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worshipping affemblies in this town, and a large society of Quakers at Portsmouth
at the other end of the island. In 1730, the colony was filled with inhabitants; and chiefly by the nam tural increase of the first settlers. The number of souls in the state at this time was 17,935, of which no more than 985 were Indians, and 1648 negroes.
In 1938, there were above one hundred fail of vessels belonging to Newport.
The colony of Rhode Idand, from its local situation, fas ever been less exposed to the incursions of the neighbouring Indians, , and from the French from Canada, than their neighbours in Maffachusetts and Connecticut. Many of the colony have, from its first establishment, professed the principles of the Quakers, which forbåd them to fight. For these reasons, the colony has been very little concerned in the old wars with the French and Indians. In the expedition againit Port-Royal in 1710, and in the abortive attempt against Canada in 1711, they had some forces. Towards the intended expedition against Canada in 1746, thëý raised zoo men, and equipped a loop of war with 100 seamen ; but in their yoyage to Nova-Scotia, they met with misfortunes and returned. Soon after the design was dropped.
Through the whole of the late unnatural war with Great-Britain, the inhabitants of this state have manifested a patriotic spirit ; their troops have behaved gallantly, and they are honoured in having produced the fecond general in the field.
The rage for paper-money in Rhode Illand is not peculiar to the pre sent time. From 1710 to 1750, Dr. Douglafs observes that the most beneficial business of the colony was, · Bảnking of negociating a base, fraudulent, paper-money currency, which was so contrived, that amongst them. felves it came out at about two and an half per cent. interest, and they lent it to the neighbouring colonies at ten per cent, à most bare-faced cheat: The interest of these public iniquitous frauds went, one quarter to the several townships to defray their charges; the other three quarters were lodged in the treasury, to defray the government charges of the colony *.
In 1744, there was an emission of £. 160,000 O: T. in paper bills of credit, under pretence of the Spanish and impending French war. But it was distributed
the people by way of loan at fout per cent. interest for the first ten years, after which
the principal was to be paid off by degrees in ten years more without interest. This foon depreciated:
in 1750, the current bills amounted to £-527,335 O. T. which in its depreciated state was then supposed, by the wife and honest, fufficient for all the purposes of the colony ; yet it was then meditated to emit £200,000 0. T. more upon loàn. This Dr. Douglass supposes could not have been designed as a further medium of trade, but a knavilh device of fraudulent debtors of the loan of money, to pay off their loans at a very depreciated value t.' He again observes $, Their design is by quantity to depreciate the value of their bills; and lands mortgaged for public bills P 2
will be redeemed in these minorated bills, at a very considerable real tas lue.' Were this writer living, would he not now speak the same language respecting the present state of Rhode Idand?
But enough has already been said * upon the paper-money, injustice and political confusion which pervade this unhappy ftate. I will only obferve, ihat these measures have deprived the state of great numbers of its worthy and most respectable inhabitants ; they have had a most pernicious infiu
upon the morals of the people, by legally depriving the widow and the orphan of their juft dues, and otherwise establishing iniquity by law, and have occafioned a ruinous ftagnation of trade. It is hoped the time is not far distant, when a wise and efficient government will abolish these iniquitous laws, and restore tranquility to the state.
CO N N E C T I CU T.
SITUATION and ExT ENT.
10 50' and 3° 20' East Longitude. Boundaries.] BOUNDED north, by Massachusetts ; east, by Rhodet
Jland ; south, by the found, which divides it from Long-Jsland; west, by the state of New-York.
The divisional line between Connecticut and Maffachusetts, as fettled in 1713, was found to be about seventy-two miles in length. The iine dividing Connecticut from Rhode Iliand, was fettled in 1728, and found to be about forty-five miles. The sea coast, from the mouth of Paukatuk river, which forms a part of the eastern boundary of Connecticut, in á direct southwestwardly line to the mouth of Byram river, is reckoned at about ninety miles. The line between Connecticut and New-York i uns from latitude 410 to latitude 4202'; v2 milesť. Connecticut contains about 4,674 square miles ; equal to about 2,960,000 acres.
