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not, &c."

nishing thereby the only foundation sight shall no man living be justified, Psal. of a sinner's hope. Thus, in com

cxliii. 2. And Paul saith, For what I menting on the words—"If right would, that do ? not; but what I hate, that

do I, Rom. vii. 15. Wherefore Moses, eousness come by the law, then together with Paul, doth necessarily drive Christ is dead in vain," and speak us to Christ, through whom we are made ing of those who seek justification doers of the law, and are not accounted by the deeds of the law, as he af- guilty of any transgression. How so? firmed the papists did, he breaks First, By forgiveness of sins and imputa.

tion of righteousness because of our faith out in this strong language

in Christ. Secondly, by the gift of God “ Is this horrible blasphemy to be suf

and the Holy Ghost, which bringeth forth fered or dissembled, that the Divine Ma

a new life and new motions in us, so that jesty, not sparing his own dear Son, but

we may also do the law effectually, delivering him to death for us all, should Now, that which is not done, is pardoned not do all these things seriously and in for Christ's sake; and moreover, what sin good earnest, but as it were in sport? Moses agreeth with Paul, and meaneth

soever is left in us, is not imputed. So Before I would admit this blasphemy, I would not only that the holiness of all

the self-same thing that he doth, when the papists and merit mongers, but also

he saith, Cursed is every one that abideth of all the saints and holy angels should be thrown into the bottom of hell, and Luther thought there was a difcondemned with the devil: mine eyes ference between philosophy and shall behold nothing else but this inesti.

theologymable price, my Lord and Savicur Christ; he ought to be such a treasure unto me

“ The schoolmen and all such as under. that all other things should be but dung stand not the article of justification, do in comparison of him; he ought to be no other righteousness than the civil such a light unto me, that when I have righteousness and the righteousness of apprehended him by faith, I should not the law, which after a sort the Gentiles know whether there be any law, any sin, also do know. Therefore they borrow any righteousness or unrighteousness in certain words out of the law and moral the world. For what are all things which philosophy, as to do, to work, and such are in heaven and earth in comparison like, and they apply the same unto spiriof the Son of God, Christ Jesus my Lord tual matters, wherein they deal most perand Saviour, who loved me, and gave him. versely and wickedly. We must put a self for me."

difference between philosophy and divi.

nity. But the schoolmen themselves, grant We shall now make a number of and teach, that in the order of nature, extracts, from which the sentiments being goeth before working: for naturalof the Reformer on several impor. in philosophy, they grant, that a work

ly the tree is before the fruit. Again, tant points, will appear. The parts morally wrought, is not good, except of the sacred text from which the there be first a right judgment of reason, quoted passages are derived, as and a good will or a good intent. So commentaries or inferences, we

then they will have a right judgment of shall not always insert, but in

reason, and a good intent to go before

the work, that is, they make the person general merely note. How the law morally righteous before the work. But of God is fulfilled for the believer, contrariwise in divinity, and in spiritual by his surety Saviour, and both jus. matters, where they ought, most of all so tification and sanctification ensured

to do, such senseless asses they are, that by the perfect work of Christ, is they pervert and turn all quite contrary,

placing the work before right judgment summarily taught in the following of reason and intent.” sentences :

In the following quotations Lu“Wherefore the sentence of Moses, ther and the New Haven doctors (chap. iii. 16,] Cursed is every one that abideth not in all the things that are written

are directly at issue:in this book, is not contrary to Paul, who “Verse 13, chap. iii. Christ hath redeempronounceth all them to be accursed, who ed us from the Curse of the law, being are of the works of the law. For Moses made a curse for us: For it is written, requireth such a doer, as may do the law Cursed is every one that hangeth on a perfectly. But where shall we find him? No wbere. For David saith, Enter not "Here again, Jerom and the popish into judgment with thy servant. For in thy sophisters who follow him, are much trou


