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and Moufom rivers, extend fome distance into the country, and empty into Wells bay. Webhannet river is the principal entrance by water into the town of Wells, and has a barred harbour. York river runs up seven or eight miles, and has a tolerable harbour for vessels under 200 tons. Its rocks render it somewhat hazardous for ftrangers. Spurwing river runs through Scarborough to the westward of Cape Elizabeth, and is navigable a few miles for vessels of an hundred tons. Sheepsout is navigable twenty or thirty miles, and empties into the ocean at the same mouth with Kennebek. On this river is an excellent port called Wiscaffet, in the townihip of Pownalborough. At the head of navigation on this river is Newcastle, which extends from Sheepscut at Damariscotta river. Pemaquid and Damariscotta are fmall rivers ; the furmer has a beautiful harbour, but is not navigable above its mouth.
Bays and Capes.] The sea coast is indented with innumerable bays. Those worth noticing are Penobscot bay, at the mouth of Penobscot river, which is long and capacious. Its east side is lined with a cluster of small inands. On a fine peninsula in this bay, the Britisti, in the laté war, built a fort and made a fettlement, which is now a township of Mafsachusetts, and a commodious situation for the lumber trade. It ha's been called hitherto by its old Indian nánie Majabagadúse, or for the fake of brevity, Bagaduse. At the distance of about
four leagues westwardly, is Broad Bay, on the western fhore of which, Pemaquid point or cape projects into the fea Calco Bay is between Cape Elizabeth, and Cape Small Point. It is twenty five miles wide, and about fourteen miles tength. It is a most beautiful bay, interspersed with small iflands, and forms the entrance into Sagadahok. It has a sufficient depth of water for vessels of any burden. Wells bay ties between Cape Neddik and Cape Porpoise.
Ponds are lakes.) Sabago pond is about twenty miles north-west of Falmouth. Cobefeiconti ponds are between Amarascoggin and Kennebek rivers. Besides these there are Moufom and Lovel's ponds, and several others.
Mountains ] Agamemticus, a noted land-mark for failors, is about eight miles from the sea, in latitude 430'16', and lies in the township of York, a few miles weltwald of Wells.
Ghief 1. wns.] Portland is a peninsula, that was formerly part of Falmouth. In July 1786, the compact part of the town and the port were incorporated by the name of Portland. It has an excellent, late and ca'pacious harbour, but incapable of defence, except by a navy, and carries on a foreign trade, and the fishery, and builds some ships. The town is growing, and capable of great improvements. The old town of Falinouth, which included Portland, was divided into three parishes, which contained more than 700 families, in flourishing circumstances, when the British troops burnt it in 1775. . It is now chiefly rebuilt.
Kittery is a pretty little town on the east side of the mouth of Piscataqua river, and is famous for ship-building. One of its present inhabitants * is one. of the first genuises in that line in America. York, Wells,
* Mr. Peck.
Berwick, Arundel, Biddeford and Scarborough, are all considerable
Climate.] The heat in summer is intense, and the cold in winter equally extrenie. All fresh water lakes, ponds and rivers are usually passable on ice, from Christmas, until the middle of March. The longest day is fifteen hours and fixteen minutes, and the shortest eight hours and fortyfour minutes. The çimate is very healthful. Many of the inhabitants
liye ninety years.
Face of the country, Soil, and Produce.] The face of the country, in regard to evenness or roughness, is similar to the rest of the New-England states. About Casco-Bay, it is level and fandy, and the soil thin and poor. Throughout this country, there is a greater proportion of dead swamps than in any other part of New-England. The tract lying between Paffamaquady and Penobscot rivers, is white pine land, of a strong moist foil, with some mixture of oaks, white ash, birch, and bther trees, and the interior parts are interspersed with beech ridges. The sea-coast is generally barren. In many towns the land is good for grazing. Wells and Scarborough have large tracts of salt marsh. The inland parts of Main are fertile, but newly and thinly settled. The low swamps are useless.
