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county of Effex, and State of Massachusetts Bay, and the Honourable John Phillips, Esq; of Exeter, in the county of Rockingham, and States of New Hampshire. It was incorporated October 4, 1780, and has twelve trustees.
LEICESTER ACADEMY, in the township of Leicester, was incorporated in 1784. For the encouragement of this inftitution, Ebenezer Crafts and Jacob Davis, Efars; generoufly gave a large and commodious manfionhouse, lands and appurtenances in Leicester, for that use.
At William's-Town, in Berkshire county, is another Academy, which is yet in its infancy. Colonel Ephraim Williains has made a handsome donation in lands, for its encouragement and support.
At Hingham is a well endowed school, or Academy, which, in honout of its principal donor and founder, is called DER BY SCHOOL.
These Academies have very handsome funds, and are flourishing The designs of the trustees are, to diffeminate virtue and true piety, to promote the education of youth in the English, Latin, Greek, and French languages, to encourage their instruction in writing, arithmetic, oratory, geography, practical geometry, logie, philosophy, and such other of the liberal arts and sciences, or languages, as may be thought expedient
HARVARD COLLEGE (now UNIVERSITY) takes its date from the year 1638. Two years before, the general court gave four hundred pounds for the support of a public school at Newtown, which has since been called Cambridge. This year (1638) the Rev. Mr. John Harvard, a worthy minifter residing in Charleston, died, and left a donation of £-779 for the use of the forementioned public school. In honour to the memory of fo liberal a benefactor, the general court the same year, ordered that the school should take the name of HARVARD COLLEGE.
In 1642, the College was put upon a more respectable footing, and the governor, deputy governor and magistrates, and the ministers of the fix next adjacent towns, with the president, were erected into a corporation for the ordering and managing its concerns. This
nine young gen's tleinen received the decree of Batchelor of Arts. It received its first charter in 1650.
Cambridge, in which the university is situated, is a pleasant village, four miles westward from Boston, containing a number of gentlemens seats; which are neat and well built. The university consists of four elegant buick edifees, handsomely enclosed. They stand on a beautiful green, which spreads to the north-west, and exhibit a pleasing view.
The names of the several buildings are, Harvard-Hall, Massachusetts. Hall, Hollis. Hall, and Holden-Chapel. Harvard -Hall is divided into fix apartments; one of which is appropriated for the library, one for the zuuseum, iwo for the philosophical apparatus, one is used for a chapel, and the other for a dining hall. The library, in 1787, consisted of 12.000 volumes; and will be continually increasing from the interest of permanent funds, as well as from casual benefactions. The philosophical apparatus belonging to this university, cost between 1400 and £.1500 lawful money, and is the most elegant and complete of any in America.
Agreeable to the present constitution of Massachusetts, his excellency the governor, lieutenant governor, the council and senatę, the president of the university, and the ministers of the congregational churches in the
171 towns of Boston, Charleston, Cainbridge, Waterton, Roxbury, and Dorchester, ate ex officiis, overseers of the University,
The corporation is a distinct body, consisting of seven members, in whom is vefted the property of the university.
The instructors in the university are, a president, Hollisian professor of divinity, Hollisian profeffor of the mathematics and natural philosophy, Hancock professor of oriental languages, professor of anatomy and surgery, profefTor of the theory and practice of physic, professor of chymistry and materia medica, and four tutors
. This university as to its library, philofophical apparatus, and professorships, is at present the first literary institution on this continent. Since its first establishment, 3146 students have received honorary degrees from its successive officers; 1002 of whom have been ordained to the work of the gospel ministry. It has generally from 120 to i 50 students.
Chief towns.] Boston is the capital, not only of Massachusetts, but of New-England. It is built on a peninsula of an irregular form, at the bottom of Massachusetts Bay. The neck, or isthmus which joins the peninsula to the continent, is at the south end of the town, and leads to Roxbury. The length of the town, including the neck, is about three miles; the town itself is not quite two miles. Its breadth is various. At the entrance from Roxbury it is narrow. The greatest breadth is one mile and 139 yards. The buildings in the town cover about 1000 acres. It contains near 1800 dwelling-houses.
By a late. computation, the number of inhabitants was found to be 14,640, of these 6,570 were males, and 8,070 females. This number is exclusive of strangers and transient persons, who make nearly one third of the whole number of souls in Boston. The ratable polls, at the time of the cenfus, were about 2,620. In this town there are seventy-nine streets, thirty-eight lanes, and twenty-one alleys, exclusive of squares and courts; and about eighty wharfs and quays, very convenient for vessels. The principal wharf extends 600 yards into the sea, and is covered on the north side with large and convenient stores. It far exceeds any other wharf in the United States.
