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township throughout the country is furnished with men capable of conducting the affairs of their town with judgment, and discretion. These men are the channels of political information to

the lower class of people ; if such a class may be laid to exist in New England, where every man thinks himself at least as good as his neighbour, and believes that all mankind are, or ought to be, equal. The people from their childhood forin habits of canvassing public affairs, and commence politicians. This naturally leads them to be very inquisitive. It is with knowlege as with riches, the more a man has, the more he wishes io cbtain ; his desire has no bound. This desire after knowledge, in a greater or less degree, prevails throughout all claffes of people in New-England: and from their various modes of expressing it, lome of which are blunt and familiar, bordering on impertinence, strangers have been induced to mention impertinent inquisitiveness as a distinguishing characteristic of New-England people. But this is true only with regard to that class of people who have confined themselves to domestic life, and have not had opportunity of mingling with the world ; and such people are not peculiar to New-England--they compose a great part of the citizens of every state. This clais, it is true, is large in New-England, where agriculture is the principal employment. But will not a candid and ingenuous ?nind ascribe this inquisitiveness in these honest and well-ineaning people to a Liudable rather than to a censurable disposition? A very

considerable of the people have either top little or too much learning to make peaceable subjects. They know enough, however, to think they know a great deal, when in fact they know but liitle. « A little learning is a dangerous thing." Each man has his independent system of politics; and each assumes a dictatorial office. Hence originates that jeftles, litigious, complaining spirit, which forms a dark shade in the charaćter of New Englandmen

This litigious temper is the genuine fruit of republicanism..but it denotes a corruption of viriue, which is one of its essential principles. Where a people have a great share of freedom, an equal share of virtue is necessary to the peaceable enjoyment of it. Freedom, without virtue or honour, is licentiousness.

Before the late war, which introduced into Ņew England a flood of cor, Tuptions, with many improvements, the fabbath was observed with great strictness; no unneceffary travelling, no secular business, no visiting, no diversions were permitted on that sacred day. They considered it as consecrated to divine worship, and were generally punctual and serio’s in their attendance upon it. Their laws were striet in guarding the fabbath against every innovation. The supposed severity with which these laws were composed and executed, together with some other traits in their religious character, have acquired, for the New-Englanders, the name of a superftitious, bigotted people. But superstition and bigotry are so indefinite in their significations, and so variously applied by persons of different principles and educations, that it is not easy to determine whether they ever deferved that character. Leaving every person to enjoy his own opinion in regard to this matter, we will only observe, fince the war, a catholic, tolerant spirit, occasioned by a more enlarged intercourse with mankind, has greatly increased, and is becoming universal ; and if they do not break

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the proper bound, and liberalize away all true religion, of which there is much danger, they will counteract that itrong propensity in human nature, which leads nien to vibrate from one extreme to its oppofite.

There is one distinguishing characteristic in the religious character of this people, which we must not omit to mention ; and that is, the custom of annually celebrating Fasts and Thanksgivings. In the {pring, the several governors issue their proclamations, appointing a day to be religiously observed in fasting, humiliation, and prayer, throughout their-respective ftates, in which the predominating vices, that particularly call for humiliation, are enumerated. In autumn, after harvelt, that gladsome æra in the husbandman's life, the governors again issue their proclamations, appoint: ing a day of public thanksgiving, enumerating the public blellings received in the course of the foregoing year.

This pious custom originated with their venerable ancestors, the first settlers in New-England, and has been handed down as facred, through the successive generations of their posterity. A custom fo rational, and so happily calculated to cherish in the minds of the people a sense of their dependence on the GREAT BENEFACTOR of ihe world for all their blessings, it is hoped will ever be facredly preserved.

There is a class of people in New England of the baser fort, who, averse to honest industry, have recourse to knavery for subsistence. Skilled in all the arts of dishonesty, with the assumed face and frankness of in. tegrity, they go about, like wolves in sheeps' clothing, with a design to defraud. These people, enterprizing from neceflity, have not confined their knavish tricks to New-England. Other states have felt the effects of their villany. Hence they haye characterised the New Englanders as a knavish, artful, and dishonest people. But that conduct which distinguishes only a small class of people in any nation or state, ought not to be indiscriminately ascribed to all, or be suffered to stamp their national character. In New-England there is as great a proportion of honest and industrious citizens as in any of the United States.

