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late war ;
The value of the whole exported produce and commodities from thiş state, before the year 1774, was then estimated at about £.200,000 law, ful money, annually. Since this time no accurate estimate has been made, so that it is impossible to tell whether the amount has since been increased or diminished.
In 1774, the number of shipping in Connecticut, was 180; their tonnage 10,317 ; seafaring men 1162 ; besides upwards ot twenty fail of coafting vessels, which employed about ninety seamen. This state has not yet fully recovered the confusion in which it was involved by the
so that the number of shipping, &c. has not, at any period lince 1774, been ascertained with accuracy. It is probable, however, confidering the losses sullained by the war, the delicacy of the ship-building businels, and the number of unfortunate shipwrecks, and lofles by burricanes in the Welt-Indies, that the Phipping and seamen are not now so numesous as in 1774
The number of shipping from the port of New-London employed last year in the European and West-India trade, was four ships, one snow, fifty-four brigantines, thirty-two scooners, and forty-five noops. The number of horses and cattle exported from the district round New-London, from the oth of January, 1787, to the 10th of January, 1788, was 6917; besides jack-affes imported and exported, not included. From 1786 to 1787, the number was 66-71, so that the last year exceeded the other 246. From March, 1787, to January, 1788, 1454 horses, 700 oxen, and 23 cows, were exported from the port of Middleton.
Manufactures.] The farmers in Connecticut and their families are mostly clothed in plain, decent, homespun cloth. Their linens and woollens are manufactured in the family way; and although they are generally of a coaser kind, they are of a stronger texture, and much more durable than those imported from France and Great-Britain. Many of their cloths are fine and handsome.
The woollen manufactory at Hartford has already been mentioned. The legislature of the state have encouraged it, and it bids fair to grow into importance. We have also mentioned Mr. Chittendon's useful Machine for bending and cutting card teeth. This machine is put in motion by a manderil twelve inches in length, and one inch in diameter. Connected with the manderil are six parts of the machine, independent of each other ; the first, introduces a certain length of wire into the chops of the corone ; the second, shuts the chops and holds fast the wire in the middle until it is finished ; the third, cuts off the wire ; the fourth, doubles the tooth in
proper the fifth, makes the last bend ; and the sixth, delivers the finished tooth from the machine. The mander il is moved by a band wheel, five feet in diameter, turned by a crank. One revolution of the manderil makes one tooth; ten are made in a second, and 36,000 in an hour, &c. as has been already observed (P. 88.) With one machine like this, teeth enough might be made to fill cards sufficient for all the manufacturers in New-England. : In New-Haven is a linen manufactory, which flourishes; and one for cotton is about to be established. In East Hartford is a glass work, a snuff and powder mill, and an iron work and fitting mill. Iron works are established also at Salisbury, Norwich, and other parts of the faie. At Stafford is a furnace at which is made
large quantities of hollow ware, and other ironmongery, sufficient to supply the whole ftate. Paper is inanufactured at Norwich, Hartford, New-Haven, and in Litchfield county. Nails, of every size, are niade in almost every town and village in Connecticut ; so that considerable
quantities can be exported to the neighbouring states, and at a better rate than they can be had from Europe. Ironmongery, hats of the best kind, candles, leather, shoes and boots, are manufactured in this state. We must not omit to mention wooden dishes, and other wooden-ware, which are inade in vaft quantities in Suffield, and some few other places, and folden alınost every part of the eastern states. Oil-milis, of a new and very ingenious conftruction, have been erected in several parts of the ftate.
It appears from experiments made formerly in this state, that a bushel of sun-flower seed yields a gallon of oil, and that an acre of ground planted with the feed at three feet apart, will yield between forty and fifty bushels of the feed. This oil is as mild as sweet oil, and is equally agreeable with sallads, and as a medicine. It may moreover be uted with ad.. yantage in paints, varnishes, and ointments. Proin its being manufactured in our own country, it may always be procured and uled in a fiell ftate. The oil is pressed from the feed in the fame manner that cold drawn linseed oil is obtained from fax seed, and with as little trouble, Sweet olive oil sells for fix thillings a quart. Should the oil of the funflower sell for only two-thirds of that price, the produce of an acre of ground, fuppofing it to yield only forty bushels of the feed, will be thirtytwo pounds, a lum far beyond the product of an acre of ground in any kind of grain. The seed is raised with very little trouble, and grows in land of moderate fertility. It may be gathered and shelled, fit for the extraction of the oil, by women and children.
Civil divisions and population.) Connecticut is divided into eight counties, viz. Hartford, New Haven, New-London, Fairfield, Windham, Litchfield, Middlesex and Tolland. The counties are subdivided into ppwards of eighty townships, each of which is a corporation, inverted with power to hold lands, choose their own town officers, to make prudential laws, the penalty of transgression not to exceed twenty shillings, and to choose their own representatives to the general assembly. Tie townships are generally divided into two or more parishes, in each of which is one or more places for public worship.
The following table exhibits a view of the population, &c. of this ftate in 1782. Since this time the counties of Middlesex and Toliano have been conftiiutedt, and a number of new townthips, made up of die visions of the old ones, have impoliticly * been incorporated.
