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rounded by green pastures, and we have, of course, those inhabited with innumerable farm houses by Zuingle, Lavater, and Zimmeramidst groves of trees. Zimmer man, that of the tyrant Gessler, man, you know, was a native of this and the one Charlemagne occutown. He was a favourite author pied during his visits here. Many with me in my younger years, and of the publick buildings are handI now had an opportunity of esti. some, but the architecture of the mating the correctness of his beau- houses, generally, is tasteless and tiful description of this spot. The mean, and the streets are narrow sunset effect on the glassy lake, and and very crooked. The bridge the surrounding scenery of Zurich, over the blue and rustling waters I had often admired, at a period of the river Limmat, which is when there was but a very faint close to the door of our hotel, is probability of ever witnessing it very wide, and is used as a market for myself. At a distance, the place. To-day being one of the town seems surrounded by verdant principal market days, we had an slopes, descending gradually to the opportunity of seeing a large numriver Limmat, which issues from ber of the town and country folk the lake, and divides the city into collected together. The dresses of two unequal parts. Our coach- the females, and the trappings of man drove us to the Sword tavern, the horses, displayed more neat. close by a wide bridge which ness, taste, and skill, than we witcrosses the blue waves of the river, nessed in any other part of Switwhere a dish of good tea, and some zerland-perhaps this may be other refreshments, more substan. owing to the number of English tial, soon made us forget our past families who reside here. Another fatigues,
peculiarity is, that not a beggar is Saturday, August 29th.--Since I to be found in all the Canton, left England, I have seen no place though its population is very nuwhere I should better like to re merous. side, than in the neighbourhood Our three South American of Zurich, if ever I should become friends bade us farewell they proan exile from home. There seems posing to make an excursion to the to me to be more domestick com baths of Baden, and we, in a few fort here, than in any other part of hours, to set off for the Falls Switzerland. This city is interest- of the Rhine. I cannot part with ing to the tourist, from a number these gentlemen, without remarkof circumstances, exclusive of its ing, that I never met with three delightful locality. Besides being brothers more affable, intelligent, the residence of many eminent and harmonious. There are a numtheologians, here, in 1523, the glo- ber of open spaces before many of rious reformation was introduced the publick buildings, furnished by Zuingle; and here the celebrated with seats, and planted with groves Lavater received his death wound, of linden trees. While Dr. G. and a few steps from his own door, by myself were walking in one of these one of the French soldiers under promenades, called the Lindenhof, Massena. Its high literary repų- a fine terrace elevated an hundred tation, in former times, obtained and twenty-five feet above the Limfor it the appellation of the learned mat, the three brothers passed in Zurich; and at present the multi- their carriage along the bank of tude of its publick institutions de- the river. We waved our handmonstrate the benevolence, the kerchiefs to each other, and saw science, and the enterprise of its them no more. In old times, on inhabitants. Among the remark- this terrace, once stood the palaces able edifices shown to the stranger, of some of the Roman functiona
ries, when ancient Thuricum oc- and I hope to visit some of their cupied the site where Zurich now churches to-morrow. stands.
The Crown hotel, at which we The road between Zurich and stopped, was all in confusion--the Schaffhausen, not far from which best rooms being secured for the town the Falls of the Rhine are Russian Archduchess Michael, situated, possesses but little inte. and suite, who are expected here rest to the traveller, after the views to-morrow. The Grand Duke is of the lake and its immediate now fighting the Turks at Shumla, neighbourhood are lost sight of. and his good lady takes this opThe bold, peculiar, and romantick portunity to visit her friends in features of the scenery of Switzer- Germany. We sat down pretty land, which we have been admiring late in the evening, to a very profor many days past, are gradually fuse and dainty supper, which we fading from the view, as the road all welcomed with keen appetites. approaches the mighty river Rhine. The wine was from Neufchatel, We passed several extensive forests and we all thought it remarkably of firs; indeed, the whole of this good—the cheese was from the country is, I think, more thickly Čanton of Glaris, and was of the covered with trees, than any of our celebrated green kind, called chapmiddle States. As we rode along, sigre, or, as we say at home, sapthe country people familiarly noda sago. The herb which gives it its ded to us, as they do to the travel- strong and peculiar odour, is here ler in New England—we were, called trifolium odoratum. In therefore, obliged to look askancé Pennsylvania, an imitation of this at the rich red stockings of the cheese is prepared, by using a numfemales, displayed, according to ber of odoriferous plants to give it the fashion of the Canton, almost a perfume and flavour. from top to toe. A short distance This evening we were obliged to before reaching Schaffhausen, the resign our carriage and horses, road passes not far from the banks which we hired a week since at of the Rhine, so that we perceived Lausanne-no persuasion or inthe spray of the cataract, and heard ducement could prevail with our the dull and heavy roar, peculiar to honest coachman to accompany us the precipitous rush of many any farther This we regretted exwaters." I was desirous to leave ceedingly, not only on account of our carriage, and visit the falls im- his faithfulness and care, but bemediately; but my motion to that cause our landlord informed us effect, was overruled by the ma- that all the post horses in Schaffjority of the party,
