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by the subtilties and philosophy of tually what he did-he would have the schoolmen. Against these the directed the lightning and thunder great Reformer directed all the of his eloquence, against the phiforce of his mighty mind. He de- losophy now employed, to subvert nounced them unsparingly, and the precious and fundamental truths hurled them and their advocates to of the gospel of Christ. Our metaperdition, without ceremony or re- physicians think and boast, that serve. His manner has been cen- they have a wiser and better syssured as harsh and offensive; and tem than that which ruled the ashe admitted himself, that his zealcendant, at the time of the Reforand vehemence sometimes carried mation. Be it so-It is true, nehim too far. But it has been justly vertheless, that they have not more remarked, that a spirit less bold confidence in their system, nor a and daring and decisive than that greater attachment to it-they have of Luther, and a manner even much less, than the schoolmen bland and persuasive than his, had to theirs. But then, as soon as would never have produced the Re- one of them was divinely taught, formation. The times in which he and know the preciousness of the lived, and the work to which he was revealed truth of God, he held this called, required exactly such a man truth to be paramount to all his as he was. He was unquestionably philosophy. Theologians might and raised up, in the providence of God, did use their philosophy sometimes, to perform what he did perform; and indeed too much and often, in and if he had shown no imperfec- defending and illustrating their tions, he would have been what we theological creed. But to the Bihave never yet seen in a mere man ble, and the Bible only, they went -He would have been other than for that creed. They boasted truly, Moses, or Elijah, or Paul. A hun- that the Bible was the religion of dred Melancthons, with all their Protestants-not as is now done, to learning, and eloquence, and gen- the exclusion of creeds, and contleness, without a Luther to lead fessions, and catechisms. All these them, and stand in the fore front of they had, and held them to be esthe hottest battle, would have ef- sential for the embodying of gospel fected little or nothing.
truth, teaching it to learners, showLuther had been a professor and ing their belief to the world, and teacher of philosophy, before he guarding against heresy and schism. was a Reformer. He was tho- But they looked into the sacred roughly versed in all the arts and oracles, primarily and solely, for logomachies of the Aristotelian sys- every article of their faith. "Read tem, as taught in the schools of his the commentaries of Luther, and day; and most deeply did he abhor, the institutes of Calvin; and you and most pointedly reprobate them shall find that they considered all, when he came truly to under a plain text of scripture as instand and embrace the gospel. But dispensable, to the establishment his knowledge of the school philo- of every position which they sophy qualified him, sometimes to took, every doctrine which they fight his opposers with their own taught-and when they found, as weapons, often to expose and ridi- they often did, that the philosocule their fallacies, and always to phy of the day interfered with the add force to his condemnations of teachings from heaven, they rethe scholastick jargon, by showing nounced it, condemned it, and gave that he was not ignorant of that it to the winds. Such was the which he condemned. Had he course of the Reforiners; and this lived in our day—and () that ano- textual establishment of all docther Luther might arise! to do effec- trines was regarded as essential, by
all orthodox divines, not only in palty; and that therefore they are, their systems, but in their serions in point of law, perfectly just betoo, till within a century of the fore God. All these things stand present time. But is it so now? exactly on the same ground; they No-Would to God that it were are also indissolubly connected; - this is the very thing which we and he who rejects one, must, to be wish, and for which we contend. consistent, reject the whole; and
But although justification by he who admits one, must admit the faith alone was the great theme of whole. The New Haven theology Luther in the commentary before us, does really and truly reject the he well understood all its connex. whole; and those who speak out, ions and its bearings. He saw and say so explicitly; and treat this believed, that the whole rested on whole doctrine of imputation as exone great principle, a principle ploded falsehood and folly. We which the philosophy of this age of shall go on to show, nevertheless, improvement and the march of mind that it was held distinctly, and in has discovered to be "intrinsically all its extent, by Luther; and that absurd”—the principle of IMPUTA- he confirms every part of it, by per
