« הקודםהמשך »
Inspiration of the
error in his account of the sepulchres of the the view, than we know it by a description of "Secondly. In all their revelations
of mys- patriarch, that affects not the authority of It without that view ; so the Jeus say, that teries, or things which could not otherwise be St. Luke at all, provided he have exactly re. prophecy Da in dision, is more excellent made known to them, either by nalural rea. Iated what was then said hy St. Stephen, ihan that which comes only Disns by dream, son or antecedent revelation, they must be who was not chosen to be a penman of the or in a dream, in which we seem to hear one acknowledged to have had them by an imme. Holy Scriptures. taiking with us
diale suggestion of the Holy Spiril. Hence, “ Lastly, from what is thus discoursed, it * Now though this impression may be suf- of these things the apostle says, negatively, may appear, that I contend only for such an ficient to convince the prophet and inspired that the natural man (who only judges of inspiration, or Divine assistance of the sacred person, that his revelation did indeed derive things by his natural reason) cannot know writers of the New Testament, as will assure From God; yel, since this revelation was in them, because they are spiritually discerned,' us of the truth of what they wrote, whether tended not for himself, but for the use of I Cor. ii. 14. i, e. they being mysteries, can by inspiration of suggestion or direction others, he, with the revelation, must be ena- only be discemed by the revelation or the only; but not for such an inspiration as im. bied, by some convincing proof, to evidence Spirit ; and positively, that they spake the plies, that even their words were dictated, lo those who were concerned to embrace it, wisdom of God in a inystery, even the wis or their phrases suggested to them by the that he was sent indeed by God with such a com hid from former ages, which eye bath Holy Ghost : this, in some matters of great message to them. Now, of this, they only not seen, nor ear heard, nor had it entered moment, might be so; St. Paul declaring, could be satisfied by some outward marks or into the heart of nan to conceive,' 1 Cor. ii. 7. that they spake the things which were given notes, of which they, by their senses, were and that because God had revealed these them of God in the words which the Holy enabled to judge, viz. The miracles wrought things to them hy his Spirit,' verse 9.. they Ghost tencheth,' I Cor. vi. 13. if that relate for confirmation of his testimony, or some having received the Spirit of God, that they not to what the Holy Ghost had taught them propheiical prediction of something future might know the things which are freely out of the Old Testament. But that it was and contingent, exactly verified in the event. given to us of God, verse 10. Thus was the not always so, is evident, both from the conAnd thus, saith the apostle, was their preach mystery of the calling of the Gentiles into an sideration that they were hagiographera, ing confirmed to the world; God bearing equality of privileges with the believing who are supposed to be left to the use of witness to them, both with signs and wonders, Jews, made
known unto them; for God, by their own words, and from the variety of the and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Ho revelation, saith St. Paul,' made known to style in which they write, and from the sole iy Ghost, according to his will, Heb. ii. 4.
me the mystery of Christ, which in other cisms, which are sometimes visible in their • The ways of prophecy, under the ou ages was not made known, as it is now re compositions; and more especially from their Testament, seem to be comprehended under vealed to his holy apostles and prophets by own words, which manifestly show that, in these four heads, viz. either the prophets re- the Spirit; that the Gentiles should be fellow. some cases, they had had no such suggestion ceived their revelation in a dream or trance, heirs
and of the same body, and partakers of from the Holy Ghost as doth imply, that he or in a vision, or by a voice from heaven, or his promise in Christ, by the Gospel,' Eph. iii. had dictated those words unto them. For by the secret suggestions of the Holy Ghost. 3, 4, 5, 6. chap. 1. 9. vi. 19. Col. 1. 26, 27. 11. 2. iv. instance, when St. Paul declares his will or
"Now some of the apostles had their vi- 3, 4. So they knew the mystery of the recall. purpose to do what he was hindered by the sions, Ist. either by day, as Peter; for an ee ing of the Jews, Rom. xi. 25, 26. The mystery providence of God from doing; as, when he stacy fell upon him, and he saw the heavens of the resurrection, 1 e. the quality of the says to the Romans, When I go into
