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with large herds of sheep and neat cattle, and rich fields of fax, corn, and the various kinds of grain.

These vallies, which have received the expressive name of interval lands, are of various breadths, from two to twenty miles; and by the annual inundations of the rivers which flow through them, there is frequently an accumulation of rich, fat fuil, left upon their surface when the waters retire.

There are four principal ranges of mountains paffing nearly from north-east to fouth-west, through New-Englant. These consist of a inultude of parallel ridges, each having many spurs, deviating from the course of the general range; which spurs are again broken into irregular, hilly land. The main ridges terminate fometimes in high bluff heads, near the sea-coast, and sometimes by a gradual descent in the interior part of the country. One of the main ranges runs hetween Connecticut and Hudson's rivers. This range branches, and bounds the vales through which flows the Housatonick river. The most eastern ridge of this range terminates in a bluff head at Merider. A second ends in like manner at Willingford, and a third at New Haven.

In Lyme, on the east side of Connecticut river, another range of tains commences, forming the castern boundary of Connecticut vale. This range treads northerly, at the distance, generally, of about ten or twelve miles east from the river, and passes through Massachusetts, where the range takes the name of Chicabee mountain; thence crossing into NewHampshire, at the distance of about twenty miles from the Massachusetts line, it runs up into a very high peak; called Monadnick, which terminates this ridge of the range. A western ridge continues, and in about latitude 43° 20', runs up into Sunipee mountains. About fifty miles further, in the same ridge, is Mooscoog mountain.

A third range begins near Stonington in Connecticut. It takes its course north-casterly, and is sometimes broken and discontinued; it then rises again, and ranges in the same direction into New-Hampshire, where, in latitude 43° 25', it runs up into a high peak, called Cowsawakkoog.

The fourth range has a humble beginning about Hopkinton, in Maffachusetts. The eastern ridge of this range runs north, by Watertown and Concord, and crosses Merrimack river at Pantueket Falls

. In NewHampshire it rises into several high peaks, of which the White mountains are the principal. From thefe White mountains, a range continues northeast, crossing the east boundary of New Hampshire, in latitude 44° 30', and forms the height of land between Kennebeck and Chaudiere rivers.

These ranges of mountains are full of lakes, ponds, and springs of water, , that give rise to numberless. streams of various sizes, which, interlocking each other in every direction, and falling over 'the rocks in romantic cal. cades, flow meandering into the rivers below. No country on the globe is better watered than New-England.

On the sea-coast the land is low, and in many parts level and landy. In the vallius, between the forementioned ranges of mountains, the land is generally broken, and in many places rocky, but of a strong rich foil, capable of being cultivated to good advantage, which also is the case with many spots even on the tops of the mountains.


Rivers.] The only river which will be described under New England is Connecticut river. It rises in a swamp vn the height of land, in latitude . 45° 10, longitude: -4east. After a feepy course of eight or ten miles, 1 it tumbles over four feparate falls, and turning wel keeps close under the s hills which form the northern boundary of the yale, through which it runs.

The Amonooluck, and Israel rivers, two principal branches of Connecticut river, fall into it from the east, between the latitudes 44o and 45.9.

Between the towns of Walpole on the east, and Westminster on the west - fide of the river, are the great falls. The whole river, compresied between two rocks scarcely

. thirty feet asunder, Thoots- with amazing rapidity into a broad bason below. Over these falls, a bridge one hundred and fixty feet in length, was built in 1784, under which the highef foods may pass without detriment. This is the first bridge that was ever erected over this noble river. - Above Deerfield, in Massachusetts, it receives Deerfield river from the west, and Millers-river-from- the east, after, which it turns

wefterly in a finuous course to Fighting falls, and a little after tumbles oyer *.. Deerfield, falls, which are impassable by boats. At;Windsorg in Connec

cut, it receives Farmington river from the west, and at Hartford, meets the tide. From Hartford it passes on in a crooked course, until it falls into. Long Iland found, between Saybrook and Lyme.

The length of this river, in a straight line, is nearly three hundred miles. : {ts general course is several degrees west of fouth. It is from cighty to one hundred rods wide, one hundred and thirty miles from its mouth. ... At its mouth is a bar of land which considerably obstructs the navigaHition. Ten feet water at: full tidęs is found on this bar, and the same depth

to Middleton. The distance of the bar from this place, as the river runs, is thirty-fix miles. Above Middleton are several foals which stretch ; quite across the river. Only six feet water is found on the snoal at high ...tide, and here the tide ebbs and Howz , but about eight inches. About

three miles below. Middleton, the river is, contracted to about forty rods in breadth, by two high mountains.c: Almost every where else the banks **are low, and spread into fine extensive meadows. In the spring foods,

which generally happen in May, these meadows are covered with water. **At Hartford the water fometimes rises twenty feet, above the common

Turface of the river, and having all to pass thruugh the above-mentioned : streight, it is sometimes two or three weeks, before it returns to its usual bed. These foods add nothing to the depth of water on the bar the mouth of the river; this bar lying too far off in the sound to be affected

by them.