We, notwithstanding, are tinent and abundant quotations old fashioned and unphilosophical from the oracles of infallible truth. enough, to think with the Reform It will be observed that there are ers, and as we most solemnly be- three points—the imputation of lieve, with the apostle Paul, and all Adam's first sin to his posterity; the other writers of the New Tes- the imputation of the sins of betament. We will, therefore, in the lievers to Christ; and the imputafirst place, state as distinctly and tion of his finished righteousness to plainly as we can, and in all its ex- them, for their complete justificatent, what this principle of imputa- tion in the sight of God. As to the tion is. We say then that the true first of these, it did not fall in LuNew Testament doctrine of imputa- ther's way, in this commentary, to tion, held as fundamental by the treat of it professedly and at length. Protestant Reformers, is to reckon, Yet, as it held a necessary conor account, (royi Gerber) as done by nexion with his main topick, it did us, that which has been done by our fall in his way to recognise it, representative; to account the acts again and again, as an unquestionof that representative as our acts; able gospel truth. Prefixed to the and to treat us accordingly. Hence Commentary is, “ The Argument of the first sin of Adam, by which he the Epistle of St. Paul to the Galabroke covenant with God, is ac tians;" in which is set forth in a counted as our sin, because he was condensed form, the whole scope of our representative, or federal head, the Apostle, and the general strain in the covenant of works, and we of his reasoning, in this portion of are accounted and treated as cove revealed truth. In this "Argunant breakers by his act. Hence, ment” the doctrine of the imputain like manner, our sins were so tion of Adam's sin could not be reckoned or imputed to Christ, as omitted. It is thus expressed—“I that he was treated (though he · am indeed a sinner, as touching this knew no sin) as if they were his own present life and the righteousness sins. Hence too, the righteousness thereof as the child of Adam ; where of Christ, consisting in his perfect the law accuseth me, death reignobedience to the law and full en- eth over me, and at length would durance of its penalty, is reckoned, devour me. But I have another accounted, or imputed to true be righteousness and life above this lievers, as if they had perfectly life, which is Christ the Son of obeyed the law and borne its pe- God. Rom. viii. 9, 10, 11,"? &c.
VOL. IX.-Ch. Adv.
Let it not be said that the imputa- son that the Reformers, in speaktion of Adam's sin is not here as- ing of original sin, say comparaserted. It is asserted, by direct tively little on that part which conand clear implication, though not sists in the imputation of Adam's in words. The Reformer asserts first sin, and much on the other that he is “a sinner, as the child of part, the corruption of our whole Adam;" affirming that his very re- nature, which they denominated lation to Adam made him a sinner; with emphasis, original sin; someand let it be told how this could be, times, apparently, almost to the except as Adam was his federal exclusion of the former part. The head and representative, whose of- fact may be accounted for thus.fence was reckoned to all his pos. The imputation of Adam's first sin terity. The corruption of our na was not controverted or denied ture is, indeed, an invariable con by the Papists, more than by the sequence of the apostacy, but it is Protestants themselves. The counnot here specified-it is relation- cil of Trent were, on this point, ship to Adam, which is specified as clear and explicit; whereas, in remaking man a sinner, subjecting gard to the corruption of our whole him to the accusation of the law,
nature, they were so obscure and the reign of death, and the danger equivocal as to admit of its being of final perdition; from all which, held or denied, at pleasure. Inhe is delivered only by the righteous- deed, their doctrine about free will, ness of Christ, the Son of God. We the native powers of the human could easily multiply passages of mind, and obtaining grace by consimilar import, from the Commen- gruity, as they called it, before tary itself; but we shall only add sanctification, was really inconsista few sentences from a part of that ent with man's total depravity. exposition of the 20th verse of the Hence the Reformers levelled their second chapter, the explicitness of most powerful arguments, and diwhich, precludes the necessity of rected their most frequent attacks, any remarks from us.
