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lians. Ministers contract with their parishes for their support. No parish is obliged to have a minister ; but if they make a contract with one, they are obliged by law to fulfil it. Liberty is ever given to any individual of a parish to change their denomination ; and in that case they are liberated from their part of the parish contract.

Damage sustained in the late war.] The enemy never entered NewHampshire. This is the only state that escaped their rayages. Their losses of men and ships, damage by depreciation of money and loss of business, were felt in proportion as in other states.

History ] The firit discovery made by the English of any part of NewHampshire, was in 1614, by Capt. John Smith, who ranged the shore from Penobscot to Cape Cod; and in this route, discovered the river Piscataqua. On his return to England, he published a description of the country, with a map of the coast, which he presented to Prince Charles, who gave

it the name of New-ENGLAND. In 1621, Capt. John Mason obtained from the council of Plymouth, a grant of all the land from the river Naumkeag (new Salem) round Cape Ann, to the river Merrimak, up each of those rivers, and from a line connecting the furthest fources of them inclusively, with all islands within three miles of the coast. This district was called Mariana. The next year, another grant was made to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Mason jointly, of all the lands between the Merrimak and Sagadahok, extending back to the great lakes of Canada. This grant, which includes a part of the other, was called Laconia.

Under the authority of this grant, in 1623, a settlement was made at Little Harbour, near the mouth of the Piscataqua.

'In 1629, some planters from Massachusetts-Ray, wishing to form a fet. țlement in the neighbourhood of Pifcataqua, procured a general meeting of the Indians, at Squamfcot falls, where, with the universal consent of their subjects, they purchased of the Indian chiefs, for a valuable consideration, a tract of land comprehended between the rivers Piscatagua and Merrimak, and a line connecting these rivers, drawn at the distance of about thirty miles from the sea-coast, and obtained a deed of the same, witnessed by the principal persons of Piscataqua and the province of Main.

The same year, Mason procured a new patent, under the common seal of the council of Plyinouth, of all lands included within lines drawn from the mouths and through the middle of Pifcataqua and Merrimak rivers, until fixty miles were compleated, and a line crossing over land connecting those points, together with all islands within five leagues of the coast. This tract of land was called New-Hampshire. It comprehended the whole of the above-pientioned Indian purchase ; and what is fingular and unaccountable, the fame land which this patent covered, and much more, had been granted to Gorges and Mason jointly seven years before.

In 1635, the Plymouth compauy resigned their charter to the king, but this resignation did not materially affect the patentees under them, as the several grant's to companies and individuals were mostly confirmed, at come subsequent period, by charters from the crown.

In 1640, four distinct governments had been formed on the several branches of Piscataqua. The people under these governments, unprotected by


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England, in consequence of her own internal distractions, and too much divided in their opinions to form any general plan of government which could afford any prospect of permanent utility, though best to folicit the protection of Massachusetts. That government readily granted their request, and accordingly, in April, 1641, the principal settlers of Piscataqua, by a formal initrument, resigned the jurisdiction of the whole to Massachusetis, on condition that the inhabitants shouid enjoy the same liberties with their own people, and have a court of justice erected among them. The property of the whole patent of Portsinouth, and of one-third of that of Dover, and of all the improved lands therein, was reserved to the lords and gentlemen proprietors and their heirs for ever. fervations were acceded to on the part of Massachusetts, and what is exa traordinary, and manifefted the fondness of the government for retaining them under their jurisdiction, a law of Massachusetts, declaring that none but church members should fit in the general court, was dispensed with in their favour. While they were united with Massachusetts, they weregoverned by the general laws of the colony, and the conditions of the union were ftri&tly observed. During this period, however, they had to struggle with many difficulties. One while involved together with Massachusetts in a bloody war with the Indians; and repeatedly disturbed with the warm disputes occasioned by the ineffectual efforts of Mason's heirs to recover the property of their anceitor. These disputes continued until 1679, when Mason's claim, though never established in law, was patroj nized by the crown, and New Hampshire was ere&ted into a separate government. Massachusetts was directed to recal all her.commissions for governing in that province, which was accordingly done. The first commillion for the government of New Hampshire, was given to Mr. Cutt, as president of the province, on the 18th of September, 1679.

