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continue ; and they will probably continue as long as there are unsettled lands with the limits of the United States, on which emigrants can more easily sublift by agriculture, than in their native state.

Fare of the Country, Mountains, Soil and Produclions.] The counties of Suffex, Morris, and the northern part of Bergen, are mountainous. The South mountain, which is one ridge of the great Allegany range, crosses this state in about latitude 41o. This mountain einbofoms such amazing quantities of iron ore, that it may not improperly be called the Iron Mountain. The Kittatinny ridge passes through this state north of the South mountain. Several spúrs from these mountains, are projected in a southern direction. One passes between Springfield at Chatham. Another runs wett of it, by Morristown, Balkinridge and Vealtown. The interior country is, in general, agreeably variegated with hills and vallies. The southern counties which lie along the sea-coast, are pretty uniformly flat and fandy. The noted Highlands of Navefnk and Center Hill, are almost the only hills within the distance of many miles from the seacoait. The Highlands of Navesink are on the sea-coast near SandyHook, in the township of Middletown, and are the first lands that are discovered by mariners as they come upon the coast. They rise about 600 feet above the surface of the water

As much as five-eighths of most of the southern counties, or one-fourth of the whole state, is a fandy barren, unfit for cultivation. The land on the sea-coast in this, like that in the more southern states, has every appearance of made ground. The soil is generally a light land; and by digging, on an average, about fifty feet below the surface, (which can be done, even at the distance of twenty or thirty miles from the sea, without any iinpediment from rocks or stones) you come to falt marsh. The gentleman who gave this information adds, I have seen an oyster-shell that would hold a pint, which was dug out of the marsh, at fifty feet deep in digging a well. • About seven years since, continues my informer,

at Long Branch, in the county of Monmouth, in the banks of the Atlantic, which were greatly torn by a great rise of the sea in a violent easterly storm, was discovered the skeleton of fome huge carnivorous animal. The country people who firA faw it had so little curiosity, as to suffer it to be wholly destroyed, except a jaw tooth which I faw. This was about two and an half inches wide, five inches long, and as many deep. The person who helped to take it out of the bank, assured me there was one rib seven fees four inches, and another four feet long.'--To account for these curious phenomena is not my business, This is left for the ingenious naturalist, who has abilities and leisure to compare facts and appearances of this kind, and who probably may thence draw conclusions which may throw inuch light on the ancient history of this country.

This state has all the varieties of soil from ihe worst to the beft kind. It has a greater proportion of barrens than any of the states, if we except North-Carolina ; aud even than this, if we include the premature State of Franklin. The good land on the fouthern counties lies principally on the banks of the rivers and creeks. The foil, on these banks, is generally a ftiff clay; and while in a state of nature, produces various species of oak, hickory, poplar, chefout, ash, gum, &c.* The barrens produce little else


þut Arub oaks and white and yellow pines. There are large bodies of lalt meadow along the Delaware, which afford a plentiful pafture for caule in summer, and hay in winter ; but the flies and muskeloes frequent these ineadows in large swarıns, in the months of June, July and Auguft, and prove very troublesome both to man and beast In Gloucester and Cumberland courties are several large tracts of banked meadow. Their vicinity to Philadelphia renders them highly valuable. Along the fea-coaft the inhabitants subsist principally by feeding cattle on the falt meadows, and by the fish of various kinds, such as rock, drum, shad, perch, &c. black iurtle, crabs and oysters, which the sea, rivers, and creeks afford in great abundance. They raise Indian corn, rye, potatoes, &c. but not for exportation. Their swamps afford lumber, which is easily conveyed to a good market.

In the hilly and mountainous parts of the state, which are not too jocky for cultivation, the soil is of a stronger kind, and covered in its na'ural state with stately oaks, hickories, chelnuts, &c. &c. aud when cultivated produces wheat, rye, Indian corn, buck-wheat, oats, barley, flax, and fruits of all kinds common to the climate. The land in this hilly country is good for grazing, and the farmers feed great numbers of cattle for New-York and Philadelphia markets ; and many of them keep large dairies.