The grain raised here is principally Indian corn-little or no wheatfome rye, barley, oats, and peas. The inhabitants raise excellent potatoes, in large quantities, which are frequently used inttead of bread. Their butter has the preference to any in New-England, owing to the goodness of the grass, which is very sweet and juicy. Apples, pears, plums, peachies, and cherries grow here very well. Plenty of cyder, and some perry is made in the southern and western parts of Main.
The perry is made from choak pears, and is an agreeable liquor, having something of the harshness of claret wine, joined with the sweetness of inetheglin.
Timber.] On the high lands are oak in some places, but not plenty, maple, beech, and white birch, The white birch in this part of the country, is unlike that wnich grows in other partş. It is a large fightly tree, fit for many uses. Its bark, which is composed of a great number of thicknesses, is, when separated, smoother and softer than any paper. The clay-lands produce fir. The timber of this tree is unfit for use, but it yields the balsam which is so much admired. This balsam is contained in small protuberances, like blifters, under the smooth bark of the tree. The fir-iree is an ever-green, resembling the spruce, but very tapering, and not very large or tall.
Trade, Manufaclures, &c ] From the first settlement of Main until the year 1774 or 1775, the inhabitants generally followed the lumber trade to the neglect of agriculture. This afforded an immediate profit. Large quantities of corn and other grain were annually imported from Boston. and other places, without which it was supposed the inhabitants could not have fubfilted. But the late war, by rendering these resources precarious, put the inhabitants
their true intereft, i. e. the cultivation of their lands, which, at a little distance from the sea, are well adapted for raising grain. The inhabitants now raise a sufficient quantity for their own consumption, though too many are still more fond of the axe than of the
plovgh. Their wool and flax are very good-hemp has not been sufficiently tried. Almost every family manufacture wool and flax into clotb, and make husbandry utensils of every kind for their own use.
Mines and Minerals ] Tron and Bog-ore are found in many places, in great plenty, and works are erected to manufacture it into iron. There is a stone in Lebanon, which yields copperas and sulphur.
Exports.) This country abounds with lumber of the various kinds, such as mafts, which of laté, however, have become scarce, white-pine boards, fhip-timber, and every species of split lumber, manufactured from, pine and oak; these are exported from Quamphegon, in Berwick, Sacofalls, in Biddeford, and Pepperillborough, Preluncut-falls, in Falmouth, and Amerascoggin-falls, in Brunswick The rivers abound with salmon in the spring sealon. On the fea-coast fish of various kinds are caught in plenty of there the cod-fith are the principal. Dried fish furnishes a capital article of export.
Animals.] In this country are deer, moose, beaver, otters, fables, brown squirrels, white-rabbits, bears, which have frequently deltroyed corn-fields, wolves, which are destructive to sheep, mountain-cats, porcupines, or hedge-hogs--patridges, but no quails, wild-geese and ducks, and other water-fowls, abound on the fea-coast in their seasons. No venomous serpents are found east of Kennebek-river.
Characier and Religion.] The inbabitants are a hardy robust set of people. The males are early taught the use of the musquet, and from their frequent use of it in fowling, are expert marks-men. The people in general are humane and benevolent. The common people ought, by law, to have the advantage of a school education, but there is here, as in other parts of New England, too vigble a neglect.
In March, 1788, the general-court ordered that a tract of land, fix miles square, should be laid out between Kennebek and Penobscot rivers, to the northward of Waldo patenț, to be appropriated for the foundation of a college.
As to religion, the people are moderate Calvinists. Notwithstanding Epifcopacy was established by their former charter, the churches are principaliy on the congregational plan; but are candid, catholic, and tolerant towards thofe of other perfuasions.
In 1785, they had seventy-two religious assemblies, to supply which were thirty-four ininifters.
History.] The first attempt to settle this country was made in 1607, on the west side of Sagadahok, near the sea. No permanent settlementa however, was at this time effected. It does not appear that any further attempts were made until between the years, 1630 and 1630.
In 1636, courts were held at Saço and other places, of which some records are extant. From these records it appears, that the courts. acted both in a legislative and a judicial capacity. Very few of their orders and laws are to be found. They proceeded in a summary method, attending more to subitance than form, making the laws of England their
In 1635, Sir Ferdinando Gorges obtained a grant from the council of Plymouth, of the tract of country between the rivers Piscataqua and Sagada hok, which is the mouth of Kennebek; and up Kennebek, fo far as to form a square of 120 miles. It is supposed that Sir Ferdinand first instituted government in this province.
