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tary archievements, is not less edifying, in example, or worthy, the attention of his countrymen. ,,The confpicious character he has acted on the theatre of human affairs, the uniform dignity with which he sustained his part amidst difficulties of the inolt discouraging nature, and the glory of having arrived through them at the hour of triumph, have made many official and literary persons, on both sides of the ocean, ambitious of a correspondence with him. These correspondencies unavcidably engross a great portion of his time; and the communications contained in them, combined with the numerous periodical publications and newspapers which he perules, render liim, as it were, the focus of political intelligence for the new world. Nor are his conversations with well-informed men less conducive to bring him acquainted with the various events which happen in different countries of the globe. Every foreigner of distinction, who travels in America, makes it a point to visit him. Members of Congress, and other dignified persons, do not pass his house, without calling to pay their respects. As another source of information it may be mentioned, that many literary productions are sent to him annually by their authors in Europe ; and that there is scarcely one work written in America on any art, science, or subject, which does not seek his protection, or which is not offered to him as a token of gratitude. : Mechanical inventions are frequently submitted to him for his approbation, and natural curiosities presented for his investigation. But the multiplicity of epistolary applications, often on the remains of some business which happencd when he was commander in chief, sometimes on subjects foreign to his fituation, frivolous in their nature, and intended. merely to gratify the vanity of the writers by drawing answers from him, is truly distrefling, and almost incredible. His benignity in answering; perhaps, increases the number.. Did he not husband every moment to the best advantage, it would not be in his power to notice the vast variety of subjects that claim his attention. Here a minuter description of his domeftic life may be expected.
To apply a life, at best but short, to the most useful purposes, he lives, as he ever has done, in the unvarying habits of regularity, temperance and induftry. He rises, in winter as well as fummer, at the dawn of day; and generally reads or writes some time before breakfast. He breakfasts about seven o'clock, on three small Indian hoe-cakes and as many
dishes of tea. He rides immediately to his different farms, and remains with his labourers until a little past two o'clock, when he returns and dresses. At three he dines, commonly on a single dish, and drinks from half a pint to a pint of Maderia wine. This, with one small glass of punch, a draught of beer, and” two dishes of tea (which he takes half an hour before fun-setting) constitutés his whole fuftenance until the next. day. Whether there be a company or not, the table is always prepared by its elegance and exuberance for their reception and the general remains at it for an hour after dinner, in familiar conversation and convivial hilarity. It is then that every one present is called upon to give fome absent friend as a toast.; the name not unfrequently awakens a pleasing remembrance of past events, and gives a new turn to the 'animated colloquy. General Washington is more chearful than he was in the army. Although his temper is rather of a serious caft, and his countenance commonly carries the impression of thoughtfulness, yet
he perfc&tly relishes a pleasant ftory, an unaffected fally of wit, or a burlesque defcription which surprises by its fuddenness and incongruity with the ordinary appearance of the object described. After this fociable and innocent relaxation, he applies himself to businefs, and about nine o'clock retires to reft. This is the rotine, and this the hour he obferves, when no one but his family is present; at other times he attends politely upon his company until they wish to withdraw. Notwithstanding he has no offfpring, his actual family consists of eight persons*. It is seldom alone. He keeps a pack of hounds, and in the season indulges himself with hunting once a week'; at which diverfion the gentlemen of Alexandria often affift.
AGRICULTURE is the favourite employment of General Washington, in which he wishes to pass the remainder of his days. To acquire and communicate practical knowlege, he corresponds with Mr. Arthur Young, who has written fo sensībly on the fubject, and also with many agricultural gentlemen in America. As improvement is known to be his passion, he receives envoys with rare seeds and results of new projects from every quarter. He likewise makes copious notes, relative to his own experiments, the state of the seasons, the nature of soils, the effe&s of different kinds of manure, and such other topics as may throw light on the farming bufinefs.