hausen, and its neighbourhood, Schaffhausen, the capital of the were engaged as relays, for the Canton of the same name, appears Archduchess and her suite. How to be a dull, uninteresting town, long, therefore, we may be obliged though its situation, on the banks to remain here, I cannot tell. After of the Rhine, gives it many advan- leaving this place, the next town tages. It was founded at a very we expect to stop at, is Friburg, in early period, being originally a few Germany. It will be our first step storehouses to receive goods con- towards home--would that it were veyed along the river, and from the last. thence to be transported, by land, Sunday, August 30th.—I rose to boats below the falls. Hence this morning with the expectation its name in English, skiff-house. of passing a quiet and retired day. There are some mills and manu- The streets of this Protestant town factories in the vicinity. The Pro were remarkably still; scarcely a testant religion is established here, passenger was to be seen, until the
bells of a neighbouring church cataract; but the dreary and savage gave the signal for publick pray- character of the landscape around ers. I followed a number of the the Cahoos, is much more in harinhabitants, most of whom had mony with the wildness of such books in their hands, into a very
The falls of the Rhine are old place of worship, called, 1 about seventy feet high. There is think, All Saints. hou
what they call an ancient castle, but thinly attended; and as the ser on an island just in front of the vice was in an unknown tongue, cataract, in a darkened chamber of my own reflections were my only which, a camera obscura is placed, monitors.
for the exhibition of this everOn returning to the Crown, I moving picture. We admired it found that Mr. G., our travelling exceedingly. As to the castle, it companion, who speaks German, seemed to me nothing but a paltry had procured a carriage and horses old mill, which ought to be levelled to convey us to Friburg, and that to the earth, as it spoils the scene. it was proposed to set off imme- It belonged, however, to an andiately-We were to ramble along cient noble family, who flourished the banks of the Rhine to the falls, before the foundation of Schaffnear which our coachman was to hausen. meet us.
Our road passed through the The falls of the Rhine have been part of Germany adjacent to Switso often described, that I need not zerland; and I felt no little regret be very particular. Having heard at bidding a long farewell to the so much of their grandeur, and charming scenery of that romanhaving seen the mighty cataract of tick country. We travelled all Niagara, and the grand cascades day, in the famous district called at Trenton and Cahoos, in the the Black Forest. A considerable State of New York, I must say I part of the land is now under the was a good deal disappointed. No cultivation of an orderly and inone, however, can contemplate such dustrious people; and the forests an object as this, without emotions are no longer infested by those of awe and sublimity. The best bands of robbers, who frequently view is from a wooden balcony committed such horrid deeds of projecting from the rock, close to murder and rapine on the traveller, the precipice over which the great- in former times. We passed seveest volume of water descends. The ral ancient castles and monasteries, river is chafed into foam and fury, and as the shades of night began by the enormous masses of rocks to gather round us, we entered a which lie in its sloping bed, for thick and extensive wood. We some distance before it is projected had all fallen into that sort of reveinto the deep abyss below. The rie which most travellers expefalls of Niagara, and those of the rience towards the close of a moCahoos, descend in nearly an un- notonous day's ridethe usual conbroken sheet; but here the waters versation was of course suspended, are divided into a number of dif- and each mind was busily occupied ferent cascades, the most impe- in musings on the past, and in antuous of which rushes between two ticipations of the future; or was huge rocky pillars. The surround- indulging in those thrilling and ing natural scenery is bold and strange fancyings, which the anpicturesque, but is very much cient deeds of war and crime comdebased by several offensive ob- mitted in this forest, were pecujects. The cultivated fields in the liarly calculated to excite. The neighbourhood of Niagara weaken darkness of the evening increased; very much the effect of the mighty and as the road became more diffi
calt, our coachman was obliged to the hills, named the Hellenthal, jo leave the box, and lead along the Infernal Valley: through this, Gehorses. In this situation, as we neral Moreau, the only French gewere winding round a narrow val- neral of any distinction I recollect ley, just at the verge of the forest, ever to have seen, except a dancing we were all roused by a light start- master, made his famous retreat in ing up in the wood, on the oppo- 1796. It has quite a terrifick apsite side of the valley, which we pearance, the rocks being heaped had a few moments before passed. on each other, as if by some treOn looking out of the carriage, I mendous convulsion of nature. saw, at some distance, the grim Near this spot I examined a grist visages of three men, by the torch mill, on the Dreysam, a small light, running towards us. Our stream which passes near Friburg; coachman informed us that there it was miserably deficient in every was no habitation near this spot- mechanical convenience, and might and as spectres and banditti are have been constructed in the early both common in the forests of periods of Teutonick history, for Germany—our driver seemed most the use of the warriors who annifearful of the first-He quickly hilated the power of the old Romounted the box, and urged forward his horses, in spite of the There are three towns in Europe darkness and danger of the road, which have the name of Friburg till the apparitions were left far the one in Switzerland, which I behind.
