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men of the Gothick architecture of After an excellent dinner, we comthe thirteenth century. The tower menced our customary explorais the highest in Switzerland, rising tions. to an elevation of 363 feet, and The city is on the banks of the contains the finest chime of bells Aar, and is surrounded by high in the country. Over the princi- grounds richly cultivated. Streams pal entrance to the church, there is or branches of the river pass along a wonderful carving in stone, re the middle of many of the streets. presenting the day of judgment, Fountains of water are numerous, the saints in heaven are delineated and many of them are surmounted on one side, and the lost spirits on by little old-fashioned statues of the other. It is ridiculous and ex some hero or saint. Among others, travagant in the extreme. The we noticed the figure of Arnold left hand group exhibits the Old Van Winkelried, the warrior of boy and one of his imps, carrying a Sempach, and that of Moses, which basket full of sinners on a pole adorns the fountain in the square over their shoulders, to pitch them of the cathedral. The houses in into a great caldron, which is many streets are built on low boiling over a flaming furnace, with arches, forming long arcades, somedivers human heads and arms float- thing like those of the Palais Royal ing on its surface. Alas! thought in Paris, under which the shops I, is this the awful pantomime of are arranged. We'walked to the the nether world, which the genius western extremity of the city, to of Romanism has devised, to repre see a tower said to contain a clock sent the punishment inflicted on of very curious mechanism. The the enemies of the church. No striking of the hours, our guide wonder that infidelity and licen- book informs us, is announced by tiousness so much abound, both a procession of small figures, and within and without the pale of St. the crowing of a cock; after which, Peter. History and existing facts a man in armour makes his appearabundantly show, that splendid rites ance, and strikes the hours with a and odious vices may dwell toge- club. We were in good season for ther, under the same consecrated the exhibition, but saw nothing but roofs.
a huge ugly dial plate-DisappointAfter breakfast, we set off in our ments like this have not unfrecarriage for Berne, supposed by quently occurred to us. The formany to be one of the handsomest tifications of the city are kept in towns in Europe. Nothing occur tolerable order. In one of the red on the road of sufficient inte. trenches we saw, among other feræ rest to detail, except perhaps the naturæ, several bears, which are number of trees, and the neatness supported by an annual publick of the farm houses, covered with a tax, because they are on the armotrim thick kind of thatch. We rial bearings of the town. Not far entered the city by a gate, on the from this place, a number of genposts of which were mounted two tlemen were collected, shooting at great stone bears. The figures of a target, an amusement very poputhose animals are emblazoned on lar here. There is an avenue of the arms and coins of the Canton fine trees leading to this place-inof Berne. The city is said to have deed all the principal roads in the derived its name from the number environs are handsomely planted of bears which annoyed its early with trees, to a considerable dissettlers. The hotel called the Fals tance. con, at which we stopped, was The Bernese have many intecrowded with guests, but we found resting institutions devoted to every thing clean and comfortable. science, literature, and piety. A
FOR THE CRISTIAX ADVOCATE.
museum annexed to the publick li- thedral, sprung over the wall, and brary, contains a number of curio- dashed into eternity. sities brought from the South Seas The traveller through Switzerby Weber, the painter, who accom- land, when he arrives at Berne, panied Captain Cook round the usually makes an excursion for the world. Every body knows that most part on foot, over the mounthe great Haller was a native of tainous districts in the neighbourBerne-We purchased a well exe- hood, called the Oberland or Berncuted head of this good philoso- ese Highlands. The environs of pher, at one of the print shops, as Unterseen and Interlacken, and the a memento of our visit, together lakes, mountains, and cascades of with some curiously carved pieces the country of William Tell, alof wood.