In the year 1691, Mason's heirs sold their title to their lands in NewEngland, to Samuel Allen, of London, for £:2750. This produced new controversies concerning the property of the lands, which embroiled the provinnce for many years. In 1692, Colonel Samuel Allen was commissioned governor

of New. Hampshire. Eight years after he came over to America to prosecute his claim, but died before the affair was concluded.

The inhabitants about this time suffered extremely from the cruel barbarity of the Indians; Exeter, Dover, and the frontier settlements, were frequently surprized in the night-the houses plundered and burnt-the men killed and scalped--and the women and children either inhumanly murdered, or led captives into the wilderness. The first settlers in other parts of New-England were also, about this time, harrafied by the Indians, and it would require volumes to enumerate their particular sufferings.

In 1737, a controversy, which had long fubfilted between the iwo goe vernments of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, respecting their divifional line, was heard by commiflioness appointed by the crown for that purpose. These commiflioners determined that the northern boundaries of Maffach usetts should be a line three miles north from the river Merri. mak as far as Pantucket falls, then to run west 100 north, until it meeis New-York line. Although Massachusetts felt themselves aggrieved by this decision, and attempted several ways to obtain redress, the line ha's


never been altered, but is, at present, the divisional line between the two states. Douglafs mentions, "That the governor of Massachusetts, for many years, was also governor of New-Hampshire, with a distinct com million.' This must have been many years after New Hampshire had been erected into a separate government in 1679. He adds that NewHampshire entered a complaint to the king in council against the joint governor, relative to settling the boundaries between the two provinces. This complaint was judged by the king to have been well founded, and

therefore a separate governor for Hew-hiamphire was commissioned anno, 1740.

Although New-Hampshire was under the jurisdiction of the governor of Massachusetts, yet they had a separate legislature. They ever bore à proportionable share of the expences and levies in all enterprizes, expeditions, and military exertions, whether planned by the colony or the crown, In every stage of the opposition that was made to the encroachments of the British parliament, the people, who ever had a high sense of liberty, cheerfully bore their part. At the commencement of hoftilities, indeed, while their council was appointed by royal mandamus, their patriotic ardour was checked by these crown officers. But when freed from this restraint, they flew eagerly to the American standard when the voice of their country declared for war, and their troops had a large share of the þazard and fatigue, as well as of the glory of accomplishing the late revolution.

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Breadth 60} Between


41° 20' and 42° 50' North Latitude,

2 and 530' Eat Longitude. Boundaries.) BOUNDED northwardly, by New-Hampshire and Ver

; ticut, Rhode-Iland, and the Atlantic ; east by the Atlantic and Maffachusetts Bay.!!.

Rivers) Merrimak river, before described, runs through the northeastern part of this statę. Charles river rises from five or fix sources, on the fouth-east side of Hopkinton and Holliston ridge.' The main stream runs north-east, then north and north-eastwardly, found this ridge, until, in Nagick township, it mingles with Mother-Brook, which is a considerable branch of Charles river. The river thus formed, runs westward, tumbling

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in falls acrofs the south-west end of Brooklyn hills, and pafling near Fram, ingham pond, runs north-east to Cambridge ; hence winding round in a finuous course falls into Boston harbour. Taunton river rises in the Blue Mountains, which lie back of Milton and Braintree, and forms the principal drain of the country lying east of these niountains--the river runs nearly a straight course fouth-west, under the foot of the mountains, to Tiverton on Narragansett Bay, Concord river is formed by three branches, one issuing from Framingham pond, and the other two from the mountains about Marlborough. These Itreams united run north, and fall into the Merrimack river a little below Pantucket falls.

Mystic and Medford rivers run from north to south into Boston harbour. Ipswich river, rising in Wilmington in Middlesex county, runs east and then north-east into the Atlantic, at Ipswich. Westfield liver, from the north-west, empties into Connecticut river at Springfield. A little above, the Chicabee from the north-east empties into the fame river. Deerfield river rises in Vermont, and running fouthwardly through Wilmington, Charlemont, and between Shelburne and Conway, enters and passes through a lațge tract of the finest meadow in the world. In these meadows it receives Green river, from the mountains, which is aboựt four rods wide; hence they pass on together, in a broad smooth stream, about three miles into Connecticut river.

