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the Province of Main and Nova-Scotia, and all the country between the Province of Main and Nova-Scotia, as far northward as the River St. Lawrence *; also Elizabeth Ifands, and the islands of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard.
By the new charter, the appointment of the governor was in the crowr.o and every freeholder of forty fhillings sterling a year, and every inhabitant of forty pounds sterling personal estate, was a voter for representatives.
The French of Quebec inftigating the Indians, and joining with them to plunder and kill the English, and the French of Acadie infecting the coafts, and taking many vessels, the general court in the winter of 1689 meditated an attack upon Port-Royal, now called Annapolis-Royal, and upon Quebec. Forces were sent out and took Port-Royal, and the whole sea-coalt from that to Penobscot, and the New-England settlements.
The success of this expedition, and the ravage of the French and Indians at the opening of the spring, determined the general court to profecute their design upon Quebec. But the seafon was so far advanced when the troops arrived at Canada-the French so superior in rumber-the weather lo tempestuous, and the sickness so great ainong the soldiers, that this expedition was at ended with great loss.
A tiuce was concluded with the neighbouring Indians, while the troops were gone out of the colony, but hostilities were soon renewed.
The French and Indians molested the inhabitants of the frontiers daily. Acadie fell again into the hands of the French, and was afterwards retaken by the English. The inhabitants of this territory experienced the greatest sufferings at every change of their master.
A new expedition was planned against Canada, and afsistance from England solicited year after year for the reduction of the French, who were endeavouring by the aid of the favages to ruin entirely the British settlements.
In 1692, the spirit of infatuation respecting witchcraft was again revived in New-England, and raged again with uncommon violence. Several hundreds were accused, many were condemned, and some executed. Vatious have been the opinions respecting the delusion which occafioned this tragedy. Some pious people have believed there was something supernatural in it, and that it was not all the effect of fraud and importurk. Many are willing to suppose the accusers to have been under bodily diforders which affected their imaginations. This is kind and charitable, but scarcely probable. It is very possible that the whole was a scene of fraud and imposture, began by young girls, who at first perhaps thought of nothing more than exciting pity and indulgence, and continued by adult persons, who were afraid of being accused themselves. The one and the other, rather than coafess their fraud, suffered the lives of fo
* Since the freaty of Utrecht, in 1713, Nova Scotia was arbitrarily iakin from Mafsachusetts, and erected into a separate government.
And by the treaty of 1783, the territory between the Highlands, which form a part of the northern boundary of the United States, and the River St. Lawrence, was ceded t* Greai-Britain.
many innocents to be taken away through the credulity of judges and juries.
That the odium of this tragic conduct might not reft upon the News Englanders alone, it ought here to be obferved, that the fame infatuation was at this time current in England. The law by which witches were condemned, was a copy of the statute in England, and the practice of the courts was regulated bý precedents there afforded. Some late instances prove that England is not entirely cured of that delusion.
In 1711, some ships and troops being sent over, the colony troops joined them, and an attempt was made upon Canada, in which the greater part of them perished. This disaster was very grievous to the people of New-England, and many persons, in consequence of it, abandoned every expectation of conquering Canada.
Frequent excursions on the frontiers immediately followed ; but as soon as the peace of Utrecht was known, the Indians of the various tribes requested to be at peace with the English-alked pardon for their violation of former treaties, and engaged for the future to demean themselves as good subjects of the crown of Great-Britain. Articles of a general treaty were drawn up and signed by both parties.
From 1675, when Philip's war began, to the present time, 1713, five or fix thousand of the youth of the country had perished by the enemy, or by distempers contracted in the service of their country. The colonies, which usually doubted their inhabitants in five and twenty years, had not at this time double the number which they had five years before. The prospect of a long peace, which the general treaty afforded, was interrupted by the machinations of one Ralle, a French Jesuit, who instigated the Indians to make fresh incursions on the borders of the colony in 1717. After several ineffectual attempts to persuade the Indians to defit from their operations, forces were fent out by government from time to time, who deAtroyed several parties of the Indians, but there was no ceffation of hostifities until the death of Ralle in 1724.
