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are twenty-four climates between the equator and each of the polar
circles.-Forty-eight in the whole.

Under the polar circles, the longest day is twenty-four hours. The sun,
when at the tropics, skims the horizon without setting. As you ad.
vance from the polar circles to the poles, the sun continues above the
horizon for days, weeks and months, in a constant increase until you
arrive at the poles, where the sun is six months above the horizon; and
the whole year may be said to consilt of but one day and one night.

There are thirty climates between the equator and either pole. In the first twenty-four, between the equator and each polar circle, the period of increase for every climate, is half an hour. In the other fix between the polar circles and either pole, the period of increase for each climate is a month. These climates continually decrease in breadth as you proceed from the equator, as may be seen by attending to the following table.

T A BL E.

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Names of countries and remarkable places situated in the

respective climates, north of the equator.

in
Latitudes
w whichthe respec-

tive climates be

gia and end.

Within the first climate lie,

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1.The Gold coast in Africa, Cayenne and Surinam in S. Amer.
2

2 Abyssinia, Sam, Madras, Darien, Barbadoes.
3 134 23 50 | 3 Mecca, Bungal, Canton, Mexico, Jamaica, Gaudelupe.
4 14 30 25 4 Egypt, Delhi, Carary Isles, E. Florida, Havanna.
5 145 | 36 28

5 Gibraltar, Jer alem, Ninking, Georgia, and Carolinas.
6 15 41 6 Lisbon, Madrid, Alia-Minor, Virginia, Maryland, Philadel.
zl. 152 45 29 7 Rome, Constantinople, Caspian Sca, New-England.
81
16

49 8 Paris, Vienna, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Canada.
9, 16€ 52 9 London, Flanders, Prague, Dresden, Cracow.

17 54 27 10 Dublin, Warsaw, Holland, Hanover, Labrador.
173 56 37 11 Edinburgh, Copenhagen, Moscow.
18 58 29 12 South part of Sweden, Siberia.
185 59 58 13 Orkney Isles, Sto, kholm.
19 61 18 14 Bergen in Norway, Petersburgh in Rulia.
194 62 25 15 Hudson's Straits.

63 22 16 South Part of West Greenland.
17 204 64 06 17 Drontheim in Norway.
181

64 49 18 Part of Finland in Ruflia.
21| 65 21 19 Archangel on the White Sea, Russia.

20 Hecla in Iceland.
224 66 06 21 Northern Parts of Russia and Siberia.

66 22 New-North-Wales in N. America.
23 234 66 28 23 Davis's Straits in ditto.
241 66 31 24 Samoieda.
251month 67

21 25 South Part of Lapland.
262 do.

69 48 26 West Greenland.

73 37 27 Zemble Australis.
28/4 do.

78 30 28 Zemble Borealis,
84 05 29 Spitsbergen, or E. Greenland.

90 o 30 Unknown.
Latitude.) The latitude of a place is its distance from the equator, north or south.
The greatest lati-ude is that of the poles, which are ninety degrees diftant from the
eqnator.

The

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The elevation of the pole above the horizon, is always equal to the lati-
tude of the place ; for to a person situated on the equator, both goles will
rest in the horizon. If you travel one, two or more degrees north,
the north pole will rise one, two or more degrees, and will keep pace with
your distance from the equator.
Longitude.] Every place on the surface of the earth has its meridian. The
Longitude of a place, is the dittance of its meridian from fome other fixed
meridian, measured on the equator. Longitude is either east or west. All
places east of the fixed or firit meridian, are in caft longitude; all welt, in
west longitude. On the equator, a degree of longitude ; is equ: 1) to fixty
geographical miles; and of course, a minute on the equator is equal to fixty
miles. "But as all the meridians cut the equator at right angle: 1, and ap-.
proach nearer and nearer to each other, until at laft they cross at the poles,
it is obvious that the degrees of longitude will lessen as you g from the
cquator to either pole ; so that in the sixtieth degree of latitude, a degree
of longitude is but thirty miles, or half as long as a degree on the equator ;
as is evident from the following table.

Α Τ Α Β L E,
Shewing the number of miles contained in a degree of longit pde in each

parallel of latitude from the equator.

