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other, to illuminate it when necessary. There are four strong stone wharfs, connected with three piers each, sunk in various parts of the river.

The draw.is constructed on the most approved plan ; the machinery is very simple ; and it is designed to require the strength of two men only in raising it. The floor on the bridge at the highest tides, is four feet above the water, which generally rises about twelve or fourteen feet.

This bridge was completed in thirteen inonths; and while it exhibits the greatest effect of private enterprize within the United States, is a most plealing proof, how certainly objects of magnitude may be attained by {pirited exertions.

Another bridge, of a similar construction, has been erected over Mystic liver at Malden and another is now building at Beverly, which will connect that flourishing little town with Salem. These are works of much enterprize, ingenuity and public spirit ; and serve to thew that architecture, in this state, has risen to a high pitch of improvement. It is a confideration not unworthy of being here noticed, that while many other nations are wasting the brilliant efforts of genius in monuments of ingenious folly, to perpetuate their pride ; the Americans, according to the true fpirit of republicanisın, are employed almost entirely in works of public and private utility.

Trade, Manufaclures and Agriculture.] In the year 1787, the exports from this state exceeded their imports; and it is more than probable that, from the rapid increase of manufactural and agricultural improvements, and the prevailing spirit of industry and economy, the balance in favour of the state will be annually increased. The exports from the port of Boston, the year past, (August 1788) consisting of fish, oil, New England rum, lumber of various kinds, pot and pearl-ashes, flax-seed, furs, pork, beef, corn, four, butter, cheese, beans, peas, bar-iron, hallow, ware, bricks, whale-bone, tallow and spermaceti candles, soap, loaf-fugar, woolcards, leather, shoes, naval stores, ginseng, tobacco, bolts, duck, hemp, cordage, nails, &c. amount to upwards of £•345,000 lawful money, New England rum, pot-aih, lumber, fish, and the produce of the fishery, are the principal articles of export. No less than 4783 hogsheads of New England rum were distilled and exported from this state last year, besides the home consumption, which was not inconsiderable

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* New England rum is distilled from molasses imported

from the West Indies. It may be a question worthy of confideration, whether the molasses which is annually distilled in New England, by being mixed with water, would not afford a drink cheaper, more palatable, and more nourishing, than that which is made from the rum diflilled from it, and treble in quantity ? If so, all the labour and expence of distillation might be spared, and converted to more useful, and perhaps to more lucrative manufactural or agricultural purposes. Nezu England rum is by no means a wholesome liquor. Dr. Douglass has asserted. that it has killed more Indians than their wars and sicknesses. It does not Spare white people, especially when made into flip, which is rum mixed with Small beer and Muscovado sugar.

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New markets for the produce of this, and the other states, are continua ally increasing. The Cape of Good Hope, the Isle of France, Surat, Batavia and Canton, have lately opened their ports to receive the articles of beef, pork, bacon, butter, cheese, timber, ginseng, and several others. To Great-Britain are sent pot and pearl ashes, staves, fax-leed, bees-wax, &c. To the West-Indies, lumber, fish, pork, beef, flour, &c. The

hale, cod, and inackarel fisheries, employ * great number of hands, and yield a handsome proftThe Negro trade is totally prohibited in Massachusetts, by an act passed in the winter of 1988.

Annual improveinents are made in agriculture, chiefly by gentlemen of fortune. The common husbandmen in the country, generally choofe to continue in the old track of their forefathers. The Academy of Arts and Sciences have a committee, by the same of the Agricultural Cominittee,' whole business it is to receive and communicate any useful infor, ination upon that subject.

In this state are manufactured pot and pearl-ashes, linseed oil, bar and cast iron, cannon, cordage, spermaceti oil and candles, and many smaller articles, such as linen, woollen and cotten cloth, hosiery, hais, shoes, tools and instruments of husbandry, wool-cards, snuff, clocks, cutlery, muskets, cabinet-work, &c. The town of Lynn is particularly famous for the inanufacture of womens filk and stuff shoes. It is computed that they make 170,000 pair of them annually. These are exported to various parts or the union.

A cotton manufactuory has lately keen established at Beverly, which bids fair to be productive of advantages to the town.

An association of the tradesmen and manufacturers of the town of Bor. ton, has lately been formed, consisting of a representative from each branch. In this body the whole manufacturing interest of that patriotic town is combined. By a circular letter of August

201h, they have strongly recommended the same procedure to their brethren in the several sea-ports in the union. This affociation will doubtless be productive of happy effects.