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Capes] The only Capes of note on the coast of Massachusetts, are Cape Ann on the north side of Boston Bay, and Cape Cod on the south, The latter is the terminating hook of a promontory, which extends far into the sea, and is remarkable for having been the first land which was made by the first settlers of Plymouth on the American coast in 1620, In the barb of the hook, which is made by the Cape, is Cape Cod harbour. This promontory circumscribes Barnstable Bay, and forms Barnstable county. This county is almost an island. The Ifthmus which connects it to the continent, is between Sandwich Bay on the north, and Buzzards Bay on the south. The distance between them is but fix or seven miles. Herring brook almost crosses this neck or isthmus, so that a canal of about one mile only would insulate the county, and save several hundred mies dangerous navigation in passing from Newport to Boston, and be otherwise of imniense advantage to trade. Şuch a canal has been talked of for more than an hundred years past. The eaftern coast of this promontory is subject to continual changes. Large tracts of sand bank, in the course of forty or fifty years, by the conitant accumulation of sand and mud, occasioned by the coil and recoil of the tiờes, have been transformed into solid marsh land. The sand banks extend two hundred miles into the sea, forining dangerous ihoals.

Isands.] Among other islands which border upon this coaft, are Kappawak, Martha's Vineyard and" Nantucket. Kappawak, now Dukes county, and the neighbouring ifles, were discovered as early as 1602, by Bartholomew Gofnold. In honour of Queen Elizabeth, he called'a clutter of small islands near the cape, Elizabeth isles. To another neighbouring island he gave the name of Martha's Vineyard. Dukes,

5, county is wenty miles in length, and about four in breadth. It contains seven



parishes. Edgarton, which includes the island Chabaquidick, is the shire

This little island is about half a mile from the harbour, and renders it very secure. This county is full of inbabitants, who, like their neighbours at Nantucket, fubfift principally by fishing. They send three representatives to the general aflembly, and one fenator.

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Nantucket lies south of Cape Cod, and is considerably less than Dukes county. It contains, according to Douglass, 23,000 acres, including the beech. No mention is made of the discovery and settlement of this illard, under its present name, by any of our bittorians. It is more than probable, that this is the island which is usually called Nautican by ancient voyagers. It formerly had the most considerable whale fishery on the coatt; but the war almost ruined them. They are now beginning to revive their former business. Moit of the inhabitants are whalers and fisher-men. As the isand is low, fandy and barren, it is calculated only for those people who are willing to depend almoft entirely on the watery element for tubsistence. The island of itself conftitutes one county, by the name of Nantucket. It has but one town, called Sherburne, and lends one representative to the general afsenbly.

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L'ght-Heuses ] Within the State of Massachusetts are the following Light-Houles: on Plumb illand, near Newbury, are two, which muit be brought to bear in a line with each other, in order to pass the bar in safety: On Thatchers iflard, 011 Cape Ann, two lights of equal beight. Another stands on a rock on the north side of the entrance of Boston harbour, with one single light. On the north point of Plymouth harbour are two lights, one over the other. On a point at the entrance of the harbour on the island of Nantucket, is one with a single light. This light may be seen as far as Nantucket shoals extend. The island being low, the light appears over it.

Religion.] The religion of this commonwealth is establislied, by their excellent constitution, on a moft liberal and tolerant plan. All perfons, of whatever religious profession or sentiments, may wormhip God agreeably to the dictares of their own consciences, unmoletted, provided they do not diiturb the public peace. The legiNature are empowered to require of the several towns, parishes, &c. to provide, at their own expence, for the public worship of Gd, and to require the attendance of the subject on the fame. The people have liberty to choose their own teachers, and to contract with them for their support.

The body of the churches in this state are established upon the congregational plan.

Their rules of church discipline and government are, in general, founded upon the Cambridge platform, as drawn up by the fynod of 1648. The churches claim no jurisdiction over each other, and the power of ecclefiaftical councils is only advisory.'

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The following statement, shews what are the several religious denominations in this state, and their proportional numbers.


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