bled, and miserably rack this most com separate him from sins and sinners, and fortable place, seeking, as they would only set him out unto us as an example seem, with a godly zeal to turn away this to be followed. By this means they make reproach from Christ, that he should be Christ, not only unprofitable unto us, called a curse or execration. They shift but also a judge and a tyrant, who is off this sentence after this manner; that angry with our sins, and condemneth Paul spake not here in good earnest; sinners. But we must as well wrap and therefore they most wickedly affirm, Christ, and know him to be wrapped in that the Scripture in Paul agreeth not our sins, in our malediction, in our death, with itself. And this they prove after and in all our evils, as he is wrapped in this manner? The sentence (say they) our Aesh and in our blood, of Moses, which Paul here allegeth, “But some man will say, it is very speaketh not of Christ. Moreover, this absurd and slanderous, to call the Son of general clause, whosoever, which Paul al. God a cursed sinner. I answer if thou legeth, is not added in Moses. Again, wilt deny him to be a sinner and to be Paul omitteth these words, of God, which accursed, deny also that he was crucified are in Moses. To conclude, it is evident and died. For it is no less absurd to say, enough that Moses speaketh of a thief or that the Son of God (as our faith confes. a malefactor, who by his evil deeds had seth and believeth) was crucified and sufdeserved the gallows, as the Scripture fered the pains of sin and death, than to plainly witnesseth in the xxi. chapter of say, that he is a sinner and accursed. Deuteronomy; therefore they ask this But if it be not absurd to confess and be. question, how this sentence may be ap- lieve that Christ was crucified between plied to Christ, that he is accursed of God two thieves, then is it not absurd to say, and hanged upon a tree, seeing that he is also that he was accursed and of all sin. no malefactor or thief, but righteous and ners the greatest. These words of Paul holy? This may peradventure move the are not spoken in vain, Christ was made simple and ignorant, thinking that the a curse for 18. For he hath made him to sopbisters do speak it, not only wittily, be sin for us, who knew no sin ; that we but also very godly, and thereby do de. might be made the righteousness of God in fend the honour and glory of Christ, and him, 2 Cor. v. 21. give warning to all Christians to beware After the same manner, John the Bapthat they think not so wickedly of Christ, tist calleth him The Lamb of God, which that he should be made a curse, &c. Let taketh away the sin of the world, John i. us see therefore what the meaning and 29. He verily is innocent, because he is purpose of Paul is.

the unspotted and undefiled Lamb of “ But here again we must make a dis. God; but because he beareth the sins of tinction, as the words of Paul do plainly the world, his innocency is burdened show: For he saith not that Christ was with the sins and guilt of the whole made a curse for himself, but for us. world. Whatsoever sins, I, thou, and we Therefore all the weight of the matter all have done, or shall do bereafter, they standeth in these words, for us. For are Christ's own sins, as verily as if he Christ is innocent as concerning his own himself had done them. To be brief, our person, and therefore he ought not to sins must needs become Christ's own have been hanged on a tree; but be. sins, or else we shall perish for ever. cause, according to the law of Moses, This true knowledge of Christ, which every thief and malefactor ought to be Paul and the prophets have most plainly hanged, therefore Christ also, according delivered unto us, the wicked sophisters to the law, ought to be hanged, for he have darkened and defaced.” sustained the person of a sinner and of a We do think there are other thief, not of one, but of all sinners and thieves. For we are sinners and thieves, sophisters beside the popish, who and therefore guilty of death and ever

have “darkened and defaced” the lasting damnation. But Christ took all all-important doctrine of justificaour sins upon him, and for them died tion, through the righteousness of upon the cross; therefore it behoved Christ. A part of this modern (as Isaiah the prophet saith, chap."lii.) té sophistry consists in retaining the be reckoned and accounted among trans

two old orthodox words, atonement gres8018.

and justification, while the mean“ The popish sophisters do spoil us of and proper import, and as held by

ing of these terms, in their native this knowledge of Christ and most hea: all sound theologians from the time venly comfort, (namely, that Christ was made a curse, that he might deliver us of the protestant reformation to from the curse of the law) when they the present hour, is absolutely and

totally rejected. Atonement pro- in such manner as to be accounted perly means an adequate satisfac- to them as if it were theirs." Let tion for a specific offence. Johnson any candid and competent judge defines it'"expiation, expiatory declare, if here is not a complete equivalent;" and this is its only legi- and unequivocal denial of every tímate use in the English language, one idea that belongs to the notion as applicable to the subject in hand. of an atonement, properly so called. It always implies two things, first It seems to us to be a studied exan offence committed, and second- clusion-and we think an entirely ly that offence done away, by a successful one-of all that orthocomplete satisfaction made for it to dos writers have taught, as conthe offended party. It cannot be stituting the very essence of the plausibly denied that this is the true atonement of Christ. Yet these and only proper meaning of the men constantly apply the word word, whether we consider its use atonement, to their «exhibitionby the best writers, or in com- symbolical representation, display mon discourse, or in our transla- -removal of the difficulties which tion of the Bible, with the excep- would otherwise have eternally tion, in the latter instance, of one barrred the exercise of pardoning place, in which, by a wrong trans- mercy.” We do not love to charge lation, it is used for reconciliation, any writer or speaker with inten. xatanlayn, in the original.* Now, tional fraud or deception. But we compare this with the New Haven do say, that whether intended or theology, as we have it in the quo. not, there is here a gross deception tation given in our March number. in fact. The unwary are made to “What, it is asked, is the ground think that these men hold the docon which the penitent sinner is trine of atonement as it has been pardoned ? It is not that the suf- commonly taught; whereas they ferings of Christ were of the nature disbelieve it totally—they use the of punishment-It is not that he word, but the thing they completesuffered in our stead, in such sense ly reject and deny. The very same as to annihilate our guilt-It is is also the fact, in their use of the not that he cancelled any debt of word justification. Pardon is not ours on the cross-It is not that by all that is included in justification. his death he satisfied the penal jus, Many a criminal is pardoned who tice of God-Neither indeed is it is never justified; that is, is not that the righteousness of Christ is cleared from the imputation of imputed to those who are pardon- guilt, and treated as if he were a ed, either as a personal quality, or just or unoffending individual. Al