* The multiplication of townships increases the number of representatives, which is already too great for the most democratical government, and unnecefJari'y enbances the expence of maintaining civil government in the state.
Connecticut is the moft populous, in proportion to its extent, of any of the thirteen states. It is laid out in small farms, from fifty to three or four hundred acręs each, which are held by the farmers in fee simple ; and are generally cultivated as well as the nature of the soil will admit. The ftate is chequered with innumerable roads or high ways, crossing each other in every direction. A traveller, in any of these roads, even in the most unsettled parts of the state, will seldom pass more than two or three miles without finding a house or cottage, and a farm under such improvements as to afford the necessaries for the support of a family. The whole ftate resembles a well cultivated garden, which, with that degree of in, duftry that is neceffary to happiness, produces the neceffaries and conyeniences of life in great plenty.
In 1956 the number of inhabitants in Connecticut was 130,611. In 1974, there were 194,856 souls. In 18 years the increase was 67,245, From 1774 to 1982, the increase was byt 11,294. persons. paratively imall increase of inhabitants may be fatisfaétorily accounted for from the deitrudion of the war, and the numerous emigrations to Vermont, the western parts of New Hampshire, and other states.
* Middleton and Tolland, are n-w the soire toquns of Middlesex and Telland counties. Courts are also held at Haddam, which is the ba'f fire town of Middlesex county.
The inhabitants are almost entirely of English defcent. There are no Dutch, French, or Germans, and very few Scotch cr Irish people in any part of New England.
Characier, Manners, &c.] In addition to what has been already faid on these particulars, under New England, it may be observed, that the people of Connecticut are remarkably fond of having all their disputes, even those of the most trivial kind, settled according to law. The prevalerce of this litigious fpirit, affords employment and fupport for a numerous body of lawyers. The number of actions entered annually upon the several dockets in the state, justifies the above observations. That party spirit, however, which is the bane of political happiness, has not raged with such violence in this state as in Marachusetts and Rhode Island. Public proceedings have been conducted generally, and especially of late, with much calmness ard candour, The people are well informed in regard to their rights, and judicious in the methods they adopt to secure them. The ftate was never in greater political tranquility than at present.
The clergy, who are numerous, and, as a body, very respectable, have hitherto preserved a kind of aristocratical balance in the very democratical government of the state ; which has happily operated as a check upon the overbearing spirit of republicanism, It has been lamented that the yn" happy religious disputes which have too much prevailed among some of the clergy; and the too great attention that others have paid to their temporal concerns, to the neglect of their flocks ; and an inattention to the qualifications of those who have been admitted to the facred office, have, heretofore, considerably diminithed their influence. It is a pleasing cika cumftance that the rage for theological disputation is abating, and greater strictness is observed in the admission of candidates to the ministry. Their influence is on the increase ; and it is no doubt to be attributed, in part, to their increasing influence, that an evident reformation in the manners of the people of this state, has taken place fince the peače. Ja regard to learning and abilities, the clergy at the present day are equal to their predeceffors at any former period.
Religion ] The best in the world, perhaps, for a republican government. As to the mode of exercising church government and discipline, it might not improperly be called a republican religion. Each church is a sepatate jurisdiction, and claims authority to chool, their own niinįster, to exprcise government, and enjoy gospel' ordinances within itself. The churches, however, are not independent of each other ; they are associated for mutual benefit and convenience. The associations have power to license cardidates for the ministry, to consult for the general welfare, and to recommend measures to be adopted by the churches, but haye no authority to enforce them. When disputes arise in churches, councils are called by the parties to settle them ; but their power is only advisory There are as inany afsociations in the state as there are counties ; and they meet iwice in a year, These are all combined in one general association, who meet annually.
All religions that are confiitent with the peace of fociety, are tolerated in Connecticut ; and a spirit of liberality and catholicism is increasing. There are very few religious fects in this state. The bulk of the people are Congregationalists. Besides these there are Fpiscopalians and Baptifs.
and formerly there was a fociety of Sandimanians at New-Haven ; but they are now reduced to a very small number. The Episcopalian churches are respectable, and are under the superintendence of a bishop. There were twenty-nine congregations of the Baptists in 1784: Thefe congregations, with ihose in the neighbouring states, meet in associations, by delegation, annually. These associations consist of messengers chofen and sent by the churches. Some of their principles are, · The imputation of Adam's fin to his poflerity– the inability of man to recover himself-effectual calling by fovereign grace-juftification by imputed righteoufiel-immersion for taptism, and that on profession of faith and repentance-congregational churches, and their independency-reception into them upon evidence of fourd conversion. The Baptists, during the late war, were warm and active friends to their country; and, by their early approbation of the new form of government *, have manifested the continuance of their patriotic sentiments,
Damages fustained in the late war.] After the establishment of the peace in 1783, a number of gentlemen were appointed by the general assembly to estimate the damage done by the British troops, in the several towns which they ravaged. The following is the result of their enquiries.
New-Haven, ravaged by Governor Tryon July 1779
do. Weit-Haven do.
do. Other lofies not before computed
Amount of the loftes in the whole flate in money,}
ey,} £ 294,235 16
* In hein