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nevolent gentleman, in his last will, dated 1657, left, in the hands of Theophilus Eaton, Esq. and three others, a legacy of £. 1324, couragement, in these foreign plantations, of breeding up hopeful youths both at the grammar-school and college.' In 1664, this legacy was equally divided between New-Haven and Hartford ; and grammar-schools were erected, which have been supported ever since.

At Greenfield there is a respectable academy, under the care and instruction of the Rev. Dr. Dwight. At Plainfield is another, under the care of the Rev. Mr. Benedict. This academy has flourished for several years, and furnished a number of students for Yale and Dartmouth colleges. At Norwich and Windham, likewise, are academies furnished with able instructors ; each of these academies have fixiy or feveniy scholars.

YALE COLLEGE was founded in 1700, and remained at Killingwerth until 1707- then at Saybrook, until 1916, when it was removed and fixed to New Haven. Among its principal benefactors was governor Yale, in honor of whom, in 1718, it was named YALE COLLEGE. " Its first building was erected in 1717, being 170 feet in length, and 22 in breadth, built of wood. This was taken down in 1782. The present college edifice, which is of brick, was built in 1750, under the direction of the Rev. President Clap, and is 100 feet long, and 40 feet wide, three ttories high, and contairs thirty-two chambers, and lixty-four studies, convenient for the reception of a hurdred fludents. The college chapel, which is also of brick, was built in 1761, being fifty feet by forty, with a steeple 125 feet high. In this building is the public library, consisting of about 25co volumes ; and the philosophical apparatus, which is at prelent incomplete. It contains, however, the principal machines neceffary for exhibiting most of the experiments in the whole courfe of experimental philosophy and astronomy. The sum of £-300, collecled by subscriptions, is now in readiness to be expended in the purchase of such other instrufients and machines, as will render the philosophical apparatus compiete.

The college museum, to which additions are constantly making, contains some great natural curiosities.

This literary inftitution was incorporated by the general assembly of Conreclicut. The first charter or incorporation was granted to eleven niirillers, under the denomination of truitees, 1701. The powers of the trustees were enlarged by the additional charter, 1723. Ard by that of 1745, the trustees were incorporated by the name of The President and Fellows of Yale college, New-Haven. The corporation are empowered to hold ettates, continue their succession, make academic laws, elect and constitute all officers of instruction and government, usual in universities, and confer ail learned degrees. The ordinary executive government is in the hands of liie president

and tutors. The present officers of the college are, a president, who is also professor of ecclesiastical history, a professor of divinity, and three tutors. The number of students for several years paft has been from 150 to 250, divided into four classes. The prefent number is about 140. It is worthy of remark, that as many as five-fixths of those who have received their educations at this university, were natives of Connecticut.

In 1732, the Rev. George Berkely, D. D. then dean of Derry, and afterwards bishop of Cloyne, in Ireland, made a generous donation of 880


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volumes of books, and an estate in Rhode-Iland, that rents yearly for 100 ounces of silver-which is divided into three parts, and annually ap. propriated to the three best scholars in the Latin and Greek classics. This has proved a great incentive among the students to excel in classical learning. The first donation to the college in land, consisting of about 600 acres, was made by major James Fitch, in 1701. The general afsembly, in 1732, gave 1 500 acres within the state. Dr. Daniel Lathrop, of Norvich, added a donation of £.500 to the college funds in 1781. The course of education, in this university, comprehends the whole circle of literature. The three learned languages are taught, together with so much of the sciences as can be communicated in four years. Great attention is paid to oratory and the belles lettres.

In May and September, annually, the several classes are critically exaniined in all their classical ftudies. As incentives to improvement in composition and oratory, quarterly exercises are appointed by the president and rutors, to be exhibited by the reípective classes in rotation. A public commencement is held annually, on the second Wednesday in September, which calls together a more nnmerous and brilliant assembly, than are convened by any other anniversary in the state.

Two thousand and eighty have received the honours of this university ;
of whom 633 have been ordained to the work of the gospel miniftry.

A. D.

A. D.
Å braham Pierson,

Timothy Cutler, S. T. D.