The people of New-England generally obtain their esta tes by hard and presevering labour : They of consequence know their value, and spend with frugality. Yet in no country do the indigent and unfortunate fare better. Their laws oblige every town to provide a competent maintenance for their poor, and the neceffitous stranger is protected, and relieved from their humane institutions. It may in truth be said, that in no part of the world are the people happier, better furnished with the necesfaries and conveniencies of life, or more independent than the farmers in New-England. As the great body of the people are hardy, independent freeholders, their manners are, as they ought to be, congenial to their employment, plain, simple, and unpolished. Strangers are received and entertained among thein with a great deal of artless sincerity, friendly, and unformal hospitality. Their children, those imitative creatures, to whose education particular attention is paid, early imbibe the manners and habits of those around them ; and the stranger, with pleasure, notices the honett and decent respect that is paid him by the children as he passes through the country.

As the people, by representation, make their own laws and appoint their own officers, they cannot be oppreffed ; and living under governments,

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which have few lucrative places, they have few motives to bribery, corrupt canvassings, or intrigue. Real abilities and a moral character unblemished, are the qualifications requisite in the view of most people for officers of public trust. The expression of a wish to be promoted, is the direct way to be disappointed.

The inhabitants of New England are generally fond of the arts, and have cultivated them with great success. Their colleges have flourished beyond any others in the United States. The illustrious characters they have produced, who have distinguished themselves in politics, law, divinity, the mathematics and philosophy, natural and civil history, and in the fine arts, particularly in poeiry, eyince the truth of these observations.

Many of the women in New-England are handsome. They generally have fair, fresh and healthful countenances, mingled with much female fofiness and delicacy. Those who have had the advantages of a good education (and they are considerably numerous) are genteel, easy, and agreeable in their manners, and are sprightly and sensible in conversation. They are early taught to manage domestic concerns with neatness and economy. Ladies of the first rank and fortune make it a part of their daily business to superintend the affairs of the family. Employme at the needle, in cookery, and at the spinning-wheel, with them is honourable. Idleness, even in those of independent fortunes, is universally dif. reputable. The women in the country manufacture the greatest part of the clothing of their families. Their linen and woollen cloths are strong and decent Their butter and cheese is not inferior to any in the world.

Dancing is the principal and favourite amusement in New England ; and of this the young people of both sexes are extremely fond. Gaming is practised by none but those who cannot, or rather will not find a puo table employment. The gamester, the horse-jockey, and the knave, are equally despired, and their company is avoided by all who would sustain fair and irreproachable characters. The odious and inhuman practices of duelling, gouging, cock-lighting and horse-racing, are scarcely known here. The athletic and healthy diversions of cricket, foot-ball

, quoits, wrestling, jumping, hopping, foot-races and prison-bass, are universally practised in the country, and some of them in the most populous places, and by people of alınost all ranks. Squirrel-hunting is a noted diversion in country places, where this kind of game is plenty. Some divert themfelves with fox-hunting, and others with the more profitable sports of fishing and duck-hunting and in the frontier settlements, where deer and fur game abound, the inhabitants make a lucrative sport of hunting them.

In the winter season, while the ground is covered with snow, which is commonly two or three months, fleighing is the general diversion. A great part of the families throughout the country

, are furnished with horses and Heighs. The young people collect in parties, and with a great deal of sociability, resort to a place of rendezvous, where they regale themselves for a few hours with dancing and a focial supper, and then retire. These diversions, as well all others, are many times carried'' to excess. To these excefles, and a sudden exposure 10 extreme cold after the exercise of

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dancing, physicians have ascribed the consumptions, which are so frequent among the young people in New England.

Trade.] New-England has no one staple commodity. The ocean and the forests afford the two principal articles of export. Cod-fith, mackare!, shad, salmon, and other fish-whale oil and whale-bone-nats, boards, scantling, staves, hoops, and thingles, have been, and are itill exported in large quantities. The annual amount of cod and other fish, for foreign exportation, including the profits arising from the whale-fishery, is eitimated at upwards of half a million.

Besides the articles enumerated, they export from the various parts of. New-England, ships built for sale, horfés, mules, live ftock-pickled beef and pork, pot-afh, pearl-ath, flax-seed, butter and cheese-New-England distilled rum, and other articles which will be mentioned in their proper places. The balance of trade, as far as imperfect calculations will enable us to judge, has generally been against New-England ; not from any unavoidable necessity, but from her extravagant importations. Froin a view of the arinual imports into New-England, it appears that the greatest part of them consists of the luxuries, or at best the dispensable conveniencies of life ; the country affords the necessaries in great abundance.

