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Civil Divisions and Population. This state is divided into five counties, which are subdived into twenty-nine townfhips, as follows:

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| 1761 { 35:939 Whites.

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A census of the inhabitants was made in 1774, when they amounted to 59,103. The dimunition of inhabitants in this state, in nine years, 7623. In Newport, 3679, almost half the

The number of inhabitants in Rhode-Inland and Providence Plantations was in the year --whole number. Some towns have gained 389.


3,361 Blacks.

4,373 Blacks. $ 54,435 Whites. 15,302 Whites. 2,633 Blacks.

| 1748{ 29,755 Whites



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The civil dissentions in which this estate has for some time past been involved, have occasioned many emigrations. Until these dissections are composed, the number will no doubt continue to decrease.

The inhabitants are chiefly of English extraction. The original set-tlers migrated from Maffachusetts.


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Bays, Harbours, and Islands. ] Narraganfert Bay makes up from fouth to north, between the main land on the east and welt. It embofoms many fertile iflands, the principal of which are Rhode-Ifand, Canonnicut, Prualence, Patience, Hope, Dyer's and Hog Hands

The harbours are Newport, Providence, Wickford, Patuxet, Warren, and Bristol.

Rhode-'fland is thirteen miles long from north to fouth, and four miles wide, and is divided into three townships, Newport, Portfimouth, and Middleton. It it a noted resort for invalids from fouthern climatęs.

The island is exceedingly pleasant and healthful, and is celebrated for its fine women. Travellers, with propriety, call it the Eden of America.

It suffered much by the late war. Some of its most ornamental country seats were dettroyed, and their fine groves, orchards, and fruit trees, wantonly cut down. The foil is of a superior quality. Before the war 30,000 sheep commonly fed upon this ifland;

there were 37,000. Two years ago there were not 3000 sheep upon the island, They have probably increased fince.

Canonnicut lies west of Rhode Island, and is fix miles in length, and about one mile in breadth. It was purchased of the Indians in 1657, and incorporated by act of affembly by the name of Jamefton, in 1678.

Black-llland, called by the Indians Maniffes, is about forty-three miles fouth-west from New-port, and is the southernmost land belonging to the state. It was erected into a township, by the naine of New-Shoreham, in 1672.

Prudence-land is nearly or quite as large as Caponnicut, and lies north of it.

Rivers ] Providence and Taunton rivers both fall into Narragansett Bay, the forıner on the west, the latter on the east side of Rhode-Island. Providerce river rises in Massachusetts, and is navigable as far as Providence, thirty miles from the sea. One branch of Taunton river proceeds from Winifimoket ponds; the other rises within about a mile of Charles river. In its course, foutherly, it passes by the town of Taunton, from which it takes its name. It is navagable for fmall vefsels to Taunton, Common tides rise about four feet.

Climate.) Rhode Island is as healthful a country as any part of North Algerica. The winters, in the maritime parts of the ttate, are milder iha li in the inland country; the air being softened by a fca vapour, which also enriches the foil. The fuınıners are delightful, especially on RhodeIland, where the extreme heats, which prevail in other parts of America, are allayed by cool and refreshing breezes from the fea.

The disorders most prevalent, are consumptions ard the dyfentery. *These are not so mạchi owing to the climate, as to intemperance and iinprudence.

Soil and Produftions} This state, generally speaking, is a country for pasture and not for grain. It however produces corn, rye, barley, oats, and fax, and culinary plants and roots in great variety and abundance. Its statural growth is the same as in the other New-Eng!ard states. The western and north-western parts of the state are but thinly inhabited, and are barren and rocky. In the Narragansett country the land is fine for grazing.