In Bofton are fixteen houses for publick worship; of which nine are fot congregationalists, three for episcopalians, two for baptifts, one for the friends, and one for universalists, or independents. There is one old meeting-house desolate and in ruins, in School-street.
The other public buildings are the state-house, Faneuil-hall, an alms house, a workhouse, and a bridewell. That building which was formerly the governor's house, is now occupied in its several apartments, by the council, the treasurer, and the secretary; the two latter hold their offices in it. The public granary is converted into a store, and the linen manufactory house is now occupied by the bank. Most of the public buildings are handsome, and some of them are elegant. The town is irregularly built, but, as it lies in a circular form around the harbour, it exhi
handsome view as you approach it from the sea. On the west fide of the town is the mall, a very beautiful public walk, adorned with rows of trees, and in view of the common, which is always open to re freshing breezes. Beacon hill, which overlooks the town from the west, affords a fine variegated prospect. The harbour of Boston is safe, and large enough to contain 500 ships
bits a very
at anchor, in a good depth of water ; while the entrance is so narrow as fcarcely to admit two thips abreast. It is diversified with many islands, which afford rich pafturing, hay and grain. About three miles from the town is the castle, which commands the entrance of the harbour. Here are mounted about forty pieces of heavy artillery, besides a large number of a smaller size. The fort is garrisoned by a company of about fifty foldiers, who also guard the convicts that are sentenced, and fent here to labour These are all employed in the nail inanufactory.
In Boston there are two grammar schools, and four for writing, &c. whose masters are supported by the town : besides twelve or fourteen private schools.
It has been computed, that during the siege in 1975, as many houses were destroyed in Boston by the British troops, as were burnt in Charles
Since the peace, a spirit of repairs and improvement has diffuséd itself among the inhabitants. A few years may render the metropolis of Massachusetts as famed for arts, manufactures, and commerce, as any city in the United States.
The town next to Boston, in point of numbers and commercial importance, is Salem. This town was settled as early as 1628, by Mr. Endicot, afterwards governor, and a colony under his direction. It is the oldest town in the state, except Plynyouth, which was settled eight years before. In 1986, it contained 616 dwelling-houses, and 6700 inhabitants. In this town are five churches for congregationalists, one for epifcopaliarts, and a meeting house for the friends. Its harbour is inferior to that of Boston. The inhabitants, notwithstanding, carry on a large foreign trade. Salem is fifteen miles north-eastward of Bolton, and is considered as the metropolis of the county of Effex.
Newbury Port, forty-five miles eastward from Boston, is situated on the southwest side of Merrimak river, about two miles from the sea. The town is about a mile in length, and a fourth of a mile in breadth, and contains 450 dwelling-houses, and 4113 natural inhabitants. It has one episcopal, one prethyterian, and two congregational churches. The business of ship-building is largely carried on here. Thefe towns, with Marblehead, Gloucester or Cape Ann, ard Beverly, carry on the fishery, which furnishes the principal article of exportation from Massachusetts.
Worcester is one of the largest inland towns in New-England. It is the Shire town of Worcester county, and is about forty-seven miles westward of Boston.
On Connecticut river, in the county of Hampshire, are a number of very pleasant towns. Of these Springfield is the oldest and largest. It ftands on the east side of Connecticut river, about ninety-six miles westward of Boston. The courts are held here and at Northampton alternately. Within its ancient liinits are about 700 families, who are divided into eight worshipping affemblies. The original township has been divided into fix parishes, some of which have been incorporated into distinet townships. The settlement of Springfield was b gun in 1636, by William Pynchon, Efq; whose descendants are still living in the place He called the place Springfieid, in remembrance of his native place in England, which bore that name.
Hardley is a neat little town on the opposite side of the river from Northampton
Northampton, Hatfield, and Deerfield are all pleasant, Rourishing towns, succeeding each other as you travel northerly on the west side of the river.