In 1639, Gorges obtained from the crown a charter of the foil and jurisdi&tion, containing as ample powers perhaps as the King of England ever granted to any subject.
In the faine year he appointed a government and council, and they admihistered justice to the settlers until about the year 1647, when, hearing of the death of Gorges, they supposed their authority ceased, and the people on the spot univerfally conibined and agreed to be under civil government, and to elect their officers annually.
Government was administered in this form until 1652, when the irihabitants submitted to the Massachusetts, who, by a new construction of their charter, which was given to Roffwell and others, in 1628, claimed the foil and jurisdiction of the Province of Main, as far as the middle of CascoBay. Main then first took the name of Yorkshire ; and county-courts were held in the manner they were in Maffachusetts, and the towns had liberty to send their deputies to the general-court at Boston.
In 1664, Charles II. granted to his brother the Duke of York, all that part of New-England which lies between St. Croix and Pemaquid rivers, on the sea coaft; and up Pemaquid river, and from the head thereof to Kennebek river, and thence the shortest course north to St. Lawrence river. This was called the Duke of York's property, and annexed to the government of New York. Tke Duke of York, on the death of his brother Charles II. became James II. and upon James's abdication, these lands reyerted to the crown,
At present, the territory of the Sagadahok is supposed to contain all lands lying between the river St. Croix east, and Kennebek west, and from the Atlantic to the highlands, in the northern boundary of the United States.
Upon the restoration of Charles II. the heirs of Georges complained to the crown of the Massachusetts usurpation; and in 1665, the King's commitfioners, who visited New-England, came to the province of Main, and appointed magistrates and other officers, independent of Massachusetts-Bay. The magiftratęs, thus appointed, adminiftered government according to such instructions as the King's commislioners had given them, until about the year 1668, when the Massachusetts general-court fent down commisfioners and interrupted fuch as acted by the authority derived from the King's commissioners. At this time public affairs were in confusion ; fone declaring for Gorges and the magistrates appointed by the King's commissioners, and others for Massachusetts. The latter, however, press vailed, and courts of pleas and criminal jurifdi&tion were held as in other parts of the Maffachusett's-Bay.
About the year 1674, the heirs of Gorges con:plained again to the King and counsel of the ufurpation of Massachusetts-Bay, and they were called upon to answer for their conduct. The result was, they ceased for a time to exercise their jurisdiction, and Gorges, grandfon of Ferdipando, sent oyer instructions. But in 1677, the Massachusetts, by their
agent, John Usher, Esq; afterwards governor of New Hampshire, purchased the right and interest of the patent for 1,2001. sterling The Massachusetts now supposed they had both the jurisdi&tion and the soil, and accordingly governed in the manner the charter of Main had directed, until 1684, when the Massachusetts charter was vacated.
In 1691, by charter from William and Mary, the Province of Main and the large territory eastward, extending to Nova-Şcotia, was incorporated with the Massachusetts Bay, fince which it has been governed, and courts held as in other parts of the Massachusetts.
This country, from its first settlenient, has been greatly harrassed by the Indians.
In 1675, all the settlements were in a manner broken up and deftroyed.
From about 1992 until about 1702, was one continued scene of killing, burning, and destroying. The inhabitants suffered much for several years preceding and following the year 1724. And so late as 1744 and 1748, persons were killed and captivated bị the Indians in many of the towns next the sea,
Since this period, the inhabitants have lived in peace, and have increased to upwards of 50,000 souls. This number is daily and rapidly increasing. To facilitate intercourse between the inhabitants, the legislature have lately adopted measures for opening roads in cifferent parts of the country. Şuch is their growing importance, and their ardent desire for independence, that their political separation from Massachusetts may be supposed not far diftant.
Boundaries. BOUNDED north and cast by the Commonwealth of ;
Con neaticut. These limits comprehend what has been called Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.