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10 32

32

12 32

159 56
2 59 54
3 591 52
4 591 50
5 59 46
6 591 40
7 591 37
8 159 24
9 159 10
10 159 0o.
Il 58 52
12 581 40
13 158 28
14 158 12
15 158 OO
16

57 40.
17 571 20
.18

571 4 19 56 44 20 156 24 21 56 00 22 55 36 23 551 12

47.41|0o 48 40 8 49 39 20 50 38 22 51 1371 44 52 37 oo 53 36 08 54 351 26 55 34 24 56 33 32 57 32 40 58 31 48 59 31 oo 60.30 og

24 54 48 25 541 24 26:54 00 27 53! 28 28 53 00 29 52 28 30 51 56 31 50 24 32 150 52 33 5020 34 49 44 35 49 8 36

32 37 47 56 38 +71 16 39 46 36 40 401 00 41 45 16 42 441 36 43 43 52 44 431 8 45 42 24 46 4170

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70
71 119 32
72 18 32
73 (17 32
74

16
75 15 32
76 141 32
77 131 32
78
79

ID 28
80
81 09 20
82 08 20
83 07 20
84 0612
85 05 12
86 04 12
87 931 12
88 ; 221 04
89 01 04
90 o oo

48

61 1291 04

62 281 08
63 271 12
64 2016
65 25 20

66 241 24

67 2328

68 1221 32
69 21 32

The

The Atmosphere.] The earth is surrounded by a thin invisible Auid; compofed of a mixture of saline, fulphureous, watery, earthy, and spirituous particles, riling to the distance of between forty-five and fitty miles from the arth's surface. This fiuid is called the atmosphere. Experiment has shewil, that this atmosphere is esiential to animal and vegetable life. It is a neceflary vehicle of sound; and without it few things would be visible, excepting those upon which the rays of the sun fall in a direct line between the sun and the eye: But the rays of light, falling on the particles which compose the atmosphere, are thence reflected in every direction; in this way day-light is produced, even when the whole hemisphere is covered with clouds.

Winds.] Wind is air put in motion ; the swifter this motion, and the more dense the air, the greater will be the force of the wind. If it be soft and gentle, it is called a breeze ; if fresh and violent, a gale; if the gale be attended with rain and hail, it is called a storm. As the air is a fluid, its natural state is reft, which it always endeavours to keep, or recover by an universal equilibrium of all its parts. Whenever, therefore, this equilibrium is destroyed by the rarefaction of the air in particular parts, which renders it lighter in those parts than in others, there necesfarily follows a motion of all the surrounding air towards these rarefied parts, to restore the equilibrium ; this motion is called wind. The velocity of the wind in a storm has been ascertained by Philosophers, and found to be about fixty miles an hour.

Tides.] By tide is meant the regular ebbing and flowing of the sea twice in twenty four hours. The cause of the tides, is the attraction of the fun and inoon, but chiefly of the latter. The waters of the immense ocean, as it were, forgetful of their natural rest, rise and roll in tides, obsequious to the strong attractive power of the moon, and the weaker influence of the fun. The moon ink one revolution round the earth in twenty-four hours, produces two tides ; of course there are as many ebbs. These tides, nécessarily following the moon's motions, flow from east to west. This constant agitation of the waters of the ocean, together with their faltness, are wisely ordained by the Creator to preserve them from putrefaction.

Clouds.] Clouds are nothing but a collection of vapours, exhaled from the earth by tile attractive influence of the sun, suspended aloft in the air, and foaring on the wings of the wind. They are elevated from a quarter of a mile to a mile from the earth, according to their density, and that of the air. Eclipses.] An eclipse is a total or partial privation of the light of the sun

When the moon passes between the earth and the fun, the rays of the sun are in part intercepted, and the sun is said to be in eclipse. When the earth intervenes between the sun and moon, the moon, having no light of her own, appears dark or dusky; and, as we say, she is eclipsed. An eclipse of the sun never happens but at a new moon; nor one of the moon but when she is full.

or moon.

GEOGRAPHY.

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EOGRAPHY is a science describing the surface of earth

as divided into land and water. Geography is either universal, as it relates to the earth in general ; or particular, as it relates to any single part.

