« הקודםהמשך »
The natives of New-England, according to Mr. Neal, believed not only. a plurality of gods, who made and governed the several nations of the world, but they made deities of every thing they imagined to be great, powerful, beneficial, or hurtful to mankind; set, they conceived one Almighty Being, who dwells in the south-west region of the heavens, to be fuperior to all the rest : this Almighty Being they call Kichtàn, who at first, according to their tradition, made a man and woman out of a stone, but upon some dislike destroyed them again, and then made another couple out of a tree, from whoin descended all the nations of the earth; but how they came to be scattered and dispersed into countries so remote from one another, they cannot tell. They believed their Supreme God to be a good Being, and paid a sort of acknowledgement to him for plenty, victory, and other benefits.
But there is another power whičh they called Hobbamocko, in English the Devil, of whom they stood in greater awe, and worshipped merely from a principle of fear.
The immortality of the foul was universally believed among them ; when good men die, they said, their souls went to Kichtan, where they meet their friends, and enjoy all manner of pleasures ; when wicked men die, they went to Kichtan also, but were commanded to walk away ; and so wander about in restless discontent and darkness for ever.
42° 50' and 45° North Latitude. Boundaries.) BOUNDED northwardly by the Britidh province of Quez east by the Atlantic ocean ; south by the state of Massachusetts ; west and north-west by the western bank of Connecticut river, which forms the line of division between New-Hampshire and Vermont. The fhape of NewHampshire resembles an open fan, Connecticut river being the curve, the fouthern line the shortest, and the eastern line the longest fide.
Civil Divifions.] New Hampshire is divided into counties † and town-
# The first act for dividing New-Hempshire jpto counties was passed as
late as 1769.
Dover and Durham,
Keen and Charleston,
Haveril and Plymouth.
Chief Towns.] Portfmouth is much the largest town in this state. It Aands on the south-east side of Piscataqua river, about two miles from the fea, and contains about 600 houfes, and 4400 inhabitants. The town is handsomely built, and pleasantly situated." Its public buildings are a court-house, two churches for Congregationalists, one for Episcopalians, and one other house for public worship.
Its harbour is one of the finest on the continent, having a sufficient depth of water for vefsels of any burthen. It is defended against storms by the adjacent land in such a manner, as that ships may fecurely ride there in any season of the year. Besides, the harbour is fo well fortified by nature, that very little art will be necessary to render it impregnable. Its vicinity to the sea renders it very convenient for naval trade. A lighthouse, with a fingle light, stands at the entrance of the harbour.
Exeter is a pretty town, fifteen miles south-westerly from Portsinouth, on the south-side of Exeter river. It has a harbour of eight and an half feet water, and was formerly famous for thip-building,
Dover Neck, which enakes a part of the town of Dover, is situated between two branches of Piscataqua river, and is a fine, dry and healthy fituation ; so high as to command the neighbouring shores, and afford a very extensive and delightful prospect.
There are many considerable and flourishing towns on Connecticut river, in the western parts of this state.
Rivers, bays, and lakes.] The Piscataqua river has four branches, Berwick, Cochechy, Exeter, and Durham, which are all navigable for small vessels and boats, fomne fifteen, others twenty miles from the sea. Thefe rivers unite about eight miles from the mouth of the harbour, and forin one broad, deep, rapid stream, navigable for ships of the largest burthen.
This river forms the only port of New Hampshire. Its principal branch, called Nywichwannok, fprings from the fouthernmost of Lovel's ponds, and tumbling over several falls, in its foutherly course, meets the other streams, which uniting form Piscataqua river. A line drawn from the - northern head of this river, until it meets the boundary of the province of Quebec, divides New-Hampshire from the province of Main.
The Merrimak bears that name from its mouth to the confluence of Pemigewaffet and Winipifiokee rivers, the latter has its source in the lake of the same name ; one brauch of the former rises in Squam pond, latitude 43° 50'. Their junction is in about latitude 43° 20'.