On this beautiful river; whose banks are settled almoft to its fource, are many pleasant, neat, well-built towns. On its western bank, from its mouth northward, are the towns of Saybrook, Haddam, Middleton, Weathersfield, Hartford, Windsor, and Suffield, in Connecticut ; Weft Spring

field, Northampton, Hatfield, and Deerfield, in Massachusetts; Guilford, - Brattleborough, in which is Fort Dummer, Weitminster, Windsor, ;

* Hartford, - Fairlce, Newbury, Brunswick, and many others in. Vermont. - Crossing the river into New-Hamplhire, and travelling on the eastern 'bank, you pass through Woodbury nearly opposite to Brunswick, Northumberland, the Coos country, Lyman, Orford, Lyme, Hanover, in

which is Dartmouth college, Lebanon, Cornish, Clermont, Charleston, or No. 4, Chesterfield, and many others in New-Hampshire, Sunderland, Hadley, Springfield, Long-meadow, in Massachusetts; and in Connecticut, Enfield, East Windsor, East Hartford, Glattenbury, Eaft Hada dam, and Lyme.

This river is navigable to Hartford, upwards of fifty miles from its mouth, and the produce of the country for two hundred miles above is brought thither in boats. The boats which are used in this business are fat bottomed, long, and narrow, for the convenience of going up Stream, and of fo light a make as to be portable in carts. They are taken cut of the river at three different carrying places, all of which make fifteen miles.

Sturgeon, falmon, and fhad are caught in plenty, in their season, from the mouth of the river upwards, excepting sturgeon, which do not ascend the upper falls.; besides a variety of fmall fish, such as pike, carp, pearch, &c.

From this river are employed three brigs of one hundred and eighty tons each, in the European trade; and about fixty fail, from sixty to one hundred and fifty tons, in the West - India trade ; bellides a few fihermen, and forty or fifty coafting veffels.

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Natural Growth.] The foi!, as may be collected from what has been faid, must be very various. Each trait of different foil is distinguished by its peculiar vegetation, and is pronounced good, middling, or bad, from the species of trees which it produces ; and one species generally predominating in each foil, has originated the descriptive names of oak land—birch, beach, and chesnut lands--pine barrea---maple, afh, and cedar swamps, as each species happen to predominate. Intermingled with thefe predominating species of walnut, firs, elm, hemlock, magnolia, or moofe wood, faffafras, &c. &c. The best lands produce walnut and chefnut; the next, beach and oak; the lands of the third quality produce fir and pitch pine ; the next, whortleberry and barberry bushes; and the poorest produces nothing but poor marshy imperfect shrubs, which is the lowest kind (if you will allow me to use a hard word) of Julfrutex vegetation

Among the flowering trees and shrubs in the forests, are the red flowering maple, the safsafras, the locust, the tulip tree, the chesnut, the wild cherry, prune, crab, floe, pear, honey-suckle, wild rose, dogwoud, clm, leather tree, laurel, hawthorn, &c. which in the spring of the year give the woods a most beautiful appearance, and fill them with a delicious fragrance. Among the fruits which grow wild, are the several kinds of

grapes, which are finall, four, and thick skinned. The vines on which they grow are very luxuriant, often overspreading the highest trees in the forests. These-wild vines, without doubt, might be greatly meliorated by proper cultivation, and a wine be produced from the grapes equal, if not supe rior, to the celebrated wines of France. Besides thèse, are the wild cherries, white and red mulberries, cranberries, walnuts, hazlenuts, che! nuts, butter nuts, beech nuts, wild-plums and pears, whortleberries, bil, berries, goofberries, strawberries, &c.


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Productions.] The soil in the interior country is calculated for the culture of Indian corn, rye, oats, barley, fax, and hemp, for which the foil and climate are peculiarly proper, back-wheat, beans, peas, &c. In many of the inland parts wheat is raised in large quantities ; but on the sea-coast it has never been cultivated with success, being subject to blasts. Various reasons have been afligned for this. Some have supposed that the blasts were occafioned by the faline vapours of the sea ; others have attributed ihem to the vicinity of barberry bushes; but perhaps the sandiness and poverty of the soil may be as efficacious a cause as either of the others.