The globe of the earth is made up of land and water, and is therefore called terraqueous. About one fourth of the surface of the globe is land ; the other three fourths are water.

The common divisions of the land and water are as follow :
The divisions of land are,

The divisions of water are,
1. Into Continents.] A continent 1. Into Oceans.] An ocean is a
is a large tract of land, compre- vast collection of water, not entire-
hending several countries and king- ly separated by land, and divides one
doms. These countries, &c. are continent from the other. There
contiguous to each other, and are are three great oceans. The At-
not entirely separated by water. lantic, lying between America and
There are but two continents, the Europe, three thousand miles wide.
castern and western. The eastern The Pacific, lying between Asia
continent is divided into Europe, and America, ten thousand miles
Asia and Africa ; the western into over. The Indian-Ocean, lying be.
North and South America.

tween Africa and the East Indies,

three thousand miles wide. II. Ilands.] An island is a tract

II. Lakes.] A lake is a large colof land entirely surrounded by wa

lection of water in the heart of a ter; as Rhode Isand, Hispaniola, country surrounded by land. Most Great Britain, Ireland, New Zea of them, however, have a river issuland, Corneo, Japan, &c.

ing from them, which falls into the ocean; as Lake Ontario, Lake Eriè, &c. A small collection of water surrounded as above, is called

a pond. III. Peninsulas.] A peninsula is

III. Seas.] A fea or gulf is a almost an island, or tract of land

part of the ocean, surrounded by furrounded by water, excepting at land excepting a narrow pass, called one narrow neck; as Boston, the a strait, by which it communicates Borea, Crim Tartary, and Arabia. with the occean; as the Mediter

ranean, Baltic and Red Seas; and

the gulfs of Mexico, St. Lawrence IV. I and Venice.

IV.

IV. Isthmuses.] An ifthmus is al IV. Straits.] A ftrait is a narnarrow neck of land joining a pe- row passage out of one sea into ninsula to the main land; as the ifth- another; as the Straits of Gibral. mus of Darien, which joins North tar, joining the Mediterranean to the and South America; and the ifth-| Atlantic; the Straits of Babelmanmus of Seuz, which unites Asia and del, which unite the Red-Sea with Africa.

the Indian Occean.

V. Promontories.] A promotory V. Bays.] A bay is a part of is a mountain' or hill extending the sea running up into the main into the sea, the extremity of which land, commonly between two capes ; is called a cape. A point of flat land as Massachusetts Bay, between Cape projecting far into the sea is likewise Ann and Cape Cod; Delaware called a cape ; as Cape Ann, Cape Bay between Cape May and Cape Cod, Cape Hatteras.

Henlopen, Chesapeek Bay, between

Cape Charles and Cape Henry. VI. Mountains, Hills, &c, nced VI. Rivers.] A river is a conno description.

fiderable stream of water, issuing from one

or more springs, and gliding into the sea. A small

stream is called a rivulet or brook. Maps.] A map is a plain figure representing the surface of the earth, or a part of it, according to the laws of perspective. On the map of any tract of country, are delineated its mountains, rivers, lakes, towns &c. in their proper magnitudes and situations. The top of a map is always north, the bottom fouth, the right side east, and the left side weft. From the top to the bottom are drawn meridians, or lines of longitude; and from fide to side the parallels of lattiude.

DISC O V E R Y of A M E R I C A.

1 T is believed by many; and not without some reason, that America

Of , tain evidence. Whatever discoveries may have been made in this western world, by Madoc Gwinneth, tbe Carthaginians and others, are loft to mankind. The eastern continent was the only theatre of history from the crcation of the world to the

year

of our Lord 1492. CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, a native of Genoa, has deservedly the honcur of having first discovered America. From a long and close application to the ftudy of geography and navigation, for which his genius was naturally inclined, Columbus had obtained a knowledge of the true figure of the earth, much fuperior to the general notions of the age in which he lived. In order that the terraqueous globe might be properly balanced, and the lands and seas proportioned to each other, he was led to conceive that another continent was necessary. Other reafons induced him to believe that this continent was connected with the East Indies.

As early as the year 1474, he communicated his ingenious theory to Paul, a physician of Florence, eminent for his knowledge of cosmography,

He

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