Ship-building, after a long ftagnation since the peace, now begins to revive in various maritime parts of the state. Preparations are making for a glass-house in Boston.

Mr. Joseph Pope, of Boston, has constructed a large, complete and elegant Planetarium, six feet in diameter. This is entirely a work of original genius and affiduous application, as Mr. Pope never saw any machine of the kind but his own. It exhibits a proof of great strength of mind, and really does him much houour,

Revenue and Taxes.] The principal sources of revenue are lard and polltaxes, impofts, excises, and the sales of new lands. Taxes are levied on all males between sixteen and fifty, except such as are exempted by law- also cn the number of acres of improved and unimproved land-on dwellinghouses and barns, warehouses, stores, &c. these are all valued, and upon this valuation taxes are laid, so many pounds for

every £.1000.

Mines and Minerals ) In Attleborough is a magnetic iron ore ; it yields a red shot iron, not good. In 'Attleborough Gore is some copper ore, but fo intermixed with the iron rock cre, as to render bot unprofitable.

Alum

Alum Nate, or stone, has been found in some parts ; also ruddle, or red earth, which serves to mark sheep, and may be used as a ground colour for priming, instead of Spanish brown. Several mines of black lead have been discovered in Brimfield, and the neighbouring places; and white pipe clay, and yellow and red ochre, at Martha's Vineyard. There is a valuable copper mine at Leverett, in the county of Hampshire, lately difcovered ; and at Newbury are beds of lime-stone and asbestos.

Hisory.) On the 19th of March, 1627, the Plymouth council sealed a patent to Sir Henry Roswell, and five others, of all that part of New England, included between a line drawn three miles fouth of Charles river, and another three miles north of Merinak river, from the Atlantic to the South Sea *. This patent gave a good right to the soil, but no powers of government. A royal charter was neceflary. This paffed the seals March 4th, 1628. Until this year, a few scattering settlements only had been made in Massachusetts Bay. In the summer of 1627, Mr. Endicot, one of the original planters, with a small colony, was sent over to begin a plantation at Naun keag, (now Salem.) The June following, about 200 persons, furnished with four minifters f, came over and joined Mr. Endicot's colony; and the next year they formed themselves into a regular church. This was the first church gathered in Massachusetts, and the second in New England. The church at Plymouth had been gathered eight years before. In 1629, a larger embarkation was projected by the company in England; and at the request of a number of respectable gentlemen, inost of whom afterwards came over to New England, the general consent of the company was obtained, that the government and patent should be transferred and settled in Massachusetts.

In 1630, seventeen ships from different ports in England, arrived in Mafsachusetts, with more than 1500 passengers, among whom were many

* This tract of country was called MASSACHUSETTS BAY. The Massachusetts tribe of Indians lived around, and gave their name to the large bay at the bottom of this tract ; hence the name Massachusetts Bay. The Indian word is Mais Tchusaeg, hgnifyinng the courtry this side the bi ls.

The following extract from the epistle dedicatory to a sermon preached at Plymouib, in 1620, will fbew the ideas then enteriained respecting the fituation of the South Sea.

New England, fo calld, not only (to avoid novelties) because Captain Smith bath to entituled it in his description, but because of the resemblance that is in it of England, the native soil of Englishmen: it being much what the fame for beat and cold in summer and winter, it being champion ground, but not bigh mountains, somewhat like the soil in Kent and Effex; full of dales, and meddow ground, full of rivers and (weet springs, as England is. But principally, Jo far as we can get find it is an island, and near about the quantity of England, being cut out from the maine land in America, as England is from the maine of Europe, by a great arm of the sea, which entreth in forty degrees, and runneth up north-west and by well, and goeth out either into the South Sea, or else into the bay of Canada. Meffrs. Higginson, Skelian, Bright and Smith.

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persons of distinction. Incredible were the hardships they endured. Exposed to the relentless cruelties of the Indians, who, a few months before, had entered into a general conspiracy to extirpate the English-reduced to a scanty pittance of provisions, and that of a kind to which they had not been accustomed, and deftitute of necessary accommodations, numbers sickened and died : so that before the end of the year, they lost 200 of their number. About this time settlements were made at Charleston, Boston, Dorchester, Cambridge, Roxbury and Medford. The first general court of Massachusetts was held on the 19th of October, 1631, not by representation, but by the freemen of the corporation at large. At this court, they agreed that, in future, the freemen fhould choose the affiftants, and that the affiftants should choose, from anong themselves, the governor and deputy governor. The, court of assistants were to have the power of making laws, and appointing officers. This was a depariure from their charter. One hundred and nine freemen were admitted this court. At the next general court of election, in the same year, the freemen, notwithstanding their former vote, resolved to choose their own governor, deputy, and affiftants, and passed a most extraordinary law, * that none but church members should be admitted to the freedom of the body politic. This law continued in force until the diffolution of the government, with this alteration, however, that, instead of being church members, the candidates for freedom must have a certificate from the minifter, that they were of orthodox principles, and of good lives and conversations.