Spain, opened, and he heard a voice saying unto him, bodies to be raised, and the order of it, with I will come to you,' chap. xv. 21. 'I ill come Arise, Peter, kill and eat, Acts x. 11. And all the other special circumstances mention. hy you into Spain,' verse 29. For though he this is called Spau,
a vision, verse 17. And ed. 1. Cor. xv. 1 Thess. iv. and the apostacy of might, after his enlargement, go into the hy this, saith he, God taught me to call no the latter times; for the Spirit speaketh ex- west, 'where St. Clement (Ep. ad Cor. 6.9 man common, or unclean, verse 28. Or by pressly,' saith the apostle, that in the latter says he preached. And even into Spain, as night : thus a vision of the night was seen by days men shall depart from the faith,'1 Tim. Cyril, (Catechis. 17. p. 204. C) Epiphanius, Paul, and a man speaking to him, in the vi. iv. 1. This inspiration of suggestion must (Hær 27. p. 107. C.) and Theodret, (in 2 Tim. sion of the night, Aas xvi.". Mily: They had also be allowed to 81. John, the author of the iv. 17. and Præfat
. in Psalm cxvi.) say he also the Spirit speaking to them; for the Spi- Revelations : for he, speaking only what was did; yet it is certain he did not designedly rit said to Peter, Behold, three men seek represented to him in visions, or by angelical go to Rome, in order to an intended journey thee, arise, terefore, and go with them. discourses, or apparitions, must Junve that as into
Spain; and when he says to the Corinnething doubting, for l' have sent them," Acts sistance which suggested these üleas to him. thians, I will
come to you when I pass cions and revelations of the Lord, either by did know already, either by natural
reason, confesses in his second epistle, 2 Cor. i 15, conversation with them; as when Christ said needed only such an assistance, or direction for it is not to be thought the Holy Ghost St. Paul, " My grace is sufficient for thee,' in them, as would
secure them from error in should
incite him to promise, or even to purverse . Here then are three kinds of revela their reasonings, or in their confirmation of pose, what He knew he would not perform. tion granted to the apostles; but then these their
doctrines by passages contained in the This also we learn from all those places in things were mostly occasional, and accidental Old Testament ; and, therefore, a continua which they do express their ignorance, or to them, in respect of their apostolical func- suggestion must be bere necessary. And, doubtfulness of that which they are speak: tions.
indeed, one great work they hal upon their ing of; as when St. Paul says, 1 know not " Only the case of the apostle Paul must hands, both in preaching the Gospel, and whether I baptized any other,' 1 Cor. 1. 16. bere admit of an exception; for it being ne. writing these Gospels and epistles, being to and again, Tuyov napapevw, ' perhaps I will cessary for an apostle, that'ís, a witness of ccnvince the unbelieving Jeur, or to confirm abide, yea, and winter with you.' 1 Cor. xvL. 6. Christ's resurrection, to have seen the Lord the wavering Jew, or rectify the errors of the And when St. Peter saith, “By Sylvanus, a risen from the dead, according to those words, Judaizing Christian, the pain of knowledge of faithful brother, as I suppose, have I written Lord ?' I Cor. ix. 1: "and for an apostle, not necessary for them, and therefore is ileser: show, that, in all these things, they had no of man, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, the Holy Ghost; and, being so, we have realy, may be gathered from all those places in
reckoned among the primary gifts of inspiration, or Divine assistance. This, lastfrom the Lord Jesus; Christ speaks thus to son to believe, Ibat either the Holy Ghost sug: which they only do express their hope, and him: 'I have appeared unto thee for this pur which they used in these sacred writings to in these words, "I hope to see you in my pose, to make thee a minister, and a witness, convince them; or else presided so over journey,' Rom. xv. 24. I will come unto both of those things which thou hast seen, them, as not to suffer them to make any
in-you quickly, if the Lord will,: 1 Cor. iv. 19. and of those things in the which I will appear ferences from them which were not agreea-|' I hope to stay some time with you, if the unto thee,' Acts xxvi. 16. tain a promise of an immediate instruction ble to the the intents and meaning of them: Lord permit,' i Cor. xvi. I hope in the from Christ in his apostolical function though, at this distance of time, we may not Lord Jesus, io send Timothy quickly to you, Whence this apostle declares, confirming that always
be able to discern the strength and Phil
. ii. 19, 23. And I trus that I myself his declaration with an outh, the Gospel Clearness of the consequence.