On Saturday in the afternoon, every week, reports are made by all his overseers, and regiftered in books kept for the purpose ; so that at the end of the year, the quantity of labour and produce may be accurately known. Order and economy are established in all the departments within and without doors. His lands are inclofed in lots of equal dimenfions, and crops are assigned to each for many years. Every thing is undertaken on a great scale ; but with a view to introduce or augment the culture of such articles as he conceives will become most beneficial in their consequence to the country. He has, the last year, raised two hundred lambs, sowed twenty-seven bushels of flax-feed, and planted more than seven hundied bushels of potatoes. In the mean time, the public may rest persuaded that there is manufactured, under his roof, linen and woollen-cloth, nearly or quite sufficient for the use of his numerous household.
NOTE (B) for Page 105.
north of Ireland, and was born in the year 1737. His attachment to liberty was innate, and matured by a fine education and an excellent underftanding. Having married a wife, and purchased an estate in New-York, he was from these circumstances, as well as from his natural
* The family of General Washington, in addition to the General, and his Lady, consists of Major George Washington, (Nephew to the General, and late Aid de camp to the Marquis de la Fayette) with his wife, who is a niece to the General's" Lady-Col. Humpreys, formerly Aid de Camp the Geo neral Mr. Lear, a gentleman of liberal education, private secretary to the General-and tawo Grandchildren of Mrs. Washington's
lose of freedom, and from a convi&tion of the justness of her cause, induced to consider himself as an American. From principle, he early embarked, in her cause, and quitted the sweets of easy fortune, the enjoye ment of a loved and philofophical rural life, with the highest domestic felicity, to take an active share in all the hardships and dangers that attend the soldier's life.
Before he came over to America, he had been an officer in the service of England, and had successfully fought her battles with the immortal Wolfe at Quebec, in the war of 1756, on the very spot, where, when fighting under the standard of freedom, he was doomed to fall in arms against her. No one who fell a martyr to freedom in this unnatural contest, was more fincerely, or more universally lamented. And what is extraordinary, the most eminent speakers in the British Parliament, forgetting for the moment, that he had died in opposing their cruel and opprefsive measures, displayed all their el quence in praising his virtues, and lamenting his fate. A great orator, and a veteran fellow-soldier of his in the French war of 1756, fhed abundance of tears, while he expatiated on their fast friendship and mutual exchange of tender services in that season of enterprize and glory.
All enmity to this veteran soldier expired with his life; and respect to his private character prevailed over all other confiderations. By the orders of General Carleton, his dead body received every possible mark of diftinction from the victors, and was interred in Quebec, on the firit day of January 1776, with all the honors due to a brave soldier.
Congress were not unmindful of the merit of this amiable and brave officer, nor remiss in manifefting the efteem and respect they entertained for his memory. Considering it not only as a tribute of gratitude juftly due to the memory of those who have peculiarly distinguished themselves in the glorious cause of liberty, to perpetuate their names by the molt durable monuments erected to their honor, but greatly conducive to inspire pofte. rity with emulation of their illuftrious actions, that honourable body.
Resolved, That to express the veneration of the United Colonies for their late General, RICHARD MONTGOMERY, and the deep sense they entertain of the many fignal and important services of that gallant officer, who after a series of successes, amidst the most discouraging difficulties, fell at length in a gallant attack upon Quebec, the capital of Canada; and to transmit to future ages, as examples truly worthy of imitation, his patriotism, conduct, boldness of enterprize, insuperable perseverance, and contempt of danger and death; a monument be procured from Paris, or other part of France, with an inscription facred to his memory, and expreffive of his amiable character, and heroic atchievements, and that the continental treasurers be directed to advance a sum not exceeding zool. sterling, to Dr. Benjamin Franklin, who is desired to see this resolution properly executed, for defraying the expence thereof."
This resolve was carrie:? into execution at Paris, by that ingenious artist, Mr. Caffiers, seulptor to the king of France, under the directions of Dr. Franklin. The monument is of white marble, of the most beautiful fimplicity, and inexpressible elegance, with emblematical devices, and the following truly claffical inscription, worthy of the modeft, but great mind of a Franklin.
TO THE GLORY OF
Slain at the fiege of Quebec,
the zist of December, 1775, aged 38 years. This elegant monument has lately ben erected in front of St. Paul's church in New-York.