In 1725, a treaty was made with the Indians, and a long peace fucceeded it. The length of the peace is in a great measure to be attributed to the favourable acts of governinent, made foon after its commencement, respecting the Indian trade.
În 1721, the finall-pox made great havock in Boston and the adjacent towns. Of 5889, who took it in Boston, 844 died. Inoculation was infroduced on this occasion, contrary however to the minds of the inhabifants in general. Dr. C. Mather, one of the principal ministers of Boston, had obferved, in the Philosophical Transactions, a letter from Timonius from Conftantinople, giving a favourable account of the operation. He recommended it to the physicians of Boston to make the experiment, but alf declined except Dr. Boylston. To Siew his confidence of success, he began with his own children and servants. Many pious people were struch with horror at the idea, and were of opinion that if any of his patients should die, he ought to be treated as a murderer
All orders of men, in a greater or less degree, condemned a practice which is now universally approved, and to which thousands owe the preservation of their lives.
In 1745, according to a proposal and plan of the governor of this colony, Louisburg was besieged and taken. The poffeffion of this place appeared neceffary for the security of the English fishery, and prevented an attack upon Nova-Scotia, which the French hád meditated and threatened,
The reduction of Louisburg by a British colony, surprized Great-Bri tain and France, and occasioned both powers to form important plans for the next year. Great Britain had in view the reduction of Canada, and the extirpation of the French from the northern continent. France, the recovery of Louisburg, the conquest of Nova Scotia, and the destruction of the Énglish sea-coast froin Nova Scotia to Georgia. Great preparations were accordingly made by both monarchs. A very formidable French fleet failed for the American coast ; a British squadron was long expected to oppose them, and to protect the colonies; but expected in vain. The colonies were in immediate and imminent danger. Fortunately for them, the French fleet was rendered unfit to accomplish their design, by a yiolent storm, which damaged most of the ships so much, that they were obliged to return to France, or retire to the West-Indies to refit:
Pious men saw the immediate hand of divine providence in the protection, or rather rescụe of the British colonies this year, as they had done in the almost miraculous success of the Cape Breton expedition, the year before.
By the time the fears of the colonies, which had been excited by the French fleet, were removed, the season was too far advanced to prosecute the Canadą expedition. The inactivè, prosecution of the war in Europe on both sides, indicated peace to be near, which the next year was affected.
Here Governor Hutchinfon ends his hiftory of Massachusetts. It belongs to the professed historian to relate the important events which have happened since. Several of themi, however, may be found in the foregoing history of the United States. It ought in justice here to be observed, that in point of military, political, and literary importance, Massachufetts is inferior to none, and fuperior, to most, of the states in the union.
Including the lands which lie east, as far as Nova-Scotia,
(Belonging to Maffachusetts.)
Length 300 } Between
43° and 46° North Latitude.
4 and 8° East Longitude. Boundaries... BOUNDED north-westwardly by the high lands, which from those which fall into the Atlantic ocean ; eastwardly by the river St.
Croix, and a line drawn due north from its source to the faid high lands, which divides this territory from Nova Scotia ; fouth eastwardly by the Atlantic ocean; and westwardly by New-Hampshire.
The Old Provirce of Main (included in the limits prescribed above) is bounded on the fouth weit and west by New-Hampshire ; south-cast by the Atlantic ocean, and north and north-east by the land, called in fome inaps Saghadahok It was supposed, at the time of its being made a proq vince, lo have been 120
o miles fquare ; but by a settlement of the line in 1737, on the part or side adjoining New Hampshire, the form of the 'land was reduced from a square to that of a diamond. The Province of Main contains, according to Douglass, about 9,600 square miles.
Civil division.} The whole Province of Main, and the territory to the east of it as far as the western boundary of Nova Scotia, were formerly in one county, by the name of Yorkshire. In 1761, this extensive county was divided into three counties. The easternmoit, called LINCOLN, contains all lands east of Sagada hok, and fome part of Main, viz. Georgetown, on the fea-coaft, and all the lands between the rivers Kennebek ard Amerascoggin.