also shall come quickly,' ver. 24. · These
"Fourthly. In writing the historical parts things I write, hoping to come to thee quicks. man ; for I neither received it of man, neither of the New Testament, or matters of fact re- ly, but if I should tarry, that thou mayest was I caught (hy man) but (only) by the revelating to themselves, or others. It is only ne know how to behave thyself in the church of lation of Jesus Christ,' Gal. i. 11, 12. He there. cessary, that what is there delivered is niar. God,' I Tim. lii. 14, 15. 'I hope, by your kore had his message from Christ, as Moses ter of fact, should be truly performed as it is prayers, to be given to you, Philemon 92 had from God, Christ speaking to him mouth said to have been done ; but it is not necessa This will we do, if the Lord permit,' Heb. to mouth, &c. See Num. xii. 7.
ry that they should be related in that order vi. 3. I hope to come to you.' St. Joha, 20 But yet, that which enabled them for the of time in which they were performed, un Ep. ver. 12. 34 Ep. ver. 14. For, spes cut' in. Inditing of these writings, as a rule of faith less that also be affirmed of them; for this certæ
rei nonien, the word hope, inplies in to all succeeding ages, was the internal and must be sufficier! 10 assure us of the truth of uncertainty, whereas the Holy
Spirit can not powerful assistance of the Holy Spirit. what they thus delivered.
he uncertain of any thing; nor can we think To proceed, then, to the consideration of “Moreover, in writing the discourses con he would inspire men to speak so unorrtain the distinction made by some, viz. Or inspi- tained in these books, it is not necessary that ly. And, (2.) There can be no necessity, or ration by suggestion, and inspiration of di. the very words should be suggested, or re-even use, of a Divine assistance to enable a rection only: I say, then,
corded, in which they were first spoken, but man to express his hopes, seeing all men do, * First. Where there is no antecedent idea only that the true intent and meaning of by natural reflection, know thein. or knowledge of the things written for the them should be related, though in diversity "IL Having thus preinised these things, good of others, to be obtained from reason, or of words. Though the promise made to the for the right stating and explication of the a former revelation, there, an inspiration of apostles by our Lord, that the Holy Spirit controversy, I proceed to lay down the argu. nuggestion must be vouchsafed to the apos- should bring to their remembrance, mavta, ments which prove that in these writings the tles, to enable them to make them known unto all things which he had said unto them, apostles were assisted and preserved from the world. But where there is an antecedent John xiv. 20. doth fairly plead for this exact-error by the Spirit of God; and, therefore, knowledge of the things to be indited, it can ness in what they have delivered of our Sa were enabled to deliver to us an unerring only be necessary that God should, either im viour's sermons: it being scarcely imaginarule of faith. mediately, or by some special occasions, ex- ble that their
memory, without divine assist "And, ist. I argue for the Dining assistance
Inspiration of the sacred writers. INTRODUCTION.
Various Readings, efect of the inditers of these sacred records from ani Chris. the mystery of (ind the Father,cency gras of God, who, by this ministra what they do assert concerning their own ani of Christ, the convainent an ini tion of the saint, bau maup then the minis writings; and what they say touching the lixt mony or Girl, which is the thing lan tres of the New Testament, 2 Cor. 111 5,6 declarations made, the doctrines delivereri, conce neto nuke fol, and then it highly A thus, bays be, 'that Got who command. and the directions given in them.
