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about nine months; but when I was others, had little or no sense of diabout to be bound to him, some dif- vine things, was very stupid, and ficulties occurring, I left him and neglected secret prayer almost en. went to live with one of my uncles, tirely. From fifteen to sixteen, I Daniel Green, of Stoneham, about had some convictions, and prayed ten miles from Boston, near my na- in secret at times; but vanity and tive place. With him I lived about corrupt nature generally prevailed, one year. My indenture was writ- and I knew little what religion was. ten to bind me till I was twenty. In the first half of my seventeenth one; but some pecuniary difficul. year, I had some strong convicties prevented, and I left him and tions, the throat distemper being went to live with one of my mo. then very mortal in the town where ther's brothers, Thomas Lynde, of I lived. I prayed at times, and Malden, my native place. With was much afraid of going to hell; him I lived about one year, when but the neighbourhood where I lived my brother-in-law, Bixby, coming wholly escaped the distemper; and from Connecticut, proposed a me on the whole, I grew much more thod for my going to College. I vicious. I lived with wicked comhad for some years had an inclina. panions, one especially; and I now tion for study. People took notice began to think myself old enough, that I was bookish, and my mother and was encouraged to go into comused to say she would be glad if I pany, to dancing frolicks, &c. This could have learning. But there was very agreeable to my corrupt seemed no way for it, as I could youthful nature; and by the fall of not come at my property, till I was the year I had become very vain, twenty-one years old. My brother and was in the high road to destrucBixby proposed that my property, tion. But then I met with an awwhich lay in land, and that too in ful shock, and stopped short in my partnership, should be sold, though career. I thought that I had com
the ; give deeds when I came to be of it may be that but few who have age: and by choosing a new guar. not committed it, have had more dian, and by application to the reason to think so than I had Judge of Probate, the thing was ac What reason I had to fear, will apcomplished. I viewed it as a fa- pear in the following narration : vourable providence, that three I had for several months de. times I missed being bound out till pended upon making a visit to my I was twenty-one years old, which mother, at Killingly, in the fall of would doubtless have prevented a the year. This was sixty miles liberal education. About a month from Malden, where I now lived. before I was seventeen years old, I I had not been at Killingly to went to a grammar school, and pur- see my mother for the space of sued my studies till July, 1740, two years. In the course of that when I was admitted into the col. visit I expected an opportunity lege at Cambridge, near Boston, would offer to commit a sin, which being eighteen years and an half my corrupt nature prompted me to. old.
Sometimes, under conviction, I But I am now to give some ac- thought I would not commit such a count of my convictions and reli- sin; but generally my corrupt nagious exercises, from the age of ture determined me to it, if I should fourteen, until this time. Froin have the opportunity. In the latfourteen to near fifteen, I passed ter end of October I took the jourmy time in a large family of chil. ney, and went by the way of Leidren, and among young persons full cester, where a number of my relaof vanity and folly; and I, like the tions lived. Between Leicester
and Killingly, fifteen miles distant, ing killed every green thing; and was a gloomy wilderness, where, if I let him loose to browse the for the space of six or eight miles, bushes, he might leave me. What were very few houses: I was a per- to do I knew not-In these circumfect stranger to the road, having stances my conscience fell upon never been that way before. It me, and brought my sins and omiswas a cloudy day, and later in the sions of duty to remembrance; esafternoon than I supposed, when pecially that I was now on a jouralone I set out from Leicester, to ney in which I proposed to commit go to my mother's at Killingly. By sin. I had many reflections in my the time I had well gotten away mind: I thought how justly God from the habitable parts, I was had permitted me to fall into such overtaken by night, and it also be- difficulties. Revolving much in my gan to rain. Before it was quite mind my situation in that wilderdark, I found a parting of the path; ness, and my state as a sinner, my and having no opportunity to in- heart was inclined to cry to God for quire, I happened to take the wrong help. I made my address to him, way. After some time, I found the and poured out my soul abundantly path I was in grew less and less, -my circumstances enlarged my and it was very dark, being a rainy heart. I confessed my sins and night, and no moon above the hori- omissions, especially my breach of zon. I soon supposed I was wrong, promise; for I had on one occasion but expected the path would lead promised before God to pray in seme to some house. Sometimes I cret for a certain space of time, and dismounted and led my horse, had often broken such promises. thinking I could keep the path bet. In this my prayer and confession in ter than he did. Sometimes I rode the wilderness, I solemnly promised and let my horse pick his way-at and