In its course, it receives numberless small streams, issuing from ponds and swamps in the vallies. It tumbles over two considerable falls, Amalkäëg, twenty-fix feet perpendicular, and Pantucket great falls, which has two pitches, and the stream fhoots with an inconceivable rapidity between the upper and lower pitches. The upper fall is ten feet perpendicular ; the rapid, between the two falls, descends ten feet in the course of its Thot; the latter falls (webty-four feet in sixty-five rods. In the whole the water falls forty feet. From Haverhill the river runs winding along, through a pleafarit rich vale of meadow-and passing between Newbury-Port and Salisbury, empties into the oceari.
Great-Bay, spreading out from Pifcataqua river, between Portsinouth and Exeter, is the only one that deserves mentioning.
There are several remarkable ponds or lakes in this state. Umbagog is a large lake, quite in the north-east corner of the state. Winnisipiokee lake, is nearly in the centre of the state, and is about twenty miles long, and from three to eight broad.
Face of the Country.] The land next to the sea, is generally low, but as you advance into the country, the land rises into hills. Some parts of the state are mountainous.
Mountains.] The White mountains are the highest part of a ridge, which extends north-east and south-west, to a length not yet ascertained. The whole circuit of them is not less than fifty miles. The height of these mountains, above an adjacent meadow, is reckoned, from observations made by the Rev. Mr. Cutler, of Ipswich, in 1784, to be about 5500 feet, and the meadow is 3500 feet above the level of the sea. The snow and ice cover them nine or ten months in the year, during which time, they exhibit that bright appearance from which they are denominated the White mountains. From this summit, in clear weather, is exhibited a noble view, extending fixty or seventy miles in every direction. Although they are more than seventy miles within land, they are seen many leagues off at sea, and appear like an exceeding bright cloud in the horizon. These immense heights, being copiously replenished with water, afford a variety of beautiful cascades. Three of the largest rivers in NewEngland, receive a great part of their waters from these incuntains. Ananoosuck and Israel Rivers, two principal branches of Connecticut, fall from their western sides. Peabody river, a branch of the Amariscogen, falls from the north-east side, and almost the whole of the Saco, descends from the southern fide. The highest summit of these mountains, is in about latitude 44o.
The Monadnik is a very high mountain, in Cheshire county, in the south-western parts of the flate.
Climate.] The air in New Hampshire is serene and healthful. The weather is not so subject to change as in more southern climates. This ftate, embosoming a number of very high mountains, and lying in the neighbourhood of others, whose towering summits are covered with snow and ice three quarters of the year, is intensely cold in the winter season. The heat of summer is great, but of short duration. The cold braces the constitution, and renders the labouring people healthful and robust. M 2
Soil and Productions.) On the fea-Coast, and many places inland, the fort is fandy, but affords good pasturage. The intervals at the foot of the mountains are greatly enriched by the freshets which bring down the soit upon them, forming a fine mould, and producing corn, grain, and herbage in the most luxuriant plenty. The back lands, which have been cultivated, are generally very fertile, and produce the various kinds of grain, fruits, and vegetables, which are common to the other parts of NewEngland. The uncultivated lands are covered with extensive forests of pine, fir, cedar, oak, walnut, &c.
Manufactures.] As this state is the living magazine of masts and nava! timber, and affords every other material necessary for flip-building, that business may here be carried on extensively, and to very great advantage. Indeed much was done in this way before the war.
A number of merchant vessels, and some frigates were built annually, and sold in Europe ; and in the time of the war, a seventy-four gun fhip was built at Portfmouth. Since the peace, this business has been revived.
Trade.] The principal trade of New-Hampshire was formerly to the West-India sugar-islands, to which they exported all the various kinds of lumber-horses, cattle, sheep, poultry, falted provisions, pot and pearl alhes, dried fish, &c, and received in return, rum, sugar, inolasses, cocoa, &c. Their ships were usually sent to the West-India islands for freight to Europe, or to the Bay of Honduras, for logwood; and from thence to Europe, where they were fold. They also exported mafts, yards, and spars for the royal navy of Great Britain.