most tempted me to run the chance The most remarkable edifice in of losing my passage to America, Berne is the cathedral. It stands in the ship which is to sail on the on a terrace, elevated more than 15th of next month. I had reone hundred feet above the river ceived particular instructions from Aar, and which is adorned with my friends in London, not to omit fine trees. On the low wall built this interesting tour; but as fifteen along the edge of the precipice, days are necessary to perform it, I there is an inscription in German, felt compelled to renounce the grarecording the wonderful escape of tification. a man, whose horse being irritated
(To be continued.) by a parcel of rude boys, sprang over the wall. The horse was killed by the fall, but the rider escaped, with merely the fracture of a few bones. As we looked down the fearful deep from the parapet, our blood chilled, at the thought of
Introductory Remarks. this marvellous adventure. En
No branch of science is more intering the church, we saw the wo. teresting, than the philosophy of man who keeps the door feeding, mind. It holds an important place with crumbs of bread, a flock of in a course of liberal education, and little sparrows, whose nests we has its use in theological investigalearned were in the old crevices of tions. Other sciences are not to he the walls, or on the monuments to discredited or displaced by this; departed worthies. There is no nor will any one, who properly esthing in our eyes very remarkable timates its real and relative value, about this church-it has some be disposed to inake an offensive richly stained glass in the win- use of it. By many, the science of dows, and the spire is certainly mind is considered dry, useless, commanding
and only calculated to perplex, or Every American traveller must obscure investigation. By others, be surprised and displeased, at see- it constitutes all that is worthy to ing in the streets of Berne a num be called knowledge. The truth ber of convicts in chains, who are lies between the two classes—but kept constantly employed in some as a subject furnishing facts of high menial publick service. So tor- interest, no department of philosoturing to the feelings of some of phy can rival its stores. We may the criminals is this system of pu- admire the beauty and wisdom of nishment, that a few years since, a creation, when we contemplate plawoman condemned to this publick nets and systems of worlds in the disgrace, while employed in sweep- light of astronomy-or we may.li. ing the high terrace near the ca mit our view to the globe which
we inhabit, and be absorbed with which we attach to the science. delight in examining its geological The mind knows, and is conscious structure-or we may look more of its knowledge it feels, and is intensely upon the furniture of the conscious of pleasure and pain-it earth, and be charmed with the acts, and is conscious of its actions. treasures of natural science-or in By these characteristicks, the mind moments of intense thought, we seems calculated for indefinite immay linger with glowing pleasure provement in its capacities, acquiin the abstract science of numbers sitions, and usefulness. By its inand quantity-or we may be equal. Auence over matter in the motions ly delighted with the examination of the living body, indirectly in all of organized animated bodies: but the improvements of the arts, and there is a department of knowledge in procuring the comforts of life, of more absorbing interest than all mind is the grand agent of using these-- it is the knowledge of mind. the creation of God, and possesses
To know that which knows; to the only capacity for its enjoyment. contemplate that which thinks, feels There is, therefore, good reason and acts; to examine that which why such an agent should be an inexamines, are higher exercises of teresting object of thought and selfmind, than all those which termi- examination. nate on material things. Man is But taking the revelation of God the noblest work of God which we as our unerring guide, we do not have yet seen; and we have no rea wonder at the deep interest conson to expect ever to see more than nected with this subject. The one order of created beings higher whole universe is made for the use than man. The revelation of God of mind; and no inconsiderable informs us that man was made a portion of its immeasurable extent, little lower than the angels, and is intended for the instruction, use, gives no intimation of an interme- and enjoyment of hunan minds. diate order. But all the amazing The administration of God's gointerest which we feel in contem- vernment over this world, is reguplating man as the noblest part of lated for the instruction and benethis lower creation, arises from the fit of intelligent agents. The desnature, capacities, and operations tiny of mind is immortal, and the of his immortal mind. When the scheme of gospel salvation tells its body dies, we hide it from our momentous value, in the estimation sight as an object offensive and dis- of its Maker and Redeemer. The gusting. There is not one plea- whole revelation of God, the plan sant thought connected with the of mercy, the mission of Christ, the rottenness of its decomposition and whole system of grace, and the the filthiness of the tomb, except it mansions of glory in the heavens, be, the assurance which God has provided at such vast expense, are given of the body's resurrection. for the minds of men. All else is disgusting in the ex It should not be forgotten that treme. But when we contemplate all the sufferings in the prison of mind, its very deformities are in- everlasting despair, of which we are teresting. Whatever contributes warned in the sacred pages, refer to the formation of character, in its us to the miseries of immortal present relations so important, and minds. Bodies reorganized, raised, in its future results imperishable, and fitted to be immortal mediuns may well engage our eager atten- of bliss or wo, will be in heaven tion.
and in hell, but the happiness and The characteristicks of mind, and the misery will be chiefly mental. its influence over matter, furnish Surely these are sufficient reasons good reasons for all the importance why minds should be deeply inter
ested with the contemplations of To the minister of Christ, especialthemselves. There are no objects ly, correctness in mental philosobelow angels, so elevated and su- phy must be vastly important. His blime.
grand official business is with From these, and kindred sug- minds, formed and planned in regestions, which will readily occur lations, and under obligations, like to those who carefully examine the his own, to God. subject, it might be obvious that One consideration, which shows mental science is important as well the importance of this science to as interesting. All the high and the ministry, is its influence in holy communications of revelation mental discipline. Much as are made to man, and respect his extensive knowledge of literature, mind. The character of man's im- philosophy and history may be mortal spirit is there developed, its valued, and justly valued, correct, present obligations are defined, and thorough discipline of the mind, is its future prospects indicated. But worth more than all these stores. in all those developments, it seems A habit of careful, accurate and to be taken for granted, that men thorough investigation of subjects, are acquainted with the operations a ready and clear discrimination of of their own minds, or that they thoughts, and a diligent and judimay know them, without difficulty, cious application of a mind 'thus by self-examination.