The passions, for the gratification of which these articles of luxury are consumed, have raged since the peace of 1783, and have brought a heavy debt upon the consumers. Necessity, that irresistible governers of mankind, has of late in a happy degree checked the influence of these passions, and the people begin to confine themselves more to the necessaries of life. li is wished that thë principles of industry and frugality may gain such strength as to make those wants, which at first may be painful, become so familiar as to be no longer felt.

History ] New-England owes its first settlement to religious persecution.' Soon after the commencement of the reformation * in England, which was not until the year 1534, the Protestants were divided into two parties, one the followers of Luther, and the other of Calvin. The former had chosen gradually, and almost imperceptibly, to recede from the church of Rome; while the latter, more żealous, and convinced of the importance of a tho

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* The reformation was begun by Martin Luther, a native of Saxony, born in the year 1483. He was educated in the Roman Catholic religion, and was an Augustin friar, when, in 1517, having written ninety-five Theses against the Pope's indulgencies, he exhibited them to public view on the church door at Wirtenburgh, in Saxony, and thus began the reformation in Germany. In 1528, the reformed religion was introduced into Switzerland by Zuinglius, Oecolampadius, and others.

The year follo zing, the Diet of the German Empire assembled at Spire, and issued a decree against the reformation. Against this decree, the Elector of Saxony, George, Marquis of Brandenburgh, Ernest and Francis, Duke of Lunenburg, the Landgrave of Hesse, and the Count of Anhalt, who were joined by several of the cities, publicly read their Protest, and in this way acquired for themselves and their successors down to the present time, the name of PROTESTANTS.

CALVIN,

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rough reformation, and at the same time poffefling much firmness and high notions of religious liberty, were for effecting a thorough change at once. Their consequent endeavours to expunge from the church all the inventions which had been brought into it since the days of the Apostles, and to introduce the Scripture purity,' derived for them the name of PuŘI

From these the inhabitants of New England descended. During the successive reigns of Henry VIII. Mary, Elizabeth, and James the First, the Protestants, and efpecially the Puritans, were the objects of bloody persecution; and thousands of them were either inhumanly burnts or left more cruelly to perish in prisons and dungeons.

In 1602, a number of religious people in the north of England, finding their ministers urged with subscription, or filenced, and themselves greatly oppressed with the commiffary courts and otherwise, entered into a solemn covenant with each other · to walk with God and one another, in the enjoyment of the ordinances of God according to the primitive pattern,' whatever it might cost them.

Among the ministers who entered into this association, was Mr. Robinson, a man of eminent piety and learning, and the Father of News England.

In 1608, Mr. Robinson's church removed to Amsterdam, in Holland and the next year to Leyden, where they lived in great friend thip and harınony among themselves and their neighbours, until they removed to New-England.

As early as 1617, Mr. Robinson and his church meditated a removal to America. Their motives for this were, to preserve the morals of their youth--to prevent them, through want of employment, from leaving their parents, and engaging in business unfriendly to religion-to avoid the inconveniences of incorporating with the Dutch, and to lay a foundation for propagating the gospel in remote parts of the world : Such were the true reafons of their removal.

These reasons having been proposed and maturely considered by the church, after seeking divine direction by humiliation and prayer, they agreed to remove to America, and settle in a distinct body, under the general government of Virginia ; they also agreed that their paitor, Mr. Robinfon, should remain with the greatest part of the church, whether they chofe to tarry at Leyden, or to come over to America.

In consequence of this agreement, they sent Messrs. R. Cusliman and J. Carver, to treat with the Virginia Company upon the subject of fettling

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CALVIN, añolher celebrated reformer, was born at Noyon, in France, in the year 1509. He improved upon Luther's plan-expunged many of the Romi/h ceremonies which he had indulged entertained different ideas concerning fome of the great doctrines of Chriflianity, and set the Protestant at a greater remove fr m the Roman Caiholic religion. The followers of Luther have been distin uished by the name of LUTHERANS, and the followers of Calvin by the name of CALVINISTS

Such was the rapid growth of the Protestant interest, that in 1563, only 46 years after the commencement of the reformation by Luther, there were in 2150 assemblies of Protestants.

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