vowed, and bound my soul bebest there was nothing but a nar- fore God as solemnly as I could, row cow path, and sometimes none that if he would deliver me out of at all. It was exceeding dark, and that wilderness, and grant that I I could not find the way back to might get safe to my mother's house the parting of the paths—What to that night, I would by no means do I knew not. Sometimes I moved commit the sin which I had for onward, sometimes stopped and some time thought of committing; considered; but generally kept go- and also that I would, within one ing on. At length I came near the week after I got home from that side of a river, or brook, swelled by journey, begin to pray in secret the late rains, which roared down evening and morning, and continue among the rocks, and made a hi- so to do for a fortnight; and afdeous noise; and beside, it lay, as ter that would endeavour to pray I supposed, between me and the constantly—but that I would cerpath í must take, if I got right. tainly pray for a fortnight. Having At length the old logs, brush, and laid myself under the double bond woods, became thicker and more of not committing the sin, and of impassable, and I was at my wits' praying for a fortnight, and having end. I knew that bears and wolves ended iny prayer, I again attempted were often in that wilderness, and to move onward in the woods: and I was entirely defenceless. Some. I had not gone many rods, before I times I thought of lying down un saw a light, and not at a great disder a log till morning. But I was tance. I made towards it, and cold and wet, for it continued rain soon came to a little house in the ing. I had nothing with me to eat; woods. The family was not yet my horse also was hungry, and no abed. I made known my case; thing for him to eat-the frost hav. they told me it was about three
quarters of a mile through the my guilt. After my return home, woods, to the road that I ought to I recollected my promise in the go in. I told them they must put woods, and that one part of it was me in the road, or let me and my “that within a week after I returnhorse tarry with them. I saw a ed, I would begin to pray in seboy there, not so large as I was, cret;" but I thought with myself and I told him I would give him that I had broke one part of the what pence I had, which I think promise, by endeavouring to comwere seven, if he would go and put mit the sin, and the promise being me in the road. About this time, broken, it would be much the same also, the moon arose; and though it if I neglected to pray; and so conrained, yet it was so light that we cluded that I would not observe could see to travel. The boy con- that part which respected praying. sented to go, and after being put in The truth was, I had no inclination the road, I had no more difficulty or heart to pray, but felt amazingly in finding the way, and I got safe to stupid and careless. This was my my mother's house a little after the condition till the last night of the middle of the night.
week after I returned ; that is, the I tarried about ten days with my night before the morning, when, friends and acquaintances at Kil- according to my promise, I was to lingly. I often thought of my so- begin to pray-On which night I lemn promise in the woods, and did had a remarkable dream. not directly seek an opportunity to
(To be continued.) commit the sin. But every day I was less and less affected with a sense of my being lost in the woods, and the promise I had made: and the day before I was to set out on
Phenomena of Feeling. my journey to Malden, I was led into temptation. A number of cir In examining our mental exercumstances concurred to bring me cises, we find a class which we deto the trial, and I endeavoured not nominate feelings, or emotions. at all to keep out of the way of Much speculation has been excited temptation : and when an opportu- among' philosophers concerning nity offered, I made a free and vo- these exercises; some refusing them luntary attempt to commit the sin, the distinctive appellation of a class, but was unexpectedly prevented and denying a generick difference and disappointed. After some hours between them and intellectual opeI repeatedly endeavoured it again, rations. But apprehensions are so but was still prevented, as to the manifestly different from emotions, outward action; but in me it was that we think it unnecessary to the same as if i had done it: for ( state and refute those speculations did what I could; my will was cer which assume their identity, or sitainly in the thing; and in the very milarity. It is quite sufficient to time of my endeavouring it, my refer every thinking man to the conscience put me in mind of my evidence of his own consciousness. promise, and checked me: but I The difference is generick, and hearkened not, stifled conscience, therefore properly denotes a disand resolutely complied with temp: tinct class, in which are to be intation, so far as I could: so that in cluded all mental exercises, which the sight of God I was guilty, and are of the nature of emotion or feelthat against light and conscience. ing. However numerous their comThe next day I set out on my jour- binations, and various their modifiney, and returned home to Malden cations, a proper analysis will dis--careless, stupid, and insensible of cover their character and relation.
The truth is, they are not as vari- the difference is circumstantial ously modified as the operations of only; the principal difference is in intellect.