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uh The people are generally farmers, and raise great numbers of the finest and any largest neat cattle in America ; some of them weighing from 16 10 1800 'ru: weight. They keep large dairies, and make butter and cheese of the best

quality, and in large quantities, for exportation. Narragansett is famed en, for an excellent breed of pacing horses. They are strong, and remarkable

for their speed, and for their excecellency in enduring the fatigues of a lorg iles journey. lid

Trade } Before the war, the merchants in Rhode Island imported from

Great-Britain, dry goods-- from Holland, money--from Africa, Navesfor

froin the West-Indies, sugars, coffee, and molaffes—and from the neighbouring colonies, lumber and provifions. With the money which they ob. tained in Holland, they paid their merchants in England ; their fugars they carried to Holland; the slaves from Africa, they carried to the West-Indies, together with the lumber and provisions procured from their neighbours;

the rum distilled from molaffes, was carried io Africa, to purchase negroes; d.

with their dry goods from England, they trafficked with the neighbouring

colonies. By ihis kind of circuitous coinmerce, they subsisted and grew d rich,

But the war, and some other events, have had a great, and in most id

respects, an injurious effect upon the trade of this state. The flave trade, which was a Tource of wealih to niany of the people in Newport, and in other parts of the state, has happily been abolished.' The legiflature have passed a law prohibiting ships from going to Africa for flaves, and selling them in the West-India iflands; and the oath of one seaman, belonging to the ship, is sufficient evidence of the fact. This law is more favourable to the caute of humanity, than to the temporal interests of the merchants who had been engaged in this inbuman trade. The prohibition of the slave

trade, and the iniquitous and destructive influence of paper money, coald

bined with the devaitations of a cruel war, have occasioned a fiagnation of trade in Newport, which is truly melancholy and distresing. The falutary influence of a wife and efficient government, it is hoped, will revive the defponding hopes of the people in this beautiful city, and place them in their former affluent and respectable situation.

The present exports froin the state are flax-feed, lumber, horses, cattle, fish, poulty, onions, cheese, and barley. The Imports, Corfisting of Eur ropean and West-India goods, and logwood from the Bay of Honduras, exceed the exports. 'About 600 veífels enter and clear annually at the different ports in this state.

Light-Houfe.] For the safety and inconvenience of failing into the harbour of Newport, a light boufe was erected in 1749, in Beavertail, at the south end of Canonnicut island.

Dr. Douglas«, in his SUMMARY, &c. published in 1753, has given a particular description of it. As I know not that any material aiteration has taken place respecting it, since that time, I shall intort it from him.

The diameter at the base is 24 feet, and at the top 13 feet. The height from the ground to the top of the cornice is 58 feet, round whiçi is a gallery, and within that stands the lanthorn, which is about 11 feet high, and 8 feet diameter.

The ground the light-house stands on is about 12 feet above the surface of the sea at high water,


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S. W.

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The following are the bearings (by the cornpass) of several remarkable places from the light-house, viz. Point Judith

S. W.

3 Degrees S. Block-Island N. W. Point,


Ditto S. E. Point, $. W. by $.

Whale Rock


Brenton's Reef

E. S. E.

Seal Rock

E. S. E.

S. Point of Rhode-Hand E.


Watch House on Cattle-Hill E. N. E.


Brenton's Point

E. N. E.


Fori on Goat-Island

E. N. E


S. Easternmoft of the Dumplins N. E. by E.
Kettle Bottom Rock

N. E.

Anchoring place between the

of Newport and > Ņ. E. by E.

coalter's harbour There is a small sunken rock lies off due S. and at the distance of about 200 yards from the light-house.'


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Mountains.) In the town of Bristol is Mount Hope, or as fome, Mont Haup, which is remarkable only on account of its having been the seat of king Philip, and the place where he was killed. It is now the seat of governor

Bradford. Indians ] There are about 500 Indians in this state. The greater part of them retide at Charleston. They are peaceable and well-difposed towards government, and speak the English language.