| must concem all prsous, to be mindful of the hot to shine out of dark?***, (and "As for the wnters of the Gospel, St. Luke the commtsinnis of the most be of ou o inuminated the pamphets try shining updeclares he writes his Gospel to Theopolitiis, Lonl and sur, 2 Pet lil 2 Ir they hul on het inition and their understanu. that he might know the certainty of the no such a umuice of the 18 ctance of the 2) halh khinert in our luis, to give ite things in which he had been instructel;' Holy Synt, they dilgrody im ose up on the .ht of the knowledge of the glory of Got in and St. John declares, his Gospel was writ. world, in this pretending that they preached the face of Jesus Christ,'2 Cor. iv. 5. In his ten,' that they might believe that Jesus was the Gospel by the assistance of the Holy Spi. Epistle to the Ephesians, he declares, that the the Christ, the Son of God :' now, it is plain, rit seni doirn from hearon. If they were lystery of Christ was male known to him that neither Theophilus could be certain of not as urnd that in those wrings they ile variate trilation, and not to him only, the truth of what he had been taught by any livered only the lor ones which Gol re luto the rest of the apostles and prophets of wriung which was not absolutely eirtaun in quired all me to leteve, IRON precepto be the Viw Testant; for God, says he, 'th itself; nor could others he induced, by what rupset them to ilo, they must be very con male known this revelation tous, the apostars St. John had written, to believe, that Jesus fident in during to make this the preface to und proplets by the sprit,' Eph. ill. 3,5. And roas the Christ, unless they could be certain some of their opi!!'s. 'Paul, an antle, ar hrnce le spuks to the Corinthians in thes that he spake the truth throughout his Gospel coring to the will and commandant oi Luace, 'If any man he a prophet, or spinNow, if we do consider how many things Goal,' I (ar í 1. 2 Cor. 1 i Ephil coit. Itu let hin arknowledge that the things! contained in the beginning of St. Luke's (10.2 Tini. I. 1. an sing with so much assur write unto you are the commandments of pel he must have by hears; and how many ance, If any be a proport, let him acknow. Gol,' I Cor. xiv. 37. Here, then, the argument long discourses, both he, St Matthew, and indee that the things I write into you are the nins thius: St John, teliver as spoken by our Lord and commandments of Gol' 1 (or viv 37 and * They who had a like assistance to that of others; of which we can have no assurance, much more. in leclaring to all Christians the prophets under the Old Testament, must after so many years before the writing of tms-- Wearr of God; he ibat kroweth Gol, wnie by the direction of the Holy Ghost, for thero, on the mere strength of human nu hran th us; he that is not of God, hean.th Loly nim of olispahe as they ar. Te moord by ry, so as to ground an article of Divine ruth not Bihr this wa klow the spirit of th the Holy Ghost; in the finitures they in upon the very wonis in which they were de and the spirit of error,' 1 John iv.fi For this ditel were of Divine inspiration; and ibetr liveredt ; we inust be forced to concue, that, seemsegladio what their Vaster himself said words are cind in the New Testaneni, as upon this account, we cannot depend upon in the likr words, Why do you not believe spoken by the Holy Glo-L But the apostles the very letter and minute circumstances of me? He that is of Gol heareth the words of had a like assistance, for in the wonis now every discourse related by then; unless, 20- Gol: you therefore hperthem not, because it, they style themelyre aposties and pro cording to Christ's promise, they bout the as. ye are not of Gol,' John viil 46. 47. Yia. phets; they challenge a like illumination, or sistance of the Holy Ghost, to bring these they must be alsa witnesses of God, hy ste shining of lied upon their hearts, a like revethings to their rem-inbrance: wherefore this ling human writing the trord, the Gospel, lation of their Gol by the Holy Spinti and promise is made to them in very general and the command, the testimony, the mind, the they protend to teach 11 to other, in worils comprehensive terms, viz. 'the Holy Ghost metery of Gotand Chriut; and hy requiring luight them by the Holy Ghost In all which shall bring all things to your remembrance, others to reine ir, not as the trurd of man, savings, they must be guilty of a false textwhatsoever I have said unto you,' John xiv. but as the trord of God, even that word hy niony concerning God, and must impose upon 26. And then there being nothing considera which they must be jin at the last day' the church of Christ, if no such asristalice of ble in St. Mark, which is not also in St. Mat. Ron il 16, which again runs as hish is the Holy Ghost was imparted to them. thew or St. Luke, or both, the certainty of all those words of Chit. The word that I have 4.3d1y. These sacred records, which were that is contained in them, inust make us also spoken shall ja hlin that believes it not at Inditril to be a standing nile of faith to certain of the truth of what st Mark delivers the last dar, John xil. 48.