trained, to almost any subject of One estimate of mental science, knowledge, will soon master all diffimay therefore be made, without culties, and compass what is within much labour. The investigation of its reach. Perhaps there is no study mind must constitute an important which so intensely fixes the mind's part of useful knowledge, since to attention, compels it to so careful mind belong character, responsible. a discrimination of things and reness, and immortal prospects; since lations, as this. The exact sciGod communicates with it, and en ences of numbers and quantity, joins self-knowledge as an indispen though as accurate and discrimisable duty. An intelligent agent, nating, have not, for reasons which to whom God has communicateŭ the will appear in a subsequent part of revelation of his will, whom he this discussion, as direct and effi holds responsible to himself as the cient an influence in disciplining Almighty Sovereign, and whom he the mind for the investigations of has bound to investigate the intel- truth, as the science of mental philectual and moral character and re- losophy. There is an alliance belations of his mind, should regard it tween this and theology readily as a matter of high interest and im- discovered, which is not in the maportance to comply with this direc- thematicks. tion of his Maker. It is also easy The only correct apprehensions to perceive that if a man mistakes of spiritual existence, which we or wrongly estimates the character can acquire, must be obtained of his own mind, he will be liable from the examination of our own to misapply the directions of God's spirits. 'The better, therefore, the truth, and place a wrong estimate minister of Christ is acquainted upon some doctrines of faith. Cor- with the nature and operations of rect views of the principles and his own mind, the more correct operations of the human mind, are will be his apprehensions of other important to the Christian in the spirits. When he reads, in the estimation of his own character, and revelation of God, the description the application of God's revealed of angels, those pure spirits which truth to his own relations and duty. minister before their Maker's Vol. IX.-Ch. Adr.
throne, he necessarily carries along diversity of mental habits. To and applies the apprehensions of know correctly and familiarly the spiritual existence, derived from laws of mental operations, must be the contemplation of his own living of great advantage, in the official spirit. He knows no other kind of and private intercourse of the spirit. Such a spirit, without a Christian ministry. material body, or any material or Mental philosophy has an influgans, possessing a pure moral char- ence in the interpretation of the acter, and powers enlarged so as to holy scriptures, and in qualifying constitute a higher order of being, the mind for the correct interpreforms his conception of an angel. tation of God's word. All men In like manner, the most definite are governed in their interpretaand correct apprehensions of God, tion of many things in the Bible, who is a spirit, are obtained. By by some principles of mental sciadding the ideas of infinity, self- ence which they have adopted. existence and independence, to the This is matter of necessity, inasattributes of pure spirit, we form much as many directions refer our conceptions of the glorious Je- them to their own consciousness of hovah. We do not in this process mental phenomena. Many exerexclude the guidance of inspira- cises of Christian graces are so tion. Although the light of nature described, that men make the apfurnishes us with the means of plication according to their views knowing some of the attributes, as of mental philosophy. Many docwell as existence of the Eternal trines of faith are necessarily exSpirit, yet we could not discover plained on the same principles. A all his perfections, and gather all large portion of the errors in theothe associations which complete the logy have originated in false philoconception of God, without his own sophy, or have assumed some phiguidance. Here it will readily be losophical dogma as their defence. perceived that I refer to no specu- If therefore we correct the princilative theory, but to a knowledge ples of mental science, we shall of the nature and attributes of mind, correct the errors, or deprive them or spiritual existence.
of their support. Another consideration may here The importance of this branch of be suggested, to aid in this prelimi- science is much increased, by the nary estimate of mental science. intellectual and speculative characTheologians are not only employed ter of the present age. Never, perin the investigation of truths which haps, did' speculative philosophy belong to minds, but as ambassa- exert more influence over the opidors for Christ, their main business nions and conduct of men, than at is with the ininds of men. They the present time. This, however, should know how ininds are influ. may be considered by some as a enced, and how to estimate human strong objection, to the study and character. It is not to be supposed use of what is confessedly misthat a knowledge of mental philoso- chievous in its influence. But such phy will give any one common an objection would be arguing sense, which most of all qualifies from the abuse, against the use of him for acquiring a knowledge of the science. This is inadmissible. human nature, and forming a just It may also be said that the simple, estimate of human character; but plain, grammatical interpretation of it will greatly improve the judg- the scriptures, is the best antidote ment of manners, and enable him for theological errors; consequent. to accommodate his conduct and ly, that all investigations of mental adapt his instruction to the great science are
worse than useless.