Conftitution.] The constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, established in 1780, contains a declaration of rights and a frame of government. The declaration asserts the natural freedom and equality of men-Liberty of conscience-Freedom of the press–Trial by jury--Sovereignty and independence-that all power is derived from the people that hereditary honours and emoluments are inadmissible--ihat every subject is entitled to protection of life, liberty, and property-and, in return, muft obey the laws and pay his proportion of the common expence that he shall not be obliged to accuse himself; but may be heard in his own defence-that he may keep arms ; but standing armies shall not be maintained in time of peace-that no tax shall be levied without the consent of the people by their representatives—that no ex poft facto law shall be made that the martial law shall extend only to men in actual military service that the legislative, executive, and judiciary powers shall be kept distinct, &c. By the frame of government, the power of legiflation is loyed in a general court, consisting of two branches, viz, a fenate and a house of representatives, each having a negative upon the other. They meet annually on the last Tuesday in May. No act can be passed without the approbation of the governor, unless two-thirds of both branches are in favour of it. Either branch, or the governor and council, may require the opinion of the justices of the supreme judicial court, upon important questions. Senators are chosen by districts, of which there cannot be less than thirteen. The number of counsellors and senators, for the whole commonwealth, is forty ; the number of each district is in proportion to their public taxes ; but no district shall be fo large, as to have more than fix. Sixteen senators make a quorum. The representatives are chosen by the several towns, according to their numbers of rateable polls. For 150 polls one is elected ; and for every addition of 225, an additional one. Their travelling expences to and from the general court; are defrayed by the public, but their wages for attendance are paid by their own towns. Impeachments, for misconduct in office, are made by the representatives, and tried by the senate ; but the judgment can go only to removal froni office and future disqualification. Money bills originate in the house of representatives, but may be altered by the senate. Representatives are privileged from arrests on mesne process. Sixty members inake a quorum. The fupreme executive authority is vested in a governor, who is elected annually by the people, and has a council consisting of the lieutenant-governor, and nine gentlemen chosen out of the forty, who are returned for counsellors and senators. Five counsellors make a quorum.
governor is commander of all the military force of the commonwealth. He may convene the general court, may adjourn them, when the two branche's disagree about the time, and in their recess, may prorogue then from time to time, not exceeding ninety days-may pardon convies, but the legislature alone can grant pardons before conviction. He commissions all officers, and, with advice of council, appoints all judicial officers. Military officers are thus appointed ; the respective companies choose their captain and subalterns, who choose their regimental officers, who choose
their brigadiers. The major-generals are appointed by the general court. Justices of the peace are commissioned for seven years ; all other judicial, and all executive and military offices, continue during good behaviour, yet are removeable by the governor, upon address of the legislature. The salaries of goverror and justices of the supreme court, cannot be diminished, although they may be enlarged. Official qualifications are as followfor a voter, twenty-one year's age, one year's residence, a freehold of three pounds annual value, or fixty pounds of any other eftatefor a representative, £ 100 freehold, or £:200 other estate, and one year's residence in the town—for a fenator, £:300 freehold, or £.600 other estate in the commonwealth, and five years residence in the district - for governor, or lieutenant-governor, £.1ooo freehold, and seven years residence. Every governor, lieutenant-governor, counsellor, senator, or representative, must declare that he believes the Christian religion, and has the legal qualifications. A governor, lieutenant-governor, or justice of the supreme court can hold no other office. No man shall Mold two of these offices, judge of probate, sheriff, register. No justices of the supreme court, secretary, attorney-general, treasurer, judge of probate, instructor of Harvard College, clerk, register, sheriff, or custom officer can have a seat in the legislature. The privilege of Habeas Corpus cannot be sufpended more than a year at one time. In 1795, if two-thirds of the qualified voters desire it,'a convention shall be called to revise the constitution.
Bridges.] The principal bridge in this state, or in any of the United States, is that which was built over Charles river, between Boston and Charleston, in 1786.
The following is an accurate description of this convenient and handfome structure :
16 35 Piers at an equal distance, to draw,
522 Width of the draw,
30 39 Piers at equal dittance,
75 The whole number of piers.
Spaces to the abutment at Boston,
1503 Each pier is composed of feven sticks of oak timber, united by a cappiece, strong braces and girts, and afterwards driven into the bed of the river, and firmly secured by a single pile on each side, driven obliquely to a folic bottom. The piers are connected to each other by large string pieces, which are covered with four-inch plank. The bridge is 43 feet in width, and on each side is accomii.odated with a passage lix feet wide, railed in for the safety of people on foot. The bridge has a gradual rise from each end, so as to be two feet higher in the middle than at the extremities. Forty elegant lamps are erected at a suitable distance from each