degree. Mental feeling is the generick Love is an affection which inindication, pleasure and pain are cludes pleasure and desire. It prethe two modes of this class. Every supposes several things: an object mental affection, desire, or pas- corresponding in its nature and sion, will be found to possess the tendency with some propensity, or generick distinction, and one or the character of the faculty which feels; other of the modal characters; or, and an apprehension of the object, as is sometimes the fact, a combi- and the quality or character suited nation of both. We shall not at- to awaken the emotion, are necessatempt to follow, establish, or refute rily presupposed. Except what is the theories of Reid, Stewart, included in this statement, no reaBrown, or Payne, but simply men son can be given why we love any tion a few of the most important object. The pleasure excited may phenomena of this class, and give be greater or less in degree; and in some brief specimens of illustra- proportion to its strength will be the tion, as we apprehend the facts. desire to enjoy the object, or proWe have mentioned affection, de- mote its good, if it be capable of sire, and passion, as names of ope- enjoyment. The specific character rations belonging to this class. But of this affection is distinguished by these are general terms, which de- the object, or by its intensity. note the degrees of feeling, and not When the object denominates its the kind, mode, or relation of the character it is easily understood, exercise. The same is true of emo as self-love, benevolence, friend tions. In their general, or abstract ship, patriotism, complacence, pameaning, we cannot define them, ternal, filial and conjugal love. So, because they are only other names where it is distinguished by the defor feelings, and they need no other grees of its intensity, we use varidescription than to call them de- ous terms, as respect, esteem, atgrees of feeling; and refer every tachment and veneration. There thinking man to his own conscious- is no other method of analysing this ness for the recognition. Affection, affection. It has no ingredients exwithout any qualifying term, may cept pleasure and desire; and all indicate any kind, mode, or degree its modifications are by its objects, of feeling, in relation to any object. degrees, or some circumstantial reDesire is used to express any feel lation. Its moral estimate is anoing of anxiety, more or less strong: ther matter, hereafter to be consiit follows the simple emotion of dered. pleasure or pain, and may be con Hatred is an emotion directly sidered_generally as exciting voli- opposite to that of love. It consists tion. Passion denotes a stronger of pain, and desire to avoid or redegree of feeling, and in common move the object which awakens the usage means a sudden, highly ex- feeling. The analysis is conducted cited emotion. The most impor- in the same manner as with love, tant distinction to be observed in its opposite affection; and is modithe use of these general terms, is fied by the object, its degree, or that between affection and passion. circumstantial relation. It is selfThose emotions or feelings, which abhorrence, and misanthropy, or it gradually increase and abide, are is disregard, disesteem and concalled affections; and those which tempt. are suddenly excited, are strong
The modifications of pleasure and vivid, and which soon subside, are numerous; sometimes with are called passions. But in all this strong, and oftentimes with very
slight shades of difference. Take for ner and circumstances of its manian example of the former, gladness, festation, and what belongs to the joy, delight, and compare them kindred feelings of haughtiness and with cheerfulness, contentment, sa- overbearing contempt of inferiors, tisfaction, and the difference is and the definition above will be apreadily perceived. But compare plicable to all cases. satisfaction with contentment, or Remorse is a painful feeling gladness with joy, the shade of dif- which arises from self-accusation, ference is very slight. They are all on a retrospection of one's own modifications of the simple emo- guilt. It presupposes a perception tion of pleasure, connected with of the standard by which the chaless or more strength of desire. racter is estimated, and a con
The same method will show the sciousness of criminality; but the modifications of pain to be various consequent painful feeling is the in different degrees. The terms remorse. There is one emotion pregrief, regret and melancholy, indi- supposed in all cases of remorse : cate emotions of pain differently it is an approbation of the rule or modified in slight shades; while an- standard by which the estimate is ger, remorse, disgust and revenge, made. The desire which belongs differ widely, in their modifica- to remorse varies with the nature, tions and relations, from the pre. relations and circumstances of the ceding and from each other. Take crime and the criminal. Someany affection or passion, and ana- times it may be for restitution, lyze it by observing its objects, re- sometimes self-destruction, somelations, and degree of intensity, times to 'drown sensibility, and then all that will be left will be an sometimes to seek forgiveness. emotion of pleasure or pain, and its The foregoing brief analysis of attendant desire. Let pride and some phenomena belonging to the remorse be the examples for illus- class of feeling, is sufficient for tration.
the purpose of furnishing a speciPride is considered essentially men of ascertaining both the naan inordinate self-esteem; it is a ture and the modification of this high degree of pleasure in one's class. Recurring, now, to a prinreal or supposed superior excel- ciple already established, that all lence, with a desire to make it ma- mental exercises, of the same nanifest. Now these ingredients sup- ture, belong to the same faculty, pose some other exercises of mind
we propose to make some reinarks beside feeling, but they belong not on the name given to this faculty to its proper description. Intellec. in the scriptures; and on its uses. tual exercises are always presup- This will render the present artiposed in pride: there is always a cle both scriptural and practical. high estimate by the mind of its The term which is used in the state, qualifications, attainments, holy scriptures to designate the faor of whatever excites the emotion. culty of feeling is heart. The This estimate may be just, and yet meaning of this term is an imporawaken the emotion properly called tant subject of inquiry. It is used pride. But it does not follow that in connexions where it is very neevery inan who highly estimates his cessary to be understood, because own qualities, attainments or pos- great importance is attached to the sessions is necessarily, or in fact, heart and its operations. Although influenced by pride. We make the term is used in different senses these remarks to show that the in- in different passages of the Bible, tellectual process does not belong sometimes figuratively, more or less to pride. Now separate, in the extended or limited, yet it has an analysis, what belongs to the man appropriate distinctive meaning.