Rivers. The principal rivers in this state are Connecticut, described under. New-England, Housatonik, the Thames, and their branches. One branch of the Housatonik $ rises in Lanesborough, the other in Windsor, both in Berkshire county in Massachusetts. It passes through
See Hift. of United States, p. 120,. &c.
a number of pleasant towns, and empties into the sound between Stratford and Milford.' It is navigable twelve iniles to Derby. A bar of thells, at its mouth, obstructs its navigation for large vessels. In this river, beiween Salisbury and Canaan, is a cataract, where the water of the whole river, which is 150 yards wide, falls about sịxty feet perpendicularly, in a perfe&tly white sheet. A copious mift arises, in which floating rainbows are seen in various places at the same time, exhibiting a scene exceedingly grand and beautiful.
Naugatuk is a small river which rises in Torrington, and empties into the Houfatonik at Derby. Farmington river rises in Becket, in Mafsachusetts, and after a very crooked course, part of which is through the fire meadows of Farmington, it empties into Connecticut river in Windfor.
The Thames empties into Long-T and found at New-London. It is navigable fourteen miles, to Norwich Landing. Here it loses its name, and branches into Shetucket, on the east, and Norwich or Little river, on the west. The city of Norwick stands on the tongue of land between these rivers. Little river, about a mile froin its mouth, has a remarkable and
very romantic cataract. A rock ten or twelve feet in perpendicular height, extends quite across the channel of the river. Over this the whole river pitches, in one entire sheet, upon a bed of rocks below. Here the river is compressed into a very narrow channel between two craggy cliffs, one of which towers to a considerable height. The channel descends gradually, is very crooked and coyered with pointed rocks. Upon these the water swiftly tumbles, foaining with the inost violent agitation, fifteen or twenty rods, into a broad bason which spreads before it. At the bottom of the perpendicular falls, the rocks are curiously excavated by the constant pouring of the water. Some of the cavities, which are al of a circular form, are five or fix feet deep. The finoothness of the water above its descent--the regularity and beauty of the perpendicular fall--the tremendous roughness of the other, and the craggy, towering cliff which impends the whole, present to the view of the spectator a scene indescribably delightful and majestic. On this river are some of the finest mill seats in New-England, and those immediately below the falls, occupied by Lathrop's mills, are perhaps not exceeded by any in the world. Across the mouth of this river is a broad, commodious bridge, in the forin of a wharf, built at a great expence.
Shetucket river, the other branch of the Thames, four miles from its mouth, receives Quinnabog, which has its source in Brimfield, in Massachusetts; thence palling through Sturbridge and Dudley in Massachusetts, it crosses into Connecticut, und divides Pomfret from Killingly, Canterbury from Plainfield, and Lisbon from Preston, and then mingles with the Shetucket. In palling through this hilly country, it tumbles over many falls, and affords a vast number of mill seats. The source of the Shetucket is not far from that of the Quinnabog. It has the name of Willamantik while palling through Stafford, and between Tolland and Willington, Coventry and Mansfield. Below Windham it takes the name of Shetucket, and empties as above. These rivers are fed by numberless brooks from every part of the adjacent country. At the mouth of Shetucket, is a bridge of timber 1 24. fect in length, supported
at each end by pillars, and held up in the middle by braces on the top, in the nature of an arch.
Eaft, or North Haven river rises in Southington, not far from a bend in Farmington river, and passing through Wallingford and North Haven, falls into New-Haven harbour. It has been meditated to connect the source of this river with Farmington river.
Mill river and West river are inconsiderable freams, bounding the city of New-Haven on the east and west.
West of the Housatonik, are a number of small rivers which fall into the found. Among these is Byram river, noticeable as forming a part of the boundary between New-York and Connecticut. But neither this, nor any of the others, are considerable enough to merit particular descriptions.
Harbours.] The two principal harbours are at New-London and NewHaven. The foriner opens to the south. From the light-house, which Itands at the mouth of the harbour, to the town, is about three miles the breadth is three quarters of a mile, and in some places more. The harbour has from five to fix fathom water-a clear bottom--tough ooze, and as far as one mile above the town is entirely secure, and commodious for large ships.
New-Haven harbour is greatly inferior to that of New-London. It is a bay which sets up northerly from the found, about four miles. Its entrance is about half a mile wide. It has very good anchorage, and two and an half fathom at low water, and three fathom and four feet at com. mon tides.
The whole of the sea coast is indented with harbours, many of which are safe and commodious, but are not sufficiently ụsed to merit a description.