though pardoned he is always con• There has been a considerable change in the popular use of a number of words sidered as guilty—his guilt is never in our language, since the vulgar transla- cancelled till the hour of his death. tion of the Bible was made. Johnson And this is the very notion of jusgives as one of the meanings of atone- tification for which Dr. Murdock ment—" agreement, concord;", and he earnestly contends, in his too-well gives Shakspeare as his authority

known sermon on the “ Nature of « He seeks to make atonement Between the duke of Gloster and your

the Atonement.” He

says exbrother."

pressly, “ the atonement does not Our translation of the Scripture synchro- cause a sinner to be justified on nises nearly with the age of Shakspeare, the principles of law and distribuand it is not improbable that the transla- tive justice—the pardoned sinner tors used atonement, in the sense of agree not only remains in fact the same ment, or concord, which would make this guilty creature he was before, but has no application to the subject under he is viewed by his Maker as perdiscussion.

sonally guilty-We pronounce the Vol. IX.- Ch. Adv.

2 K

justification of believers to be an fication is an act of God's free act of the sovereign mercy of God, grace, wherein he pardoneth all our a departure from the regular course sins, and accepteth us as RIGHTEOUS of justice; and such a departure as in his sight, only for the righteous. leaves the claims of the law forever ness of Christ imputed to us, and unsatisfied.” Was there ever a received by faith alone." For very, greater absurdity put into language, shame, let these march-of-mind than is exhibited in this description theologians forbear to use the terms of justification? A man is account. atonement and justification, in the ed just who leaves the claims of manner they have doue; or else law forever unsatisfied! No two take pains to have it well underthings were ever more directly op- stood, that they mean by them posite than the notions entertained something that is not only different of justification by Luther and Dr. from the orthodox use, but diameMurdock: and with Luther all the trically opposite to it. reformers agreed, and so does the catechism of our church-—~ Justi

(To be continued.)

Literary and Philosophical Intelligence, etc.

On the Existence of Animalcula in Snow, “These little animals may class with —The following account was sent by Dr. the amphibia, which have cold blood, and J. E. Mure in a letter to Dr. Silliman.

are generally capable, in a low tempera“When the winter had made a consider ture, of a torpid state of existence. able progress without much frost, there Hence their icy immersion did no viohappened a heavy fall of snow. Appre. lence to their constitution, and the possihending that I might not have an oppor. bility of their revival by heat is well sustunity of filling my house with ice, I tained by analogy; but their generation, threw in snow, perhaps enough to half fill their parentage, and their extraordinary it. There was afterwards severely cold transmigration, are to me subjects of proweather, and I filled the remainder with found astonishment." ice. About August, the waste and con.

Mammoth Crystal.-In Moretown, on sumption of the ice, brought us down to

Onion River, among the Green Mounthe snow, when it was discovered that a

tains, has been found a crystal of smoky glass of water, which was cooled with it, quartz, weighing 110lb., most of it of first contained hundreds of animalcules. I

water. This crystal is a six-sided prism, then examined another glass of water, out of the same pitcher, and with the aid of a terminated by a six-sided pyramid, sur.

very regularly formed, baving one end microscope, before the snow was put face generally smooth, and angles well into it, found it perfectly clear and pure ; defined, and being so transparent, that the snow was then thrown into it, and on solution, the water again exhibited the read through it. The sides of the prism

large letters may, in some directions, be same phenomenon-hundreds of animal. cules, visible to the naked eye with acute varying in length from 8 to 10 inches, and

are parallelograms, transversely striated, attention, and, when viewed through the in breadth from 54 to 7. The circumfermicroscope, resembling most diminutive shrimps, and, wholly unlike the eels dis- termination, is 2 feet 11 inches; at the

ence of the prism, at the end next to the covered in the acetous acid, were seen in other end, 3 feet. When this crystal the full enjoyment of animated nature.

stands erect, it is 20 inches high. It is “I caused holes to be dug in several parts of the mass of snow in the ice-house, of Middlebury — Vermont Chronicle.

