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most of them find employment and support. There is no attorney-general, but there is one attorney to the state in each county.

New Inventions.] Early in the war, David Bushnel, A. M. of Saybrook, invented a machine for submarine navigation, altogether different from any thing hitherto devised by the art of man. This machine was so constructed as that it could be rowed horizontally, at any given depth, under water, and could be raised or depressed at pleasure. To this machine, called the American Turtle, was attached a magazine of powder, which was intended to be fastened under the bottom of à fhip with a driva ing screw, in such a way as that the same stroke which disengaged it from the machine should put the internal clock work in motion. This being done, the ordinary operation of a gun-lock, at the distance of half an hour, or any determinate tiine, would cause the power to explode and leave the effects to the comnion laws of nature. The fimplicity, yet combination discovered in the mechanisin of this wonderful machine, have been acknowledged by those skilled in physics, and particularly Hydraulics, to be not lefs ingenious than novel. Mr. Bushnel invented several other curious machines for the annoyance of the British shipping, but from accidents, not militating against the philofophical principles on which their success depended, they but partially succeeded. He destroyed a vessel in the charge of commodore Symmonds. One of his kegs also demolished a vessel near the Long-Iland shore. About Christmas, 1777, he committed to the Delaware river a number of kegs, destined to fall among

the British fleet at Philadelphia , but this squadron of kegs, having been separated and retarded by the ice, demolished but a single boat. This catastrophe, however, produced an alarm, unprecedented in its nature and degree; which has been so happily described by the Hon. Francis Hopkinson, in a song, stiled "The Battle of the Kegs ti' that the event it celebrated will not be forgotten so long as mankind shall continue to be delighted with works of humour and tastę.

Mr. Hanks, of Litchfield, has invented a method of winding up clocks by means of air aud wind only, which is new and ingenious.

Mr. Culver, of Norwick, has constructed (whether he was the inventor I know not) a Dock-Drudge, which is a boat for clearing docks and removing bars in rivers ; a very ingenious and useful machine. Its good effects have already been experienced in the navigation of the river Thanes, the channel of which has been considerably deepened. This machine will no doubt be productive of very great advantages to navigation throughout the United States.

A machine for drawing wire was invented sometime fince at Norwick, by the Hon. N. Niles, now in Verinont.

The Rev. Joseph Badger, while a member in Yale College in 1785, conftructed an ingenious planetarium, (without ever having seen one of the kind) which is deposited in the library of that university.

History.) The present territory of Connecticut, at the tiine of the first arrival of ihe English, was possessed by the Pequot, the Mohegan, Podunk, and many other smaller tribes of Indians.


+ See Col. Humphrey's life of General Putnam, p. 123.

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The Pequots were numerous and warlike. Their country extended along the seacoast from Paukatuk, to Connecticut river. About the year 1630, this powerful tribe extended their conquests over a considerable part of Connecticut, over all Long-Iland and part of Narragansett. SASSAcus, who was the Grand Monarch of the whole country, was king of this nation. The seat of his dominion was at New-London, the ancient Indian name of which was Pequot.

The Mohegans were a numerous tribe, and their territory extensive. Their ancient claim, which was suryeyed and settled by commislioners from Queen Ann, in 1705, con prehended all New-London county, except a narrow Itrip of about eight miles wide, on the sea-coalt, almost the whole of the county of Windhamn, and a part of the counties of Tolland and Hartford. UNCUS, diftinguished for his friendship to the English, was the Sachem of his tribe.

The Podunks inhabited East Hartford, and the circumjacent country. The first Sachein of this tribe, of whoin the English had any knowledge, was Tatanimoo. He was able to bring into the field more than 200 fighting men.

The first grant of Connecticut was made by the Plymouth council, to the Earl of Warwick, in 1630, and confirmed by his majesty in council the fame year. This grant comprehended “ all that part of New-England which lies west from Narragansett river, 120 miles on the sea-coast from thence, in latitude and breadth aforefaid, to the south sea. The year following, the Earl afligned this grant to Lord Say and Seal, Lord Brook, and nine others.

No English settlements were attempted in Connecticut until the year 1653, when a number of Indian traders, having purchased of Zequasson and Natawanute, two principal Sachems, a tract of land at the mouth of Little river in Windsor, built a house and fortified it, and ever after. maintained their right of soil upon the river.