The fruits which the country yields from culture, are, apples in the greatest plenty ; of these cyder is made which constitutes the principal drink of the inhabitants; also, pears of various forts, quinces, peaches, from which is made peach brandy, plums, cherries, apricots, &c. The culinary plants are such as have already been enumerated.

New-England is a fine grazing country; the vallies, between the hills, are generally interfected with brooks of water, the banks of which are lined with a tract of rich ineadow or interval land. The high and rocky ground is, in many parts, covered with honey-suckle, and generally affords the finest of pasture. It will not be a matter of wonder, therefore, that NewEngland boasts of railing some of the finest cattle in the world ; nor will the be envied, when the labour of railing them is taken into view. Two montlis of the hottest season in the year, the farmers are employed in procuring food for the cattle; and the cold winter is spent in dealing it out to them. The pleasure and profit of doing this, is however a satisfying compensation to the honest and induitrious farmer.

Population, Military Strength, Manners, Cuftoms, and Diversions. ] New England is the most populous part of the United States. It contains, at leait, eight hundred and twenty-three thousand souls. One-fifth of these are fencible men. New-England then, should any great and sudden emergency require it,'could furnish an army of one hundred and fixty-four thousand lix hundred men. The great body of these are land-holders and cultivators of the soil. The former attaches them to their country ; the latter, by making them strong and healthy, enables them to defend it. 'The boys are early taught the use of arms, and make the best of soldiers. Few countries on earth, of equal extent and population, can furnith a more formidable arıny than this part of the union.

New-England may, with propriety, be called a nursery of men, whence are annually transplanted, into other parts of the United States, thousands of its natives. The State of Vermont, which is hut of yesterday, and contains about one hundred thousand fouls, has received more inhabitants from Connecticut, than from any other state; and yet between the years 1774 and 1782, notwithstanding her numerous emigrations to Vermont, Susquehannah, and other places, and the depopulation occasioned by a fe. ven years bloody war, it is found, from actual census of the inhabitants in the years before-mentioned, that they have increased from one hundred and pinety-feven thousand eight hundred and fifty-six, their number in 5774, to iwo hundred and nine thousand one hundred and fifty, their number in 1782. Vast numbers of the New-Englanders, since the war, have emigrated into the porthern parts of New-York, into Kentucky and the


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Western Territory, and into Georgia ; and some are scattered into every ftate, and every town of note in the union.

The inhabitants of New-England are almost universally of English descent; and it is owing to this circumstance, and to the great and general attention that has been paid to education, that the English language has been preserved among them so free of corruption. It is true, that from laziness, inattention, and want of acquaintance with mankind, many of the people in the country have accustomed themselves to use some peculiar phrases, and to pronounce certain words in a flat, drawling manner. Hence foreigners pretend they know a New-Englandman from his manner of speaking. But the same may be said with regard to a Pennsylvanian, a Virginian, or a Carolinian; for all have some phrases and modes of pronunciation peculiar to themselves, which distinguish them from their neighbours. Men of eminence in the several learned professions, and colleges, ought to be considered as forming the standard of pronunciation for their respective states; and not that class of people who have imbibed the habit of using a number of fingular and ridiculous phrases, and who pronounce badly.

The New-Englanders are generally tall, stout, and well-built. They glory, and perhaps with justice, in pofsefling that spirit of freedom, which induced their ancestors to leave their native country, and to brave the dangers of the ocean, and the hardships of fettling a wilderness. Their education, laws and situation, serve to inspire them with high notions of liberty. Their jealousy is awakened at the first motion toward an invasion of their rights. They are indeed often jealous to excess; a circumstance which is a fruitful source of imaginary grievances, and of innumerable groundless fufpicions, and unjust complaints against government. But these ebullitions of jealousy, though censurable, and productive of some political evils, shew that the essence of true liberty exists in New-England; for jealousy is the guardian of liberty, and a characteristic of free republicans. A law, respecting the descent of estates which are generally held in fee fimple, which for substance is the fame in all the New-England states, is the chief foundation and protection of this liberty. By this law, the poffeflions of the father are to be equally divided among all the children, excepting the eldest son, who has a double portion. In this way is preserved that happy mediocrity among the people, which, by inducing economy and industry, removes from them temptations to luxury, and forms them to habits of fobriety and temperance. At the same time, their industry and frugality exempt

them from want, and from the necessity of submitting to any encroachment on their liberties.

In New-England learning is more generally diffused among all ranks of people than in any other part of the globe ; arising from the excellent establishment of schools in every township.

Another very valuable source of information to the people is the newspapers, of which not less than thirty thousand are printed every week in New-England, and circulated in almost every town and village in the country.

A person of mature age, who cannot both read and write, is rarely to be found. By means of this general establishment of schools, the extensive circulation of news-papers, and the consequent spread of learning, every



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