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moft fhocking and cruel manner ; generally scalp them, and sometimes broil and eat them A great part of the Aborigines of America are gross idolaters, and worship the sun, moon, and stars. It is the opinion of many learned men, supported by several well established facts, that the Indians of America are remains of the ten tribes of Israel, and that they came to this continent in the manner hereafter mentioned.

Society among favages is extremely rude. The improvement of the talents which nature has given them, is of course proportionably small. It is the genius of a favage to act from the impulse of present passion. They have neither foresight nor disposition to form complicated arrangements with respect to their future conduct. This, however, is not to be ascribed to any defect in their natural genius, but to their state of society, which affords few objects for the display either of their literary or political abilities. In all their warlike enterprizes they are led by persuasion. Their fociety allows of no compulfion. What civilized nations enforce upon their subjects by compulsory measures, they effect by their eloquence; hence the foundation of those masterly strokes of oratory, which have been exhibited at their treaties ; some of which equal the moft finished pieces that have been produced by the most eminent ancient or modern orators.

As a specimen, take the following from Mr. Jefferson's notes on Virginia. "I

"I may challenge the whole orations of Demofthenes and Cicero, and of any more eminent orator, if Europe has furnished more eminent, to produce a single passage, superior to the speech of Logan, a Mingo chief, to Lord Dunmore, when governor of this state. And, as a tefti. mony of their talents in this line, I beg leave to introduce it, first stating the incidents necessary for understanding it. In the spring of the year 1774, a robbery and murder were committed on an inhabitant of the frontiers of Virginia, by two Indians of the Shawanee tribe. The neighbouring whites, according to their custom, undertook to punish this outrage in a summary way. Col. Cresap, a man infamous for the many murders he had committed on those much injured people, collected a party, and proceeded down the Kanbaway in quest of vengeance. Unfortunately a canoe of women and children, with one man only, was seen coming from the opposite shore, unarmed, and unsuspecting an hostile attack from the whites. Cresap and his party concealed themselves on the bank of the river, and the moment the canoe reached the shore, singled out their objects, and, at one fire, killed every person in it. This happened to be

nily of Logan, who had long been distinguished as a friend of the whites. This unworthy return provoked his vengeance. He accordingly fignalized himself in the war which ensued. In the autumn of the fame year, a decisive battle was fought at the mouth of the Great Kanhaway, between the collected forces of the Shawanees, Mingoes, and Delawares, and a detachment of the Virginia militia. The Indians feated, and sued for peace. Logan however disdained to be seen among the fuppliants. But, left the fincerity of a treaty fhould be diftrufted, from which fo distinguished a chief absented himself, he sent by a messenger the following speech to be delivered to Lord Dunmore.

^« I appeal to any white man to say, if ever he entered Logan's cabin hungry, and he gave him not meat ; if ever he came cold and naked, and


were de

he clothed him not. During the course of the last long and bloody war, Logan remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was my love for the whites, that my countrymen pointed as they passed, and said,

Logan is the friend of white men.” I had even thought to have lived with you, but for the injuries of one man. Col. Cresap, the last spring, in cold blood, and unprovoked, murdered all the relations of Logan, not sparing even my women and children. There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any living creature.

This called on me for revenge. I have fought it: I have killed many : I have fully glutted my vengeance. For my country, I rejoice at the beams of peace. But do not harbour a thought that mine is the joy of fear. Logan never felt fear. He will not turn on his heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn for Logan ?- Not one.”

Of their bravery and address in war they have given us multiplied proofs. No people in the world have higher notions of military honour than the Indians. The fortitude, the calmness, and even exultation which they manifelt while under the extremest torture, is in part owing to their savage insensibility, but more to their exalted ideas of military glory, and their rude notions of future happiness, which they believe they shall for. feit by the least manifestation of fear, or uneasiness, under their sufferings. They are sincere in their freindships, but bitter and determined in their resentments, and often pursue their enemies several hundred miles through the woods, furmounting every difficulty, in order to be revenged. In their public councils they observe the greatest decorum. In the foremost çank fit the old men, who are the counsellors, then the warriors, and next the women and children. As they keep no records, it is the business of the women to notice every thing that passes, to imprint it on their memories, and tell it to their children. They are, in short, the records of the council; and with surprising exactness, preserve the stipulations of treaties entered into a hundred years back. Their kindness and hospitality is scarcely equalled by any civilized nation. Their politeness in conversation is even carried to excess, since it does not allow them to contradict any thing that is asserted in their presence. In short there appears to be much truth in Dr. Fanklin's observation,.“ We call them savages, because their manners differ from ours, which we think the perfection of civility; they think the same of theirs."