Christians throughout ali aks of the world, in his Gospel Moreover, the word spoken * 211x. They who, when they Indited these the foi contained in these scriptures bring and indited by them, is styled the word of writings were assistert hy the Holy Ghost, made known to all nations for the obedience God: men, saith the apostle, could not be the Spirit of truth, indited these records by of faith,' Rom vi %. they must in all things lieve the Gospel, unless they heari it preach Dividir axistance for the things God smrahe propone in them, 10 our faith, contain a di ed to them: nor could they hear it preached to his servants the prophets, are styled the vine testimony, or a revelation of the will of unless some were commissioned to preach things which Iconianded svareupari nov, Gol. For as human faith depends upon the the Gospel; for faith comes by hearing and lyny Spirit, Zych. 1. 6, but the apo.fles were teatimony of nan, so divine faith is that hearing by the word of God,' Rom. x. 14, 15, thus assisted; this they in terms, or by just which depends upon the testimony of God, 16, 17. And, 'for this cause,' says be, thank consequenca, nesert For St. Peter savå of And as ondience to men consists in doing we Gol without ceasing, because, when, ye them all, i'a general, that they preached the the will of men, so our obdience to God 04received the word of Gol, which ye heart of Gospel by the Holy Ghost gent flown from stata in conformity to the will of God. Anun, us, ye received it not as the word of men, but he wen' i Pri. 12. Ants not this as much If we mist all be joined by ul.is law of tber as it is in truth, the word of Gol!!!. Thess as he said of the prophets of the Old Testa. James in 12. Il Chilst at the last day will 11. 13. 'Tam made a minister of Christ,' saith ment, when he deciares they spoke as they judge the secrets of men's hearts according he, according to the dispensation of God. were novel by the Holy Ghost ? 2 Pet 1. to the Gospel of St. Paul, Rom 11. 16. 'If he which is given to me to fulfil, (1. e. fully to St. Pauli marts, in the same general express will come in flaming fire, taking vengeance preach) the word of God.' Coloss. I. 25. 2 Ition, that those arrat thinas brlonging to the of all that obey not his Gospel,' then must is called the commandment of God; 'for my Gospel, which nelther epohud korn, nor ear this Gospel, and this law of liberty, be a rule Gospel,' says St. Paul,' and the preaching or had hon, nor heart wis able to conceive,' of faith'until Christ's second coming; for, Jesus Christ, is made manifest, and, accori. Gol bad revealed to them by the Spirit, 1 Cor upon that account alone, can men be bound ing to the commandment of the everlasting 11. 10. that they had received not the spirit under this dreadful penalty, to yield obedi. God, made known unto you for the obedience of the world, but the Spuit which is of Golence to it, and be judged by it." of faith,' Rom. xiv. 25. 26. which faith is al that they might know the things which were The whole of Dr. Whitby's important Gene ways built on a divine testimony. And, freely given to Christians of God; and that ral Prefore, from which the above is extraci. again, If any man be a prophet, or spiritual, then things they tanghit,' not in the worised, is well worth the attention of the reader. let him acknowledge that the things I write which inmi's wisdom teacheth, but which the unto you are the commandments of the Lord.' Holy Ghost terbirth, comparing spiritual
8 IL Of Various Readings in the Scrto 1 Cor. xiv. 37.
3. It is declared to be the things with spirt na',' versex 12, 13 in which tra, and the Sources whence they sprung wisdom of God, 1 Cor. 1. 24. For, we preach place the very design of the app ile is to Before I proceed to give an account of the Christ to you that are called, both Jews and prove, zainst the Creek philoshers, how principal Vanuscripts, Ancient Versions, an Greeks, the power of Gou, and the wisdom or unreasonable it was to reject the Gospel, he Ecclesiastical Writers, frequently referred to God; we speak the wisdom of God in a myr canse it came not in the way of demonstra in this work, it may be necessary to say a lit, tery, even that wisdom which Gol has re- tion to human reason, but by way of revela tle on the various Readings of the Old and vealed to us by his Spirit,' I Cor. 11. 