Elisha Williams,

Thomas Clap,

1777 Ezra Stiles, S.T. D. L. L. D.
Mines, minerals, and fofils.) On the bank of Connecticut river, two
miles from Middleton, is a lead iine, which was wrought during the
war, at the expence of the state, and was productive: It is too expensive to
work in time of peace. Copper mines have been discovered and opened
in several parts of the state, but have proved ünprofitable, and are much
neglected. Iron mines are numerous and prodnctive. Steel ore has been
found in the mountains between Woodbury and New Milford. Talks
of various kinds, white, brown and chocolate-coloured crystals, zink or
spelter, a semi-metal, and several other fossils and metals have been found
in Connecticut.

Mode of levying taxes.] All free holders in the state are required by law, to give in lists of their polls and rateable estate f, to persons appointed in the respective towns to receive theň, on or before the ioth of Sept. annually. These are valued according to law, arranged in proper order, and sent to the general affembly annually in May.


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+ In Connecticut, borses, horned cattle, improved and unimproved land, houses, shipping, all sorts of riding carriages, clocks and watches, silver plate and money at intereft, are rateable estate. All males between fixteen and Seventy years of age, unless exempted by law, are subjedts of taxations

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The fum total of the list of the polls and rateable estate of the inhabitants of Connecticut, as brought into the general assembly at May, 1787, was as follows: Sum total of the fingle lift,

$.1,484,901 : 6:4:$ Aferiments,

47,790 : 2 : 9 One quarter of the fourfolds,

1,176: 9:4 Total,

$11,533,867 : 18: 5:$ On this sum taxes are levied, fo much on the pound, according to the sum proposed to be raised. A tax of two-pence on the pound, would raife L. 12,782 : 45.

The ordinary annual expences of government before the war, amounted to near £:4000 sterling, exclusive of that which was appropriated to the support of schools. The expences have fince increased.

Mineral springs.] At Stafford is a medicinal spring; which is said to be a fovereign remedy for fcorbutic, cutaneous and other disorders. At Guilford is a spring, whose water, it is said, when separated from the fountain, will evaporate even when put into a bottle, and tightly corked,

Conftitution and Courts of Justice.] It is difficult to fay what is the constitution of this state. Contented with, the form of government which, criginated from the charter of Charles II. granted in 1662, the people have not been disposed to run the hazard of framing a new constitution fince the declaration of independence. They have tacitly adopted their old charter as the ground of civil governarent, so far as it is applicable to an independent people.

Agreeably to this charter, the supreme legislative authority of the ftate is vested in a governor, deputy governor, twelve affiftants or counfellors, and the representatives of the people, styled the General Assembly. The governor, deputy governor and afiftants, are annually chosen by the freemen in the month of May. The representatives (their number not to exceed, two from each town) are chosen by the freemen twice a year, to attend. the two annual feslions, on the second Thursdays of May and October. This asembly las power to erect judicatories, for the trial of caufes civil and criminal, and to ordain and establish laws for fettling the forms and ceremonies of government. By these laws the general af fembly is divided into two branches, called the upper and lower houses. The upper house is composed of the governar, deputy governor and affiftants. The lower house, of the reprefentatives of the people. No law can pass without the concurrence of both houses. The judges of the superior court hold, their offices during the pleasure oi the general afsembly. The judges of the county courts, and justices, are annually appainted. Sheriffs are appointed by the governor and council, without limitation of time. The governor is captain-general of the militia, the deputy-governor, lieutenant-general. All other military officers are apa pointed by the affembly, and commissioned by the governor.

The inode of electing the governor, deputy-governor, alliftants, treasurer and fecretary, is as follows: The freemen in the several towns nieet on the Monday next after the first Tuesday, in April, annually, and

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give in their votes for the persons they choose for the said offices respectively, with their names written on a piece of paper, which are received and fealed up by a constable in open meeting, the votes for each office by themfelves, with the name of the town and office written on the outside. These votes, thus sealed, are sent to the general assembly in May, and there counted by a committe from both houses. All freemen are eligible to any office in government. In chocsing assistants, twenty persons are nominated, by the vote of each freeman, at the freeman's meeting for choosing representatives in September annually. These votes are sealed up, and sent to the general assembly in October, and are there counted by a committe of both houses, and the twenty persons who have the most votes fand in nomination ; out of which number the twelve who have the greatest number of votes, given by the freemen at their meeting in April, are, in May, declared assistants in the manner above-mentioned. The qualifications of freemen are, maturity in years-quiet and peaceable behaviour -a civil conversation, and freehold estate to the value of forty shillings per annum, or forty pounds personal estate in the list, certified by the lelect men of the town ; it is necessary, also, that they take the oath of fidelity to the state. Their names are enrolled in the town-clerk's office, and they continue freemen for life, unless disfranchised by sentence of the fuperior court, on condition of misdemeanour.