The orchards in many parts of the itate equal any in the United States, and their cyder is faid, and not without reason, to be the best in the world. It is pretty certain that it cannot be surpassed in goodness. It is only to be regretted that too many of the inhabitants make too free a use of it, to the injury not only of their healths, but of their reputations ; and that the pernicious practice of diftilling it, and thereby rendering it still more prejudicial, is prevailing. It is pity that the blesings of bcunteous heaven Thould thus, by their abuse, he turned into curfes. The markets of New-York and Philadelphia receive a very

considera ble proportion of their supplies from the contiguous parts of New-Jersey. And it is worthy of teark that these contiguous parts are exceedingly well calculated, as to the nature and fertility of their foils, to afford these supplies ; and the intervention of a great number of navigable rivers and creeks, renders it very convenient to market their produce. Thefe fupplies consist of vegetables of many kinds, apples, pears, peaches, plumbs, strawberries, cherries, and other fruits--cyder in large quantitius, and of the best quality, butter, cheefe, beef, pork, mytton, and the letter

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Trade.] The trade of this state is carried on almost folely with and from those two great commercial cities, New-York on one side, and Phiİadelphia on the other ; though it wants not good ports of its own. Several attempts have been made by the legislature, to secure to the ita e its own natúral advantages, by granting extraordinary privileges to nierchants, who would fetile at Amboy and Burlington, two very comodious ports. But the people having long been accustomed to send their produce to the markets of Philadelphia and New-York, and of course having their correspondencies established, and their mode of dealing fixed, they find it difficult to turn their trade from the old channel.


Besides, in these large cities, where are so many able merchants, and so inany wants to be supplied, credits are more easily obtained, aud a better and quieker market is found for produce, than could be expected in towns less populous and flourishing. 'These and other causes of the same kind, have, hitherto, rendered abortive the encouragements held out by the legislature.

New-York and Pennsylvania, however, not contented with the privilege of being the factors and carriers for this state, charge it with the fame duties they do their own citizens. This heavy and unreasonable tax upon the people, together with the loss they sustain in dealing with a depreciated paper currency, occasions the balance of trade to be against the ftate in almost every respect.

The articles exported, besides those already mentioned, are, wheat, flour, horfes, live cattle, hams, which are celebrated as being the best in the world, lumber, flax-feed, leather, iron in great quantities, in pigs and bars, and formerly copper ore was reckoned among their most valuable expoits ; but the mines have not been worked fince the commencement of the late war.

The imports conlist chiefly of dry and West-India goods, and teas from che East-Indies.

Manufactures and Agriculture.) The manufactures of this state have hitherto been very inconsiderable, not sufficient to supply its own consumption, if we except the articles of iron, nails and leather. A spirit of industry and iinprovement, particularly in manufactures, has however greatly increased the two last years. Most of the families in the country, and many in the populous towns, are clothed in strong, decent homespun: and it is a happy circumstance for our country, that this plain AMERICAN dress is every day growing more fashionable, not only in this, but in all the eastern and middle states.

In Trenton and Newark, are several very valuable tan-yards, where leather, in large quantities, and of an excellent quality, is made and exa ported to the neighbouring markets. Steel was manufactured at Trenton in time of the war, but not considerably since. In Gloucester county is a glass-house. Paper-mills, and nail mantfactories, are erected and worked to good advantage in many parts of the state. Wheat also is manufacjured into ficur to good account, in the western counties, where it is the staple commodity. But the iron manufacture is, of all others, the greatest source of wealth to the state. Iron works are erected in Gloucester, Burlington, Morris, and other counties. The mountains in the county of Morris, give rise to a number of streams necessary and convenient for these works, and at the same time furnish a copious supply of wood and ore of a superior quality. In this county alone are no less than seven rich iron mines, from which might be taken ore fufficient to fupply the United States ; and to work it into iron are two furnaces, two rolling and fitting mills, and about thirty forges, containing from two to four fires each. Thele works produce annually about 5 40 tons of bar iron, 800 tons of pigs, besides large quantities of hollow ware, sheet iton, and nail rods. In the whole state, it is supposed tbere is yearly made about 1200 tons of bar-iron, 1200 do. of pigs, 80 do. of nail rods, exclunue of hollow ware, and various other castings, of which yaft quantities are made.


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Early in the late war; a powder-mill was erected in Morristown by Col. Ford, who was enabled, by the ample supply of saltpetre furnished by the patriotic inhabitants, to make a considerable quantity of that valuable and necessary article, at a time when it was most needed ; and when the enemy were at the door, it afforded a timely supply.

Although the bulk of the inhabitants in this state are farmers, yet agriculture has not been improved (a few instances excepted) to that degree which, from long experience, we might rationally expect, and which the fertility of the soil, in many places, seems to encourage. part of the inhabitants are Dutch, who, although they are in general neat and industrious farmers, have very little enterprize, and seldom adopt any new improvements in husbandry, because, through habits, and want of education to expand and liberalize their minds, they think their old modes of tilling the best. Indeed this is the case with the great body of the common people, and proves almost an insurmountable obstacle to agricultural improvements.