against this point of fundamental “ We cannot deny but that we are all error. Total depravity, the corsinners, and are constrained 10 say that ruption of our whole nature, origithrough the sin of Adam we were all nal sin, in this sense of the terms, lost, were made the enemies of God, sub. ject to the wrath and judgment of God,
were the subject, of their main arand guilty of eternal death, (for this do guments, their most extended disall terrified hearts feel and confess, and cussion. But as to the imputation more indeed than they should do,) so of Adam's first sin, holding it in can we not deny but that Christ died for
common with their adversaries, our sins, that he might make us righteous. For he died not to justify the righteous they mentioned it only incidentally but the unrighteous, and to make them and cursorily. On this account, the children of God, and inheritors of all we suppose it is, that some have spiritual and heavenly gifts. Therefore ventured to deny that Calvin did when I feel and confess myself to be a sinner through Adam's transgression,
really hold the doctrine of the imwhy should I not say, that I am made putation of the sin of Adam to his righteous through the righteousness of posterity. But nothing was ever Christ, especially when I hear that he more palpably false and groundloved me, and gave himself for me? This less, than such a denial. He as. did Paul most steadfastly believe, and serts it plainly, although incidenttherefore he speaketh these words with so great vehemency and full assurance. ally, in numerous instances in his Which may he grant unto us, in some part Institutes. We could give some at the least, who hath loved us and given half a dozen examples from the himself for us."
very chapter which contains his We think proper here to state, famous definition of original sin, what appears to have been the rea. and all of them previous to that
definition. Pictêt, in the 6th chap- epistle. They were topickson ter of his 6th book of “Christian which he delighted to dwell, from Theology,” shows that the imputa- which he declared that he derived tion of Adam's sin had been held all his consolations and all his by the church, " from the purest hopes, and which he recommended antiquity," as he expresses it; and to the attention of convicted and he quotes in proof of his assertion, trembling sinners, as their only reJustin Martyr, Irenæus, Origen, medy and relief. On these we Athanasius, Basil, Cyril of Jeru mean to quote extensively, in hope salem, Chrysostom, Ambrose, Je- that our quotations will answer rome, and Augustine.
a better purpose than conThe imputation of the sins of futing the spurious theology to men to the atoning Saviour, and which they are opposed—will guide the imputation of his perfect righ- inquiring and labouring minds to teousness to believers for their jus- the rock, Christ Jesus, as the only tification, were points on which safe resting place of their souls, for Luther was called to speak direct- eternity. ly and largely, in expounding this
(To be continued.)
Literary and Philosophical Intelligence, etc.
Intellectual State of Russia, &c.--At on the ground in the sun, until it becomes the present moment, the following infor- sufficiently dry to be taken from the husks mation may interest many. The number with facility. The wheat having been reof journals, which at present issue from moved, the straw is to be piled up, moistthe Russian press, is seventy-three, and of ened, and left to foment, till it is in a state these, the “Nortbern Bee,” “The Pa. of decomposition, when it will become of triot,” and the “Invalid,” enjoy the most a blue colour: this indicates the period extensive circulation: they are written in when it should be gathered, and formed no less than twelve different languages. into cakes, which are to be dried in the The number of elementary schools is sun, or in a stove. On these cakes being 1411: they are frequented by 70,000 pu- boiled in water, the water assumes a pils: so that, on a comparison of the total strong blue colour, which will not change number of children capable of instruction either in vinegar, or in sulphurick acıd. in the Russian dominions, with those who It may, however, be turned into red with are actually educated, there does not ap- alkali, into a light black with bruised gall pear to be more than one in 367, whose nuts, and into a beautiful green by evapo. mind is even superficially cultivated. ration. Stuffs dyed blue with this soluThere are seven Universities in Russia, at tion, which is to be used in the same way which 3100 youth are educating under as vegetable matters of a similar species the care of three hundred professors. The employed in dyeing, become of a beautiful ecclesiastical nursery is well attended to, and durable colour.” inasmuch as the four academies of theo. Portable Gas.-Mr. Boston, chemist, logy, at Kiew, St. Petersburg, Moscow, has shown us this morning a copper reand Kasan, together with the seven and cipient or receiver of gas, intended as a thirty upper, and eighteen lower semina- substitute for lamps in families. For cerries, appertaining to the Greek Church, tain purposes it seems preferable to lamps contain 26,000 pupils, in charge of 427 and candles, and more economical. The professors. The Roman Catholick church flame is clear and brilliant, and attended possesses fourteen seminaries, of which with no offensive smell. The capacity of one is of a superior class, in which above
the vessel shown to us, bad been proved two hundred and fifty youths are edu
to be sixty atmospheric gallons, but cated for the priesthood.Atheneum.