The courts are as follow : The justices of the peace, of whom a num, ber are annually appointed in each town by the general assembly, have authority to hear and deterinine civil actions, where the demand does not exceed four pounds. If the deinand exceeds forty shillings, an appeal to the county is allowed. They have cognizance of small offences, and may punish by fine, not exceeding forty shillings, or whipping, not exceeding ten , Atripes, or fitting in the stocks. There are eighty county courts in the state, held in the several counties by one judge and four justices of the quorum, who have jurisdiction of all criminal cases, arising within their respective counties, where the punishment does not extend to life, limb, or banishment. They have original jurisdiction of all civil actions which exceed the jurisdiation of a justice. Either party may appeal to the superior court, if the demand exceeds twenty pounds, except on bonds or notes vouched by two witnesses.

There are several courts of probate in each county, consisting of one judge. The peculiar province of this court, is the probate of wills, granting administration on intestate estates, ordering distribution of them, and appointing guardians for minors, &c. An appeal lies from any decree of this court to the superior court.

The superior court consists of five judges. It has authority in all criminal cases extending to life, limb or banishment, and other high crimes and misdemeanors, to grant divorces, and to hear and determine all civil actions brought by appeal froin the county courts, or the court of probate, and to correct the errors of all inferior courts.

This is a circuit court, and has two stated sessions in each county annually. The superior and county courts try matters of fact by a jury, or without, if the parties will agree.

There is a supreme court of errors, consisting of the deputy-governor and the twelve allistants. Their fole business is to determine writs of


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error, brought on judgments of the superior court, where the error com, plained of appears on the record. They have two stated sessions annually, viz. on the Tuesdays of the weeks preceding the stated sessions of the general assembly

The county court is a court of chancery, empowered to hear and determine cases in equity, where the matter in demard does not exceed one hundred pounds. The superior court has cognizance of all cases where the demand exceeds thai {um. Error may be brought from the county, to the superior court, and from the superior court to the supreme court of errors, on judgment in cases of equity as well as of law.

The general assembly, only, have power to grant pardons and reprieves - to grant commissions of bankruptcy-or protect the persons and estates of unfortunate debtors.

The common law of England, so far as it is applicable to this country, is considered as the common law of this state. The reports of adjudication in the courts of king's bench, common pleas and chancery, are read in the courts of this state as authorities; yet the judges do not consider them as conclusively binding, unless founded on solid reasons which will apply in this state, or fanctioned by concurrent adjudications of their own couits

The feudal system of descents was never adopted in this state. All the real estate of intestates is divided equally among the children, males and females, except that the eldest son has a double portion. And all estates given in tail, muil be given to some person then in being, or to their immediate issue, and shall become fee simple estates to the issue of the first donee in tail The widow of an intestate is entitled to a third part of the personal estate for ever, and to her dower, or third part of the houses and lands belonging to the intestate at the time of his death, during her life.

Practice of law.] The practice of law in this state has more fimplicity, but less precision, than in England. Alliftants and judges are impowered to issue writs through the estate, and justices, through their respective counties. In these writs, the substance of the complaints or the declarations must be contained, and if neither of the parties Mew good reason for delay, the causes are heard and determined the same term to which the writs are returnable. Few of the fi&tions of law, so common in the English practice, are known in this state The plaintiff always has his election to attach or fummon the defendant. Attornies are admitted and qualified by the county courts. Previous to their admission to the bar, they must study two years with a practising attorrey in the flate, if they have had a college education, and three years if they have not; their morals must be good, and their characters unblemifhed, and they must sustain an examination by the attornies of the court of the county where they are admitted, and be by them recommended to the court. When admitted to the county court, they can practice, without other qualifications, in any court in the state. They are upon an average, about thirteen aitornies to each county, one hundred and four in the state ; a very great proportion for the real exigencies of the people. Yet from the litigious spirit of the citizens, the


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+ A volume of reports of adjudications of the superior court, it is expected will soon be published by a gentleman of abilities, in the profession of law, under the inspection of the court.

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