Chief Towns.] Newport and Providence are the two principal towns in the state Newport lies in lat. 41° 35'. This town was first settled by Mr. William Coddington, afterwards governor, and the father of Rhode-Thand, with seventeen others, in 1639. Its harbour, which is one of the finest in the world, spreads westward beford the town. The entrance is easy and safe, ard a large fleet may anchor in it and ride in perfect security. The town jies north and fouth upon a gradual ascent as you proceed eastward from the water, and exhibits a beautiful view from the harbour, and froin the neighbouring hills which lię eastward upon the Main. West of the town is Goat-Ifland, on which is a fort. Between this island and the town is the harbour. Frort or Water-itreet is a mile in length, and level.

Newport contains about 1000 houses, built chiefly of wood, and 5530 inhabitants. It has nire houses for public worship; three for the baptitts, two for congregationalists, one for epifcopalians, one for Quakers, one for Moravians, and a synagogue for the Jews. The other public buildings are a state-house, and an edifice for the public library. The situation, form, and architecture of the state-hoựse, give it the preference to most public buildings in America. It stands fufficiently elevated, and a long wharf, and paved parade lead up to it from the harbour.

The building for the library consists of one large room, thirty-six feet long, twenty-six feet broad, and nineteen 'feet high, where the books are kepi, with two small offices adjoining. The principal or west front is a'


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pedimenj and portico of four columns, of the Dorick order; the wholt entablature of which, runs quite round the building. The two offices are placed as wings, one on each side the portico, and connected with the body of the building fo as to form two half-pediments proceeding from ihe lower part of the entab aiure. The east-front confiils of a plain Dorick pediinent, supported by a rustic arcade of three arches, in the recellis of which, are placed three Venetian windows, after the Dorick order. The outside of the whole building is rustic work, and stands on a base five feet from the ground, and the entrance is by a flight of steps the whole width of the portico.

In the year 1747, Abraham Redwood, Esq; gave 1 294 volumes, valued at £ 500 fterling, as the foundation of a library in Newpori. Several other valuable donations were afterwards given. These books were deposited in the above-described edifice; which was erected for the purpose of receiving them. A number of gentlemen were incorporated into a body politic by the name of the • Company of the Redwood Library,' withi power to choose annually eight directors, a treasurer, secretary and librarian. This elegant building is now much out of repair, and one-third of the books in the library were either carried off, or deftroyed by the Britishi during the war.

Providence is situated on Providence river, about thirty miles north-west of Newport, in latitude 41° 51' north. It is at prefent by far the most flourishing town in the State. It contains 700 houses, and upwards of 4300 inhabitants. Its public buildings are a college, an elegant church for Baptifts, iwo for Congregationalists, besides others for other denominations. This town carries on a large foreign trade, and an extensive and gainful traffic with the surrounding country. The town is situated on both sides of the river, and is connected by a commodious bridge.

The inhabitants of Providence, the laft year, manufactured 100,000 yards of cloth inore than in any year since the peace. This cloth, at a moderate valuation, will amount to 20,000 dollars.

This town, and Newport, and a few others, have, from the first, firmly opposed the late iniquitous ineasures of their infatuated legislature.

Bristol is a pleasant little town, about fixteen miles north of Newport, on the Main. It has an excellent soil, and is alinoft as remarkable for the production of onions, as Wethersfield in Connecticut,

Fisbes.] In the rivers and bays are plenty of sleeps-head, black-fish; herring, shad lobsters, oysters and clams ; and around the shores of Rbode. Island, besides thofe already mentioned, are cod, halibut, mackerel, bals; haddock, &c. &c. to the amount of more than feventy different kinds, to that in the seasons of fish, the markets are alive with them. Travellers are agreed that Newport furnislies the best fish market in the world.

Religion. The conftitution of the state admits of no religious establish: ments, any further than depends upon the voluntary choice of individuats. All men profeffing ore Supreme Being, are equally protected by the laws, and no particular fect can claim pre-eminence. This unlimited liberig in religion is one principal

cause why there is such a variety of religious fects in Rhode-Island.". The baptists are the most numerous of any denomination in the state. In 1784 they had thirty congregations. These,


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