill, from which also a great deal of valuable ore and some virgin copper were taken. Two lumps of virgin copper were found here in the year 1754, which weighed 1900 pounds.”
by the patriotic inhabitants, to make a considerable quantity of that valuable and necessary article, at a time when it was most needed; and when the enemy were at the door, it afforded a timely supply. Although the bulk of the inhabitants in this state are farmers, yet agriculture has not been improved (a few instances excepted) to that degree which, from long experience, we might rationally expect, and which the fertility of the soil, in many places, seems to encourage. A great
part of the inhabitants are Dutch, who, although they are in general
neat and industrious farmers, have very little enterprize, and seldom adopt any new improvements in husbandry, because, through habits, and want of education to expand and liberalize their minds, they think their old modes of tilling the best. Indeed this is the case with the great body of the common people, and proves almost an insurmountable obstacle to agricultural improvements.
Mines and Minerals.] This state embosoms vast quantities of iron and copper ore. The iron ore is of two kinds ; one is capable of being manufactured into malleable iron, and is found in mountains and in low barrens; the other, called bog-ore, grows” in rich bottoms; and yields iron of a hard, brittle quality, and is commonly manufactured into hollow ware, and used sometimes instead of stone in building. ... A number of copper mines have been discovered in different parts of the state. One is in Bergen county, which when worked by the Schuylers, (to whom it belonged) was considerably produćtive; but they have for many years been neglected.
The following account of a copper mine at New-Brunswick, is given by a gentleman of distinétion, well informed upon the subject. ... “About the years 1748, 1749, 1750, several lumps of virgin copper from five to thirty pounds weight, (in the whole upwards of 200 pounds) were ploughed up in a field, belonging to Philip French, Esq; within a quarter of a mile of New-Brunswick. This induced Mr. Elias Boudinot, of the city of Philadelphia, to take a lease of Mr. French of this land, for ninety-nine years, in order to search for copper ore, a body of which he concluded must be contained in this hill. He took in several partners, and about the year 1751 opened a pit in the low grounds, about 2 or 300 yards from the river. He was led to this spot by a friend of his, who, a little before, passing by at three o’clock in the morning, observed
carefully observed it. - - U. pounds