7. 10. lion from God; and so required faith, as of New Testaments in general, and the manner 4. It is the Testimony of God, for 'I came not necessity it must do, since it contained such in which they originaled; as severid of my to you,' saith he, in excellency of speech delihings concerning the desim of Christ's salu readers may not have had the opportunity of claring to you the testimony'. 1. Cor. il. 1. tary passion, his resurrection, ascension, and acquainting themselves with that branch of 5. It is the Gospel of Gol; for St. Paul styles a future judgment at the general resiune Billiral qiticism, in which this subject is himself the minister of Jesus Christ to the tion, which no natural man could knoy by particularly discussed. Gentiles, ministering the Gospel or God to the utmost improvement of his human rea By a l'arious Reading, I mean a nord es. them, Rom. xv. 16. We preach, says he, son; and such discoveries of the counsel of inding either in the Ancient Versions, or in " the Gospel of Gol freely.' 1 Cor. x1.7. We Got concerning man's justification, which Ancient Mss, or in both different from the Were boli to proach to yol the Gospel of Gol: depended upon his go pasure which word in the commonly receiver and prinied we were willing to have imparted to you, not was known only to that Holy Spirit which trit, whether of the old or the New Testa the Gospel of Gol only, but also our own search th all things, ren the dep things of mouil. The sources whence these are derived, lives,',' Thess, il. 2, 8, 9 even the glorious Gol. I, is this Suri, savs he, that we have are those ancient titsions and MSS the Gospel of the blessed Gol committed to my receiveil, and by this Spirit hath Gol revealed chief of which are enumera:ed and described trust.' I Tim. i. 10. 6. It is the Gospel of these things into 118, and we accordingly do in the following lists. Christ ; 'for I came,' siys he 'to Trois 10 teach them to the world, not in the words But, it may be asked, of what authority are preach Christ's Gospol.' 2 Cor. ii. 12. We which brumin wiedern techeth, but arhich thrase Prsions and Manuscripts? And why sent Timotheus, our fellow-labourer in the the Holy Ghout tranhth, comparing the reve appeal to them from, and sometimes againsi, Gospel of Christ,' 1 Thess. ill. 2. 7. It is the lation mule to us by the Spirit, with the relit commonly received text? mystery of his will, Eph. 1.9. The mystery velations made to the prophets in the Old Into the discussion of this question I cannot of God the Father, and of Christ' Col f1. 2. Testament, lys the same spirit, and finding minuirly enter: It is not the province of a The mind or Christ, made kno:vn to the that the revelations maile to us do far excred Cominentator. But let it should be surposed apostles,' I Cor. il 16. And the worl of what was discovered to thein; for, what the that I wished to plade it, I would simply obChrist which must dwell richly in believers,' eye of those pro;hets had not sernin vision, serve, 1. That before the invention of print Col. iii. 16.
or their ear heard in dreams, nor can the in the whole of the Saited Ilritings, both ** Now, certainly, it cannot rationally be heart of man conceive, without a rivelation, of the Old and New Testaments, must have conceived, that the apostles should be igno even these things hath Gol revealed to us by existed either in MS or by Oral Tradition. rant of that assistance by which they were his spinil Thus did they sprith the word of 2 If they existed originally by Oral Tradi. enable to invite these records: Ir then they Go! in demonstration of the spirit; wrence tion, they must have been, at one tiine or were assured of that assistance of the Holy he declares, that if any inu (tespite their les other, reduced from that into a MS or vrouren Spirit, which they challenged, then muust the timony or instructions, la desplied not man form. 3. As thexe records were considered of Gosp, which they both prouched and in'di only, but Gola'ko, who bu given them his general importance, hoing a revelation from wed, be received as the sort of Go! ant spirit, 1 Thess. IV. 8. they being not sufficient God so man, concerning his salvation, mantChrist, the inind of Christ, the Gospěl of God for this work of themselves, but their suff-lucripts would be multiplied, as the people in
Various Readings, foc.