This countỷ is faid tp be 150 miles fquare. It has been in agitation for feveral gears to divide it into three, but for various reasons the diviíion has hitherto been delayed. For the accommodation of the inhabi tants, it is at present divided into three districts, in each of which is a judge, a regifter of probatés, and a regifter of deeds. A great part of this county
is yet in a state of nature ; it is, however, rapidly settling. The frontier inhabitants on each fide of the Canada line, are but a few Nexi to Lincoln is CumBERLAND.countý, of which Port
is the ccounty, town, and capital of the whole territorý. This county contains -nearly half the Old Province of Main. The relt of the Province of Main
is included in YORK county. Thefe three-- counties are suddivided into - ninety-four townships, of which Lincoln contains fifty-three, Cumberland iwenty, and York twenty-one. These counties, in 1778, had fix regiments of militia.
In 1978, a ftate tax of £: 254, 718 16 11, was assessed on the polls and estates, within the Cornnonwealth of Massachusetts, by their general court. "The following apportionment of that tax to the three counties aboyementioned, will serve to shew the proportion which they bear to the whole ftate. ii
Which is nearly one thirteenth
: part of the whole fum.
Governor Powrial furposes that Pallamaquody river, which is fifteen or twenty miles east of St. Croix, is the real eaflern soundary of New England.
Penobscot river rises in fome ponds in the heart of the country, and paffing through several finall lakes, it tumbles for near two miles over falls, which effectually prevent any further marine navigation. To these falls, which are about fifty * miles from the sea, this river is navigable for veffels of an hundred tons. It empties into Penobscot bay.
Kennebek river rises from a little pond in the height of land, in north latitude 45° 20' and about 50 10' eaft longitude. Its general course is from north to fouth. It is navigable for veffets of an hundred tons, to Hallowell, fifty miles from Small-point, at the mouth of the river.
Sagadahok or Ameräscoggin river, which; properly speaking, is but the main western branch of the Kennebek, rises in latitude 440 50' north-eastward of the Wbite Hills, in lake Unibagoog. Peabody river, and another branch, fall into this main stream, from the east side of the White Hills. Its course is fouth about twenty-lix miles; then east northeast fixty, when it meets a second main stream froni the north-east, thirtyfour iniles from its source. Hence the river runs fouth forty miles. Ia this course it passes within two miles of the sea-coast, then turns north, and running over Pejepskaeg falls into Merry Meeting bay: from thence; with the waters of Kenebek, which likewife fall into this bay, with sem veral other finall streams, it passes off to the sea, fixteen miles, by the name of Kennebek, or Sagadahok river.
The Dutch formerly had a settlement at the place that is now called Newcastle, which was under the jurisdiction of the then governor of New-York, then called Manhadoes. The town was built on a beautiful neck of land, where rows of old cellars, near each other, are now to be seen.
Saco river has two sources, one in Ofipee pond, near Onipee mountain the other, which is its principal branch, falls from the south side of the White Hills. The former is called Ollipee, and the latter Pigwaket tiver. (Olipee pond and Offipee mountain are in New Hampshire, as are the White Hills.) These foon unite, and the river, keeping in a general Touth-eastern course for fixty or seventy miles, passes between Pepperillborough and Biddeford townships, into Saco bay, near Winter Harbour. Marine navigation is stopped by Saco falls, seven or eight miles from the sea. At these falls, which are about twenty feet in height, are the greatest board-works in this part of the country. The river here is broken by fwall islands in such a inanner as to afford a number of fine faw-mill feats. Before the war, 4,000,000 feet of pine-boards were annually sawed by the mills at this place. Logs are floated down the river from sixty or seventy miles above the mills, and vessels can come up quite to the mills to take in their lading.
Besides these are a number of smaller rivers. Stevens's, a fält water river
r; Prefumscut and Royal rivers run into Casco Bay. Kennebunk For, said be, The French, according to their mode of taking possession, always fixed a cross in every river they came to. Almost every river on the coast of Sagadahok has, in its turn, been deemed by them La Riviere de St. Croix'. Under equivocation of this general appellative, tbey have amused our negotia ators on every occafion. * Governor Poznal says, thirty-five.