Population, Character, &c.] No actual census of the inhabitants ħas been lately made. In the Convention at Philadelphia, in 1787, they were reckoned at 102,000
There is no characteristical difference between the inhabitants of this and the other New-England States. The ancient inhabitants of NewHampshire were emigrants from England. Their potterity, mixed with emigrants from Massachusetts, fill the lower and middle towns.
Emigrants from Connecticut compose the largest part of the inhabitants of the western towns, adjoining Connecticut river. Slaves there are none. Negroes, who were never numerous in Nuw-Hampshire, are all free by the first article of the bill of rights.
Isands.] The Isles of Shoals are the only ifiands in the sea, belonging to New Hampshire. They are convenient for the Cod-fishery, which was formerly carried on there to great advantage, but the people are now
few and poor.
Ind ans.) There are no Indians in the state. The scattered remains of former tribes, retired to Canada many years since.
Constitution, ] The Constitution of the state which was adopted in 1984, is taken, almost verbatim, from that of Massachusetts. The principal differences, except
such as arise from local circumstances, are the following: The ftiles of the Constitutions, and of the supreme magistrates in each ftate, different. In one it is · GOVERNOR of the COMMONWEALTH of Massacliuferts, in the other, « PRESIDENT of the
STATE of New Hampshire.' In each state, the supreme magistrate has the title of · His ExcELLENCY.'
The President of New-HampAhire, like the Governor of Massachusetts, 'has not the power of negativing all bills and resolves of the senate and house of representatives, and of preventing their palling into laws, unless approved of by two-thirds of the members present. In New Hampshire • the President of the State presides in the senate', in Massachusetts the senate choose their own Prefident.
There are no other differences worth mentioning, except it be in the mode of appointing militia officers, in which New Hampshire has greatly the advantage of Maffachusetts. See Massachusetts.
Colleges, Academies, &c.] In the township of Hanover, in the western part of this state, is Dartmouth College, situated on a beautiful plain, about half a mile of Connecticut River, in latitude 43° 33'. It was named after the Right Honorable William Earl of Dartmouth, who was one of its principal benefactors. It was founded by the late pious and benevolent Dr. Eleazer Wheelock, who, in 1769, obtained a royal charter, wherein ample privileges were granted, and suitable provision made for the education and infruction of youth, of the Indian tribes, in reading, writing, and all parts of learning which should appear necessary and expedient for çivilizing and christianizing the children of Pagans, as well as in all liberalarts and sciences; and also of English youths and any others. The very humane and laudable attempts which have been niade to christianize and educate the Indians, have not, through their native untractableness, been crowned with that success which was hoped and expected. Its situation, in a frontier country, exposed it, during the late war, to many inconveniencies, which prevented its rapid progress. It flourished, however, amidst all its embarrassments, and is now one of the most growing seminaries in the United States. It has, in the four classes, about 130 students, under the direction of a President, two Professors, and two Tutors. It has twelve Trustees, who are a body corporate, invested with the powers necessary for such a body. The library is elegant, containing a large collection of the most valuable books. Its apparatus consists of a competent number of useful inftruments, for inaking mathematical and philofophical experiments. There are three buildings for the use of the students'; one of which was erected in 1786, and is not yet finished. It is one hundred and fifty feet in length, and fifty in breadth, three stories high and handComely built
. It has a broad passage running through its centre from end to end, interfected by three others. In front is a large green encircled with a number of handsome houses. Such is the falubrity of the air, that no instance of mortality has happened among the students since the first establishment of the College.
At Exeter, there is a flourishing Academy, under the instruction of Mr. William Woodbridge ; and at Portsinouth a Grammar School.
-All the towns are bound by law to support schools ; but the grand jurors, whose business it is to see that these laws are executed, are not so careful as they ought to be in presenting sins of omission.
Churches, &c ] The churches in New-Hampshire are principally for congregationalists ; some for Presbyterians and Baptifts, and one for Episcopa