only thirty will be put in. The price of The following method of extracting a filling those of similar dimensions with blue colour for dyeing, from buckwheat that quantity will be tenocents, and the straw, is copied from a late London perio. gas will burn for seventy hours, or as long dical : The straw should be gathered as a large wax candle, yielding much before the grain is quite dry; and placed more light. The jet can be easily regu
lated by a key. The composition of the a classical urn, column, &c. and as highly gas is a secret. We presume the article ornamented as the taste of those who use will be in demand, if it is found as safe, it may require.-Another gentleman is cheap, and useful as it seems to be. The associated with Mr. Boston in the project. vessel may be made in any form, such as -N. Y. Com. Adv.
fitted to promote the interests of foreign
missions. We have been requested to pub You are fully aware that we are doing lish the following Circular, and we almost nothing for the cause of Foreign comply with the request readily Missions, in the Presbyterian Church in and with great pleasure.
the United States. And compared with what we ought to do, with what we
might do, and with what we have done (CIRCULAR.)
in other forms of Christian charity, our Baltimore, March 18, 1831. neglect of this is surprising, criminal, and DEAR BRETHREN, -At the last stated very perilous. meeting of the Presbytery of Baltimore, Much of this bas been owing, we think, the following preamble and resolution to the want of a specifick plan, fitted to were unanimously adopted, viz:
reach and excite our people, and to carry Whereas, in the view of this Presby forward this great work. No such plan * tery, the Presbyterian church with which has ever been projected, or carried acwe are connected, in general, and we, as tively into general use among us. a Presbytery, in particular, have, to a Yet our church affords peculiar facilimost inexcusable degree, neglected the ties for combined, uniform and powerful claims of Foreign Missions; and whereas, operations in this way.-It is organized the present state of the heathen world, already, and only needs to be set in mo. as well as the last command of our Divine tion, in order to make it a most efficient Redeemer, most urgently calls us to ex Missionary Institution. The plan proert ourselves in this noble cause-There- posed above of operating, through the fore,
Presbyteries, seems to be at once the Resolved, That we, as a body, will most simple and effective. make the attempt from this time to sup One reason why the cause of Foreign port at least one Missionary, from year to
Missions has not more interested our year, in the foreign field.
people has been, their ignorance of the [It is to be understood, that the Pres. men to be supported by them, and of the bytery reserves to itself the right to select destination of their money when given. the Missionary, when it is thought pro- From this, has resulted a vague, abstract per; but the details of the plan were de- sentiment on the whole subject; and signedly left for future and more general their sympathies bave not been enlisted, consultation-The object at first was only even when their consciences have been to present the general principle.] in part informed. This scheme has the
Since that time we have attempted to advantage of directly identifying the body carry into effect the plan therein ex of the people with the foreign missiona. pressed; and if we are not deceived, it is ries whom they support; and with the well adapted to interest the people of field in which they labour. Thus the reGod in the great cause of Missions; and gards of our people will be in some meahas been attended by tokens of the Divine sure located abroad; and out of their favour. *
personal and almost pastoral relation to We feel at the same time, unfeigned the missionaries whom they support, will diffidence in our own judgment-and
arise attachments well calculated to sedesire the prayers and counsel of our cure their continued prayers and charibrethren on this momentous subject. ties. In confirmation of this, we need We therefore venture to lay before you only refer to the striking fact, that those the plan which we have been led to churches and neighbourhoods, from which adopt, affectionately asking your co missionaries have gone out, have uniformoperation if you approve it; or your sug- ly felt and done most for foreign missions; gestions as to some other plan, better and for that portion of the Heathen world
also in which such missionaries labour. Between four and five hundred dol. It is a very interesting, circumstance in lars have already been secured towards connexion with this view, that many this object, since October last.
young men well qualified for the work,