The same year, a little before the arrival of the English, a company of Dutch traders came to Hartford, and built a house which they called the Hirse of Good Hope, and erected a small fort, in which they planted two

The remains of this settlement are still visible on the bank of Connecticut river. This was the only settlement of the Dutch in Con, necticut in those ancient times. The Dutch, and after them the Province of New-York, for a long time, claimed as far east as the western bank of Connecticut river. It belongs to the profeffed historian to prove or difprove the justice of this clair. Douglafs says, the partition line between New-York and Connecticut, as established December !, 1664, runs from the mouth of Memoroncok river, (a little west from Byram river,) N. N. W.and was the ancient easterly limits of New York, until Nov. 23, 1683, when the line was run nearly the same as it is now settled * ' If Douglass is right, the New-york clain could not have been well founded:

In 1634, Lord Say and Seal, &c. fent over a finall nuniber of men, who built a fort at Saybrook, and held a treaty with the Pequot Indians, who, in a formal manner, gave to the English their right to Connecticut river and the adjacent country.

lp * Douglass, Sum. Vol. II. p. 161.


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In 1635, the Plymouth council granted to the Duke of Hamilton, all lands between Narragansett and Connecticut rivers, and back into the country as far as Massachusetts south line. This covered a part of the Earl of Warwick's patent, and occasioned some disputes in the colony. There were several attempts to revive the Hamilton claim, but were never prosecuted.

In Oc. of this year, about sixty persons from Newton, Dorchester, and Waterton, in Massachusetts, caine and settled in Hartford, Wethersfield, and Windfor, in Connecticut; and the June following the fainous Mr. Hooker, and his company, came and settled at Hartford, and was a friend and father to the colony to the day of his death.

The first court held in Connecticut was at Hartford, April 26th, 1636.

The year 1637 was distinguished by the war with the Pequots. This warlike nation had, for some time, been troublesome neighbours. They solicited the Narragan setts to join them in extirpating the English. They had surprized and killed several of the English non Connecticut river. These threatening appearances and actual loftilities, induced the three colonies of Massachusetis, Plymouth, and Connecticut, to combine their forces to carry the war into their country, and to attempt the entire destruction of the whole tribe. Myantonomo, the Narragansett Sachem, and Uncas, Sachem of the Mohegans, sent to the English and offered their service to join with them against the Pequots. Forces were accordingly raised in all the colonies, but those of conne@icut, on account of their vicinity to the enemy, were first in action. Captain Mason, with 8o English and 100 Indians from Connecticut river, proceeded by water to the Narraganfeti's country, where 200 of that tribe joined him. On the 24th of May, they began their march for Safsacus" fort on Pequot, now Thames, river. They afterwards determined first to assault Mystic fort, which was situated between them and Pequot river. On the morning of the 26th of May the attack was made. The Indians, after a midnight revel, were buried in a deep sleep. At the moment of their approach, the centinel happened to be gone into a wigwam to light his pipe. The barking of a dog gave the alarm, The Indians awoke seized their arrows, and began their hideous yell. They were joined in their tremendous noite by the Indians in the English army, who were in the rear, and afraid to apfroach. The battle was warm and bloody, and the victory compleat. The fort was taken about 70 wigwams were burnt–50 or 6o of the Indians were killed many were wounded and taken, and the rest escaped. Saffacus and his warriors at Pequot, struck with terror at the news of this defeat, demolished their principal fort, burnt their wigwams, and fled to the westward. Capt. Stoughton, with 160 men from Massachusetts, had by this time arrived at Saybrook. He, with his forces, joined Captain Mafon, and pursued the Indians, and overtook and surrounded them in a great swamp near Fairfield. A Sachem and ninety-nine women and children came out and delivered themselves up to their pursuers. Terms of peace were offered to the rest. But after a short parley they determined, that as they had lived they would die together.' Ther were about eighty who made this resolution. Part of these escaped by means of the darkness of the night. The rest were either killed or taken. In this action the Indians had guns,




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which is the first account of their having used them. Saffacus fled to the Mohawks, by whom it is reported he was murdered but it is more probable that he and his company incorporated with them. Many of the Indian captives were unjustifiably sent to Bermudas and sold for slaves. The Pequot tribe was wholly extinguished. This successful expedition ftruck the Indians that remained with such terror, as restrained them from open

hostili gies for near forty years after.