Climate, Soil, and Productions.] Connecalicut, though subject to the extremes of heat and cold in their seasons, and to frequent sudden changes, is very healthful. As many as one in forty fix of the inhabitants of Connecticut, who were living in 1774, were upwards of seventy years old, From accurate calculation it is found that about one in eight live to the age of seventy years and upwards, one in thirteen to the age of eighty years,
and one in about thirty to the age of ninety t. In the maritime towns the weather is variable, according as the wind blows from the sea or land. As you advance into the country, the sea breezes have less effect upon the air, and consequently
, the weather is less variable. The shortest day is eight hours and fifty-eight minutes, and
+ The following was extracted from the minutes of the Rev. Dr. Wales, formerly minister of Milford, now profeffor of divinity in Yale College.
* From January 1, 1771, 10 January 1, 1777, 339 pers ns died at Milford; of which 33, or about one-seventh part, were upwards of 70 years old, and 84, or about one-third part of the whole, were under 10 years.
• From January 1, 1771, to June 3, 1782, died at Milford, 417 perfons ; of which 31, or about one-thirteenth part of the whole number, were 80 years old and upward,'
Other calculations of a similar kind, made in different parts of the flate from the bills of mortality, confirm the justness of the above proportion,
the longest fifteen hours. The northwest winds, in the winter season, are often extremely severe and piercing, occasioned by the great body of snow which lies concealed from the diffolving influence of the sun in the immenfe forests north and northwest. The clear and serene temperature of the sky, however, makes amends for the severity of the weather, and is favourable to health and longevity. Connecticut is generally broken land, made
up of mountains, hills, and vallies; and is exceedingly well watered. Some small parts of it are thin and barren. It lies in the fifth and fixth northern climates, and has a strong, fertile foil. Its principal productions are Indian corn, rye, wheat in many parts of the state, oats and barley, which are heavy and good, and of late buck-wheat-flax in large quantities-- fome hemp, potatoes of several kinds, pumpkins. turnips, peas, beans, &c. &c. 'fruits of all kinds, which are common to the cli
The soil is very well calculated for pasture and mowing, which enables the farmers to feed large numbers of neat cattle and horses. Actual calculation has evinced, that any given quantity of the best mowing land in Connecticut, produces about twice as much clear profit, as the same quantity of the best wheat land in the state of New-York. Many farmers, in the eastern part of the state, have lately found their adyantage in raising mules, which are carried from the parts of Norwich and NewLondon, to the West-India islands, and yield a handsome profit. The beef, pork, butter, and cheese of Connecticut are equal to any in the world.
Trade.] The trade of Connecticut is principally with the West India islands, and is carried on in vessels from sixty to one hundred and forty tons. The exports consist of horses, mules, oxen, oak staves, hoops, pine boards, oak plank, beans, Indian corn, fish, beef, pork. &c. Horses, live cattle and lumber, are permitted in the Dutch, Danish, and French ports. Beef and fish are liable to such heavy duties in the French ifands, as that little profit arises to the merchant who sends them to their ports. Pork and flour are prohibited. As the ordinance making free ports in the French West-India islands extends to all foreigners, the price of molaffes and other articles, has been greatly enhanced by the English purchases for Canada and Nova Scotia ; so that the trade of Connecticut with the French Weft-India islands is not profitable. Cotton, coco4, indigo, and sugars are not permitted to be brought away by Americans. The severity with which these prohibitory laws are administred is such, as that these articles cannot be smuggled.
Connecticut has a large number of coafting vessels employed in carrying the produce of the state to other states. To Rhode Idland, Maffachusets, and New Hampshire they carry pork, wheat, corn, and rye.-To North and South Carolinas and Georgia, butter, cheese, salted beef, cyder, apples, potatoes, hay, &c. and receive in return, rice, indigo, and money. But as New-York is nearer, and the state of the markets always well known, much of the produce of Connecticut, especially of the western parts, is carried there ; particularly pot and pearl afhes, flax-seed, beef, pork, cheese, and butter, in large quantities. Most of the produce of Connecticut river from the parts of Malfachusetts, New-Hampshire, and Vermont, as well as of Connecticut, which are adjacent, goes to the fame market. Considerable quantities of the produce of the eastern parts of the fate are marketted at Boston and Providence,