have already spoken of—the place When we were safely lodged for where the celebrated mineralogist, the night at an insignificant inn, Werner, resided--and the city in the adventure I have just described, which we now are. Luckily there and the superstitious fears of our are but few objects of curiosity to driver, afforded us a good deal of detain us here. The Cathedral, or amusement-but we were none of Minster, is said to be one of the us disposed to be very merry during most beautiful and perfect old its continuance; for, as the poet churches in all Germany. It was says,
founded by Conrad, Duke of ZähAffairs that walk
ringen, about 1150, and the tombs (As they say spirits do) at midnight, have of the princes of that name, now In them a wilder nature than the business in the building, are magnificent. That seeks despatch by day.
· Its tall and well proportioned spire, Monday, August 31st.–We set and its large windows of painted off early this morning on our road glass, are also admired very much. to Friburg. Though we have been 'The image of the Duke is on the some time in Germany, in this sign of our hotel, where we found part of it I could not perceive any a sumptuous table d'hote spread, on remarkable difference between the our arrival. We saw, marching manners and customs of the peo- through the streets, a corps of a ple, and those of Switzerland—the thousand of the best looking and change from Schaffhausen to the well disciplined soldiers in the Black Forest was not so great as
world—they formed, once, a porwe often noticed in passing from tion of Napoleon's grand army. one Swiss Canton to another. Our After dinner, having made furroute did not conduct us over the ther arrangements with our driver most interesting parts of the Black to carry us to Strasburg, we set Forest, which includes one of the out on the road to that place. Aflargest chains of mountains in Ger- ter passing through a highly cultimany. About twelve miles from vated country, interspersed with Friburg, we entered a deep pass in villages and farm houses, we stop
FOR THE CHRISTIAN ADVOCATE.
ped, late in the evening, at a con- ties or faculties are the elements; venient inn, just beyond the walls and the whole mental phenomena, of an old town. I must not forget developing their character, relato mention, that we passed, on the tions and uses, are to be classed road, the Archduchess Michael, and described, to form a complete and all her train-and truly the system of mental science. Russians made quite a formidable Our first inquiry respects the appearance. She rode in a fine mind itself, as that to which all the barouche, and we saw her disc elements belong. tinctly. Her female attendants had Of mind itself, we are not confull and fair features, though we scious, but only of its exercises. did not think them handsome. We are, however, as certain of the “Methought she looked at us
existence of mind as of any fact So overy one believes that sees a Duchess.” whatever. There are several ways
in which we arrive at certainty; (To be continued.)
the most important which concern the present philosophy are intui. tion, consciousness, and inference.
The first two are simple and
difficult of explanation; the latter MENTAL SCIENCE.
is complex and admits of extendElements of the Science.
ed illustration, but it belongs more
properly to dialectics. We omit, The first principles of every sci- for the present, any extended illusence are few and simple; but their tration of either; but it may
be prorelations, combinations and uses, per to say, that what we know by are very numerous. This is em- consciousness and intuition is cerphatically true of mental philo- tainty. The difference between sophy.
these two mental acts is perhaps By, elements we mean the first not very wide, yet they are easily principles of the science. If we distinguished one from the other. speak of language, letters are its By one we take cognizance of first principles or elements; of the exercises and properties,—and by science of numbers, the ten digits the other, of their simple and neare its elements. So of mental cessary relations. We know by conscience, the faculties of the mind, sciousness the exercises, thought, and the rule or principle of classi. feeling, and volition; and we know fication in examining the pheno- by intuition, that something thinks, mena, are the elements. Strictly feels and wills. We know by conspeaking, the faculties, capabilities, sciousness, the difference between or properties, are the elements; but perception and feeling; and by ininasmuch as we cannot proceed a tuition that there is a difference single step without observing some between the capacity, or adaptedgeneral law of mental operations, ness, to perceive and to feel. which discovers the primary rela The famous enthymeme of Des tions of those phenomena to the Cartes, " cogito, ergo sum,” does character of their respective facul. not describe the mental process, ties, we consider it right to incor- because the kuowledge of our porate the principle of classifica- thought and existence are simultation with the elements of the sci- neous, without reasoning on the ence. But if any object to this, subject, and with complete certainwe have no very strong objection ty. The process is too simple for to its being considered a secondary explanation, and the fact is intuiprinciple.
tive: po argument can ascertain it Mind is the subject, its proper: with more certainty.