The English thus obtained the country east of the Dutch settlements, by right of conquest. The pursuit of the Indians led to an acquaintance with the lands on the sea-coast, from Saybrook to Fairfield. It was reported to be a very fine country. This favourable report induced Meffrs. Laton and Hopkins, two very respectabie London merchants, and Mr. Davenport, a man of distinguished piety and abilities, with their company, who arrived this year (1637) from London, to think of this part of the country as the place of their fertlement. Their friends in Massachusetts, sorry to part with lo valuable a company, dissuaded them from their purpose. Influenced, however, by the promising prospects which the country afforded, and flattering themselves that the should be out of the ju. pildiction of a general governor, with which the country was from time to time threatened, they determined to proceed. Accordingly, in March, 1638, with the consent of their friends on Connecticut river, they settled at New Haven, and laid the foundation of a flourishing colony, of which Quinnipiak; now New Haven, was the chief town. The first public worthip, in this new plantation, was attended on Lord's day, April 18th, 1633, under a large spreading oak. The Rev. Mr. Davenport preached from Matt, iii, 1. on the temptations of the wilderness. Both colonies, by voluntary compact, formed themselves into distinct comnonwealths, and remained so until their union in 166$.

In 1639, the three towns on Connecticut river, already mentioned, finding themselves without the limits of any jurisdiction, forined themselves into a body politic, and agreed upon articles of civil government. These articles were the foundation of Connecticut charter, which was granted in 1662. The substance of the articles, fo far as they respect the holding of assemblies, the time and manner of electing magistrates and other civil officers, (except that in the old confederation no person was to be chofen governor more than once in two years) and the extent of legislative

powers was transferred into, and established in faid charter. Tlie first church was gathered in New Haven this year, and consisted of seven members. Thele were chosen by the settlers after Mr. Davenport had preached from the words of Solomon, · Wisdom hath builded her house, the hath hewed out her seven pillars. These men were indeed the pillars of the church, to whom the rest were added as they became qualified. They were, also, the court to try all civil aciions.

The first fetilers in New Haven had all things common all purchases were made in the name and for the use of the whole plantation, and the Jards were spportioned out to each family, according to their number and originaittache

Ai their first election, in October, 1639, Mr. Theophilus Eaton was cholen governor for the first year.

Their elections, by agreement, were to be annuai ; and the Word of God their only rule in conducting the fuiss of governuent in the plantation,


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In 1643, the articles of confederation between the four New-England colonjes, mentioned p. 158, were unanimously adopted by the colonies of New-Haven and Connecticut.

The English fettlement on Delaware, which was under the jurisdiation of New Haven, was surprized by the Swedes, and the people put in irons, under a false pretence that they were entering into a conspiracy with the Indians to extirpate the Swedes.

The general court of New-Haven, this year, established it as a fundamental article not to be disputed, That none be admitted as free burgesses but church members, and that none but such should vote at elections. They also ordained, That each town choose from among

themselves judges (church members) to be a court, to have cognizance of all civil actions not exceeding twenty pounds; and of criminal causes, where the punishment was, sitting in the itocks, whipping, and fining not exceeding five pounds. There was liberty of appeal from this to the court of magiftrates. The court of magistrates confitted of all the magistrates througiout the colony, who were to meet twice a year, at New Haven, for the trial of all capital causes. Six made a quorum.

The general court was to consist of the governor, deputy.goverror, magistrates, and two representatives from each town. The annual election of officers of government was at this time established, and has ever fince continued.

The unsettled state of the colony had hitherto prevented their establishing a code of laws. To supply this defect, the general court ordered,

That the judicial laws of God as they were delivered to Mofes, and as they are a fence to the moral, being neither typical nor ceremonial, nor having any reference to Canaan, shall be accounted of moral equity, and generally bind all offenders, and be a rule to all the courts in this jurisdiction in their proceedings against offenders, until they be branched out inio particulars hereafter.'

About this time a war broke out between the Mohegan and Narragansett Indians. A personal quarrel between Myantononio, fachem of the Narragansetts, and Unças, fachem of the Mohegans, was the foundation of the war.

Myantonómo raised an army of 900 warriors, and marched towards the Mohegan country. Uncas by his spies received timely notice of their approach. His feat of residence was in fome part of Norwich, He quickly collected 6ca of his bravest warriors, and told them, · The Narraganfetts must not come into our town, we must meet then. They accordingly marched about three miles to a large plain, where the two ar, mies met, and halted within bow thot of each other. A parley was proposed by Uncas, and agreed to by Myantonomo. The fachenis met, and Uncas addressed his enemy as follows. You have a great many brave men-so have l-You and I have quarrelled, but these warriors, what have they done Shall they die to avenge a private quarrell between us? No. Come like a brave man, as you pretend to be, and let us fight. If you kill me, my men shall be yours; if I kill you, your men shall be mine." Myantonoma replied, ' My men came to light, and they ihall fighe." Uncas, like an experienced warrior, aware of the result of the conference from the superior force of his enemy, had previously fignificd to his men, Shat if Myantonomo refused to fight him in single coinbat, he would



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