In the years 1632 and 1633, great additions were made to the colony. Such was the rage for emigration to New England, that the king in council thought fit to issue an order, (February 7, 1633,) to prevent it. This order, however, was not strictly obeyed; for this year came over Messrs. Cotton, Hooker and Stone, three of the most famous pillars of the church. Mr. Cotton settled at Boston, and the other two at Cambridge. Mr. Hooker, and 100 others, removed in 1636, and settled at Hartford, on Connecticut river.

In 1634, twenty-four of the principal inhabitants appeared in the general court for elections, as the representatives of the body of freemen, and resolved, " That none but the general court had power to make and establish laws to elect officers to raise monies, and confirm properties; and determined that four general courts be held yearly, to be summoned by the governor, and not be dissolved without ihe consent of the major part of the court--that it be lawful for the freemen of each plantation to choose two or three persons as their representatives, to tranfact, on their behalf, the affairs of the commonwealth, &c. Thus was settled the legislative body, which, except an alteration of the number of general courts, which were foon reduced to two only in a year, and other not very material circumstances, continued the same as long as the charter lasted.

In 1636 Mrs. Hutchinson, a very extraordinary woman, who came to New England with Mr. Cotton, made great disturbances in the churches. Two capital errors with which she was charged, were, " That the Holy Ghost dwells personally in a justified person, and that nothing of fancti

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fication, can help to evidence to believers their juftification.' Disputes ran high about the covenant of works, and the covenant of grace, and involved both the civil and religious affairs of the colony in great confusion. The final result was, a synod was appointed to be held at Cambridge, in August, 1637, where were present both ministers and mefsengers of churches and magiftrates, who, after three weeks disputing, condemned, as erroneous, above eighty points or opinions, said io have been maintained by some or other in the country. The result was signed by all the members but Mr. Cotton. In consequence of this, I rs. Hutchinson and some of her principal followers were sentenced to banishment. She, with her husband and family, shortly after removed 10 Aquidnick, (Rhode-Ifland) where, in 1642, Mr. Hutchinson died. She being difsatisfied with the people or place, removed to the Dutch country, beyond New-Haven, and the next year, she and all her family, being sixteen fouls, were killed by the Indians, except one daughter, who was carried into captivity.

The year 1637, was distinguished by the Pequot wars, in which were lain five or fix hundred Indians, and the tribe almost wholly destroyed. This struck such terror into the Indians, that for forty years succeeding, they never openly commenced hoftilities with the English.

The year 1638, was rendered memorable by a very great earthquake throughout New-England.

In 1640, the importation of settlers çeased. The motives for emigrating to New-England were remoyed by a change in the affairs of England. They who then professed to give the best accounts say, that in 298 thips, which were the whole number from the beginning of the colony, there arrived 21,200 passengers, men, women, and children, perhaps about 4000 families. Since then more persons have removed from New England to other parts of the world, than have arrived from thence hither. The present inhabitants therefore of New England, are justly to be eitimated a natural increase, by the blessing of Heaven, from the first 21,000 that arrived in the year 1640. It was judged that they had, at this time, 12,000 neat cattle, and 3000 sheep. The charge of transporting the families and their substance, was computed at 192,000l, sterling,

In 1641, many discouragements were given to the settlers by their former benefactors, who withheld their aslistance from them, and endeavoured, though without success, to persuade them to quit their new establishments, The following year, the Indians confederated under Miantinomo, a leader of the Narraganfett Indians, for the extirpation of the English. The confederacy was fortunately discovered in its infancy and produced no mischief.

This year (1643) great disturbance was made in the colony by a fect which arose from the ashes of Antinomianism. The members of it, by their imprudence, exposed themselves to the intolerant spirit of the day, and Gorton, the leader of the party, was sentenced to be confined to Charleston, there to be kept at work, and to wear fuch bolts and irons as might hinder his escape, and was threatened with severer punithment in case of a repetition of his crime. The rest were confined to different towns, one in a town, upon the same conditions with Gorton. There sentences were cruel and unjustifiable ; yet much of the apparent severity is removed, when the character and conduct of Gorton is taken into view,

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