Mines and Minerals.] This itate embosoms vaft quantities of iron and copper ore. The iron ore is of two kinds ; one is capable of being manufactured into malleable iron, and is found in mountains and in low barrens; the other, called bog-ore, grows* in rich bottoms ; and yields iron of a hard, brittle quality, and is commonly manufactured into hollow ware, and used sometimes instead of stone in building.

A number of copper mines have been discovered in different parts of the state.

One is in Bergen county, which when worked by the Schujilers, (to whom it belonged) was considerably productive; but they have for

many years been neglected.

The following account of a copper mine at New-Brunswick, is given by a gentleman of distinction, well informed upon the subject.

« About the years 1748, 1749, 1750, several lumps of virgin copper from five to thirty pounds weight, (in the whole upwards of 200 pounds) were ploughed up in a field, belonging to Philip French, Esq; within a quarter of a mile of New-Brunswick. This induced Mr. Elias Boudinot, of the city of Philadelphia, to take a lease of Mr. French of this land, for ninety-nine years, in order to search for copper ore, a body of which he concluded must be contained in this hill. He took in several partners, and about the year 1751 opened a pit in the low grounds, about 2 or 300 yards from the river. He was led to this spot by a friend of his, who, a little before, passing by at three o'clock in the morning, observed a body of fame arise out of the ground, as large as a common fized man, and soon after die away. He drove a stake on the spot. About fifteeen feet deep, Mr. Boudinot came on a vein of a bluish ftone, about two feet thick, between two perpendicular loose bodies of red rock, covered with a sheet of pure virgin copper, a little thicker than gold leaf. This bluish stone was filled with sparks of virgin copper, very much like copper filings, and now and then a large lump of virgin copper from five to thirty

Some persons, perhaps will be surprised at my saying that ore grows, but that it does in fact grow is well known to many curious naturalifts who have carefully observed it.


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pounds weight. He followed this vein almost thirty feet, when, the water coming in very fast, the expence became too great for the company's capital. A stamping-mill was erected, when by reducing the bluish ftone to a powder, and washing it in large tubs, the stone was carried off, and the fine copper preserved, by which means many tons of the purest copper was sent to England without ever passing through the fire ; but labour was too high to render it posible for the company to proceed, Sheets of

copper about the thickness of two pennies, and three feet square, on an average, have been taken from between the rocks, within four feet of the surface, in several parts of the hill. At about fifty or fixty feet deep, they came to a body of fine folid ore, in the midst of this bluish vein, but between rocks of a white flinty spar, which, however, was worked out in a few days. These works lie now wholly neglected, although the vein when left was richer than ever it had been.

There was alio a very rich vein of copper ore discovered at Rocky Hill, in Somerset county, which has also been neglected from the heævy expence attending the working of it. There have been various attempts made to search the hills beyond Boundbrook, known by the name of Van Horne's Mountain, but for the same reason it is now neglected. This mountain discovers the greatest appearance of copper ore, of any place in the state. It may be picked up on the surface of many parts of it. A smelting furnace was erected, before the revolution, in the neighbourhood, by two Germans, who were making very considerable profit on their work, until the British deitroyed it in the beginning of the war. The inhabitants made it worth their while, by collecting the ore from the surface, and by partially digging into the hill, to supply the furnace. Besides, a company opened a very large shaft on the side of the hill, from which also a great deal of valuable ore and some virgin copper were taken. Two lumps of virgin copper were found here in the year 1754, which weighed 1900 pounds.

Curious Springs.] In the upper part of the county of Morris, is a cold mineral spring, which is frequented by valetudinarians, and its waters have been used with very considerable success. In the township of Hanover, in this county, on a ridge of hills, are a number of wells, which regularly ebb and flow about six feet twice in every twenty-four hours. These wells are nearly forty miles from the fea, in a straight line. In the county of Cape May, is a spring of fresh water, which boils up from the bottom of a salt water creek, which runs nearly dry at low tide ; but at flood cide, is covered with water directly from the ocean to the depth of three or four feet; yet in this situation, by letting down a bottle well corked, through the salt water into the spring, and immediately drawing the cork with a string prepared for the purpose, it may be drawn up full of fine, untainted fresh water. There are springs of this kind in other parts of the fate. In the county of Hunterdon, near the top of Muskonetkony mountain, is a noted medicinal spring, to which invalids resort from every quarter. It issues from the side of the mountain in a very romantic manner, and is conveyed into an artificial reservoir for the accommodation of those who wish to bathe in, as well as to drink, the waters. It is a strong chalybeate, and very cold. These waters have been used with very considerable success; but perhaps the exercise necessary to get to


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