now in the cabinet of Rev. T. A. Merrill, and to the centre of it, and in the most unequivocal and repeated experiments, One of the steam carriages, at the prize had similar results ; so that my family did trial on the Liverpool rail-road, rushed not again venture to introduce the snow. over the distance of a mile in one minute, ice into the water they drank, which had that is ten times the speed of what a few been a favourite method, but used it as an years since was considered good travel. external refrigerant for the pitcher. ling. A similar increase of velocity, were

it practicable, would enable a carriage to his once-celebrated prelections on the leaving Manchester for Liverpool, to out- “Obligations of Conscience,” that he had strip the sun and stars, and thus see the no intention of printing them; they had heavenly bodies move eastward, so that, lain for many years neglected, scattered if the land were continued round the in shreds in corners among waste papers; globe, the traveller would at length leave but a bookseller wrote him word, that the sun setting in the east and see it rise two fair copies (written out perhaps by again in the west, and the same of the some diligent students, to whom the lecstars; or by condescending to abate his turer had lent his MSS. at the time of the speed, or taking a rather lower latitude, delivery) were in bis possession, which where the degrees are longer, he might he was strongly urged to print; but he keep the sun always at noon, or always at would make no use of them without the morning or evening, as he pleased. author's consent. “Laudavi," says the

After the fire of London, the walls of Bishop, “immo amavi in homine, mihi St. Paul's, eighty feet perpendicular, and penitus ignoto, animi candorem; et ex eo five feet thick, and the tower, two hun. genere quibus fere unius lucri studium dred feet high, though cracked and tot.

est, æqui reverentiam.” He in consetering, stuck obstinately together, and quence wrote to the bookseller to send their

removal, stone by stone, was found him one of his copies; which preventing tedious and dangerous. Sir C. Wren

the labour of transcription, he was inwrought a hole in the foundation of one duced to send the work to press. This of the pillars, and with eighteen pounds anecdote would have delighted honest of gunpowder cracked the whole angle Isaac Walton, the bishop's biographer and of the tower, with two great arches which panegyrist, especially as the worthy book. rested upon it, and also two adjoining seller was, like himself, a London trades. arches of the aisles, and all above them;

man,- Ch. Obs. and this it seemed to do somewhat lei. What a terrifick picture does the fol. surely, cracking the walls to the top, lift- lowing passage (froin Lardner's Cycloing the whole weight above nine inches, pædia, History of France,) exhibit of the which falling, made a heap of ruins with death-bed of a man devoted to the pomps out scattering. The powder lifted three and vanities of the world, and who is wat thousand tons, and saved the work of a ease in his possessions.” “A fatal malady thousand labourers. The fall of so great had seized on Cardinal Mazarin, whilst a weight from a height of two hundred engaged in the conterences of the treaty, feet, gave a concussion to the ground that and worn by mental fatigue. He con. the inhabitants around took for an earth. sulted Guenaud, the physician, who told quake. During Wren's absence, his su. him that he had but iwo months to live. perintendent having done some mischief Some days after, Brienne perceived the with gunpowder, the whole neighbour. cardinal in his night.cap and dressinghood united in petitioning that no more gown tottering along his gallery, pointing should be used. Wren yielded to their to his pictures, and exclaiming, Must I solicitations, and resolved to try the effect quit all these?' He saw Brienne, and of that ancient engine, the battering ram. seized him: 'Look at that Correggio! He took a strong mast, armed with iron this Venus of Titian! that incomparable in two places, which he suspended, and Deluge of Caracci! Ah! my friend, I with thirty men vibrated the machine must quit all these. Farewell, dear pic. against the wall a whole day. They be- tures, that I loved so dearly, and that cost lieved it was to little purpose, but the me so much!' A few days before his second day the wall was perceived to death, he caused himself to be dressed, tremble, and in a few hours it fell.-- Fa. shaved, rouged, and painted. In this mily Library. Lives of Architects. state he was carried in his chair to the

The Monument in London was first promenade, where the envious courtiers used by the members of the Royal So. paid him ironical compliments on his apciety for astronomical experiments, but pearance. Cards were the amusement of was abandoned on account of its vibra. his death-bed, his band being held by tions being too great for the nicety re.

others; and they were only interrupted quired in their observations. This occa

by the papal nuncio, who came to give sioned a report that it was unsafe ; but its the cardinal that plenary indulgence to scientifick construction may bid defiance which the prelates of the sacred college to the attacks of all but earthquakes, for

are officially entitled.” Mazarin expired centuries.-Ibid.

on the 9th of March, 1661.-Lardner's Bishop Sanderson says, in his preface

Cyclopædia, History of France,

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