There is a remarkable circumstance connected with the fall of his brave officer, that merits to be recorded, because the fact is of a very interesting nature, and will serve to perpetuate
the memory of a very amiable and deserving character, who was also a martyr in the cause of his country. The circumstance is this:
One of General Montgomery's Aides de Camp, was Mr. Macpherson, a most promising young man, whose father resided at Philadelphia, and was greatly distinguished in privateering in the war of 1756. This gentleman had a brother in the 16th regiment in the British service, at the time of Montgomery's expedition into Canada, and who was as violent in favour of the English government, as this General's Aid de Camp was enthusiastic in the cause of America; the latter had accompanied his General a day or two previous to the attack in which they both lost their lives, to view and meditate on the spot where Wolfe had fallen ;. returo, he found a letter from his brother, the English officer, full of the bitterest reproaches againft him, for having entered into the American service, and containing a pretty direct wish, that if he would not abandon it, he might meet with the deserved fate of a rebel. The Aid de Camp immediately returned him an answer, full of strong reasoning in defence of his conduct, but by no means attempting to shake the opposite principles of his brother, and not only free from acrimony, but full of expreffions of tenderness and affection, this letter he dated, “ from the spot where Wolfe loft his life, in fighting the cause of England, in friendship with America." This letter had scarcely reached the officer at New-York, before it was followed by the news of his brother's death. The effect was justantaneous, nature, and perhaps reason prevailed; a thousand, not unworthy sentiments, rushed upon his diftreffed mind; he quitted the Eng:: lith service, entered into that of America, and sought every occasion of diftinguishing himself in her service!
Note (C) for Page nr.
Island, about the year 1741,, of reptable parents, belonging to the Society of Friends. He was endowed with an uncommon degree of judg. inent and penetration, his disposition was benevolent, and his manners affable. At an early period of life, he was chosen a member of the assembly, and he discharged his trust to the entire satisfaction of his consti
After the battle of Lexington, three regiments of troops were raised in Rhode Island, and the command of them given to Mr. Greene, who was
nominated a Brigadier General. His merit and abilities both in council and in the field, were soon noticed by General Washington, and in August 1776, he was appointed Major-General
. In the surprise at Trenton, and the battle of Princeton, General Greene diftinguished himself; and in the action of Germantown, in 1777, he commanded the left wing of the Americần army, where he exerted himself to retrieve the fortune of
At the battle of Brandywine, General Greene diftinguished himself by supporting the right wing of the American army, when it gave way, and judiciously covering the whole, when routed and retreating in corfufion; and their safety from utter ruin, was generally ascribed to his skill and directions, which were feconded by the troops under his command.
In March, 1778, he was appointed Quarter-master General, an office he accepted on condition of not losing his rank in the line, and his right to command in action according to his seniority. In the execution of this office, he fully answered the expectations formed of his abilities; and enabled the army to move with additional celerity and vigour.
At the battle of Monmouth, the commander in chief, disgusted with the behaviour of General Lee, deposed him in the field of battle, and appointed General Greene to command the right wing, where he greatly contributed to retrieve the errors of his predecessor, and to the subsequent event of the day.
He served under General Sullivan in the attack on the British Garrison at Rhode Illand, where his prudence and abilities were displayed in securing the retreating army.
In 1780 he was appointed to the command of the southern army, which was much reduced by a series of ill fortune. By his amazing diligence, address and fortitude, he foon collected à respectable force, and revived the hopes of our southern brethren.
Under his management, General Morgan gained a complete victory over Colonel Tarleton. He attacked Lord Cornwallis at Guildford, in North-Carolina, and although defeated, he checked the progress, and disabled the army of the British General. A similar fate attended Lord Rawdon, who gained an advantage over him at Cumden.
His action with the British troops at Eutaw Springs was one of the best conducted, and most successful engagements that took place during the war. For this General Greene was honored by Congress with a Britishi standard and a gold medal. As a reward for his particular services in the southern department, the state of Georgia presented him with a large and valuable trað of land on an island near Savannah..
After the war, he returned to his native itate ; the contentions and bad policy of that state, induced him to leave it, and retire to his estate in Georgia.
He removed his family in O&ober 1785 ; but in June the next fummer the extreme heat, and the fatigue of a walk, brought on a disorder that put a period to his life, on the 19th of the same month. He lived univerfully loved and respected, and his death was universally lamented.
His body was interred in Savannah, aud the funeral procesfiön attended by the Cincinnati.