The first peopling of America.] It has long been a question among the curious, how America was first peopled. Various have been the theories and speculations of ingenious men upon this subject. ' Dr. Robertson has recapitulated and canvaffed the most probable of these theories, and the result is,

I. That America was not peopled by any nation from the ancient continent, which had made any confiderable progress in civilization ; because when America was first discovered, its inhabitants were unacquainted with the necessary arts of life, which are the first essays of the human mind toward improvement ; and if they had ever been acquainted with them, for instance with the plow, the loom, and the forge, their utility would have been so great, and obvious, that it is impossible they should have • Hift. America, Vol. I. Page 22.


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been loft. Therefore the ancestors of the first settlers in America were uncivilized and unacquainted with the neceffary arts of life.

II. America could not have been peopled by any colony from the more southern nations of the ancient continent; because none of the rude tribes of these parts pofseffed enterprize, ingenuity, or power sufficient to undertake such a diftant voyage ; but more especially, because, that in all America there is not an animal, tame or wild, which properly belongs to the warm or temperate countries of the eastern continent. The first care of the Spaniards, when they settled in America, was to stock it with all the domestic animals of Europe. The first settlers of Virginia and New England, brought over with them horses, cattle, sheep, &c. Hence it is obvious that the people who first settled in America, did not originate from those countries where these animals abound, otherwise, having been accustomed to their aid, they would have supposed them necessary to the improvement, and even support of civil society.

III. Since the animals in the northern regions of America correspond with those found in Europe in the same latitudes, while those in the tropical regions are indigenous, and widely different from those which inhabit the corresponding regions on the eastern continent, it is more than probable that all the original American animals were of those kinds which inhabit northern regions only, and that the two continents, towards the northern extremity, are so nearly united as that these animals might pass from one to the other.

IV. It having been established beyond a doubt, by the discoveries of Capt. Cook in his last voyage, that at Kamskatka, in about latitude 66° north, the continents of Asia and America are separated by a ftrait only 18 miles wide, and that the inhabitants on each continent are similar, and frequently pass and repass in canoes from one continent to the other; from these and other circumstances it is rendered highly probable that America was first peopled from the north-east parts of Asia. But since the Esquimaux Indians are manifestly a separate species of men, distinct from all the nations of the American Continent, in language, in disposition, and in habits of life ; and in all these respecto bear a near resemblance to the northern Europeans, it is believed that the Esquimaux Indians emigrated from the north-west parts of Europe. Several circumstances confirm this belief. As early as the ninth century the Norwegians discovered Greenland, and planted colonies there. The communication with that country, after long interruption, was renewed in the laft century. Some Lutherian and Moravian missionaries, prompted by zeal for propagating the Chriftian faith, have ventured to settle in this frozen region. From them we learn, that the north-west coast of Greenland is separated from America but by a very narrow ftrait, if separated at all; and that the Esquimaux of America perfectly resemble the Greenlanders in their afpect, dress, mode of living, and probably language. By these decifive fads, not only the consanguinity of the Esquiinaux and Greenlanders is established, but the possibility of peopling America from the north-west parts of Europe. On the whole it appears rational to conclude, that the progenitors of all the American nations, from Cape Horn to the southern limits of Labrador, from the similarity of their aspect, colour, &c. migrated from the north-cast parts of Aba: and that the nations that inhabit



Labrador, Esquimaux, and the parts adjacent, from their unlikeness to the reft of the American nations, and their resemblance to the northern Europeans, came over from the north-west parts of Europe.

Having given a summary account of America in general ; of its first discovery by Columbus, its extent, rivers, mountains, &c. of the Aborigines, and of the first peopling this continent, we shall next turn our attention to the discovery and settlement of North America.



NORTH AMERICA, arranged in Chronological Order.
ORTH AMERICA was discovered in the reign of Henry VII.

a period when the Arts and Sciences had made very considerable progress in Europe. Many of the first adventurers were men of genius and learning, and were careful to preserve authentic records of such of their proceedings as would be interesting to pofterity. These records afford ample documents for American historians. Perhaps no people on the globe nan trace the history of their origin and progress with so much precifion as the inhabitants of North America ; particularly that part of them who įnhabit the territory of the United States. The fame which Columbus had acquired by his first discoveries on this

western continent, spread through Europe, and inspired many with 1496 the {pirit of enterprize. As early as 1496, four years only after

the first discovery of America, John Cabot, a Venetian, obtained a commission from Henry VII. to discover unknown lands and annex them to the crown.

In the spring he failed from England with two ships, carrying with him his three fons. In this voyage, which was intended for China, he fell in with the north fide of Terra Labrador, and coasted northerly as far as the 67th degree of latitude.

1497.] The next year he made a second voyage to America with his fon Sebastian, who afterwards proceeded in the discoveries which his father had begun. On the 24th of June he discovered Bonavista, on the north-eaft side of Newfoundland. Before his return hc traversed the coast from Davis's Straits to Cape Florida.

1502.] Sebastian Cabot was this year at Newfoundland ; and on his return carried three of the natives of that island to Henry VII.

1513. In the spring of 1513, John Ponce failed from Porto Rico northerly, and discovered the continent of 30° 8 north latitude. He landed in April, a season when the country around was covered with verdure, and in full bloom. This circumstance induced him to call the country FLORIDA, which, -for many years, was the common name for North and South America.

1516.] In 1516, Sir Sebastian Cabot and Sir Thomas Pert explored the coast as far as Brazil in South America.

This vast extent of country, the coast whereof was thus explored, remained unclaimed and unsettled by any European power, (except by the Spaniards in South America) for almost a century from the time of its discovery

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1524.] It was not till the year 1524 that France attempted discoveries on the American coast. Stimulated by his enterprizing neighbours, Francis I. who possessed a great and active mind, fent John Verrazano, a Florentinc, to America, for the purpose of making discoveries. He traversed the coast from latitude 28% to 50° north. In a second voyage, some time after, he was lost.

1525.] The next year Stephen Gomez, the first Spaniard who came upo’n the American coast for discovery, failed from Groyn in Spain, to Cuba and Florida, thence northward to Cape Razo, in latitude 460 north, in search of a north-west passage to the East Indies.

1534.] In the spring of 1534, by the direction of Francis I. a fleet was fitted out at St. Malo's in France, with design to make discoveries in America. The command of this feet was given to James Cartier. He arrived at Newfoundland in May of this year. Thence he failed northerly; and on the day of the festival of St. Lawrence, he found himself in about latitude 48° 30' north, in the midst of a broad gulf, which he named St. Lawrence. He


the same name to the river which empties into it. In this voyage, he failed as far north as latitude 51°, expecting in vain to find a passage to China.

1535.] The next year he failed up the river St. Lawrence 300 leagues to the

great and switt Fall. He called the couniry New Fiance; built a fort in which he spent the winter, and returned in the following spring to France.

1542.] In 1542, Francis la Roche, Lord of Robewell, was sent to Canada, by the French king, with three ships and 200 men, women and children. They wintered here in a fort which they had built, and returned in the spring. About the year 1550, a large number of adventurers failed for Canada, but were never after heard of. In 1598, the king of France commissioned the Marquis de la Roche to conquer Canada, and other countries not poffefied by any Christian prince. We do not learn, however, that la Roche ever attempted to execute his commission, that any

further attempts were made to settle Canada during this century.

1539.] On the 12th of May, 1539, Ferdinand de Soto, with 900 men, befides feamen, failed from Cuba, having for his object the conquest of Florida. On the 30th of May he arrived at Spirito Santo, from whence he travelled northward 450 leagues from the sea. Here he discovered a

river a quarter of a mile wide and 19 fathoms deep, on the bank 1542 of which he died and was buried, May 1542, aged 42 years, 1543 Alverdo his fucceffor built feven brigantines, and the year fol

lowing embarked upon the river. In 17 days he proceeded down the river 400 leagues, where he judged it to be 15 leagues wide. From the largeness of the river at the place of his embarkation, he concluded its source must have been at lealt 4.co leagues above, so that the whole length of the river in his opinion must have been more than 800 leagues. As he passed down the river, he found it opened by two mouths into the gulf of Mexico. These circumstances led us to conclude, that this river, so early discovered, was the one which we now call the Miffilippi.



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