Account of Manuscripts, foco creused, who professed to believe that these and Versions known to exist. Preprations used where the Latin language was spoken; writings were divinely inspired 4. Wherer for such an edition of the Hebrew Bible have with this agree the old Itala, the Vulgate, and er the Jeres were disperseil, they carried coupon made by Kennico:t and De Rossi. For the quotations found in the Latin Fathers. pies of the Lorani the Prophet with thein: the Septuagint, by Wechel, (i, e in the edition 2. The Alerandrian, or Egyptian Edition ; and the Christiane did the sune with the printal hy hiin,) Lambert Bos, Dr. Holmes, with this agree the quotations found in the Gols, Epielles, &c. And as these copies and his present Continuators at Oxford. For works of Origen; and the Coptic Version. were found by shitful or unei fuil hants, the Greek Testament, hy Robert Stephens, 3. The Byzantine, or Eastern Elition ;so they would be less or more i'ccurate in re- Bp. Fell, Dr. Mill, Eengel, Weintein, Birch, that in general use in Constantinople, after frence to the originale, from which they Alicr, Matthai, and Griesbach. We therefore this city had become the capital of the Eastern were taken 5. If a Ms which ha'l boon possess, al present, materials from which Empire. The greater nunber of the many Carplessiv copiol, became the source whence perly immaculate eruitions of the Sacred MSS. written by the monks on Mount Athos chers were laken, they could not be expic Writings may be formed; so that the Hebrew are evidently of this edition. To this eclition ei in express a better ter! thu was on in and Grerk Originals, and, indeeil, all Ver. may be referred the quotations found in 8 thu iron which they were copied. 6. When sions fauthliliy deduced from them, may ap- Chrysostom, 81. Theophylact, Bishop or But such a MS was collated with others mo e pear in all their simplicity, energy, and splen. garia, and the Slavonic or Russian Version. Crefully copied, various realings, or dirlour. Il is to these materials, as they exist The readings of this edition, are those which firinus between such MSS, would necess in the above collections, that I am indebted are generally found in the printed text of the rily appar. 7. As some of these reiving for the various readings of Hebrew and Greek Greek Testament. All these Recensiones, or would rar irreconcilrallt or cm radicio: MSS, supported by the ancient Versions, Editions, belong to ages prior to the eighth Ty, subsequent seribs wouill altor or anunt which I have introduced in these Notes. century, according to Griesbach. from conjecture, where they could not have Notwithstanding all the helps which the va To these Michaelis adds a fourth, called, access to the original MSS and this wouint rious MSS. and ancient Versions arford for 4. The Edessene Edition, which compregive birth to another class of various reulings, the illustration of the Sacrel Text, the reader hends those MSS from which the Peshito, or 8. Wlen, after the invention of printing, the must not imagine that in those MSS and old Syrinc Version, was made, though no Sacred Writings were muliplied bs uk en Versions which so contain the role of the MS. of this edition now remains. The Phior the press, the copy, thus preparull, must Sacred Text, there is any essential defect in loxenian Syriac Version was corrected from be one of those MSS or one containing i col matters that relate to the faith and practice, MSS. found in the library at Alexandria lurion of various VSS. and the printed edi. ani, consequently, to the silvation, of e Any reading supported by the authority of fion hiust, of course, give the text of o:e only Christian : there is no such MS., there is no these different editions, possesses the highest MS or a text formel from the various reu. such Version. So has the Divine Providence degree of probability; and may be, in gene. ings of several. 9. Ax, at the epoch of the in ordered it, that although a number of mis ral, fairly taken for the word written by the Vobtion of printing, srcatinorance prevail. Lakes have been committel hy careless copy. inspired penman. This is a general rule, to el hon in literature and religion, it was not 1818, as well as by careless printete, not one which there will be founu very few exceplikely that the hest help , even had they been essential truth of God has been injured or tions. at band, would have en critically used : suppressell. In this respect, all is perfect; The propriety of this classification is ques. and, therefore, those primitive editious must and the way of the Most High is made só tioned in a very able pamphlet just published nerexsırily hare becii, in many respects, im. pain, even in the poorest coples, that the way. by Dr. Richard Laurence, intituled, “ Re. perfect; and those imperfections could only firing man, thou h a fool, utterly destitute of narks on the Systematical Classification of harmoved in subsequent editions, bva care deep learning and critical abilities, need not MSS. adopted by Griesbach, in his Edition of mulcolatrion of the most ancient most 11. err therein.
the Greek Testament," 8vo. Oxford, 1814. thentic, and most correctly written MSS. All the omissions of the ancient Mamu. To this pamphlet I must refer the critical 19. As such MSS. exist in littorent places, scripts put together, would not countenance reader. widely reno'e from each other, in various the omission of one essential doctrine of the I shall now proceed to give an account of parts of Europe, Asta, and Africa, it must be Gospel, relative to faith or morals; and all the most ancient Manuscripts and Versions a work of considerable time to find them out, the additious countenanced by the whole which have been collated for the four Gospels collate, and extract, their various rezulines: mass of MSS alreadly collaterl, do not intro- and Acts of the Apostles. cominunicate them to the public in separate duce a single point essential either to faith or plition, or in critical dirations; and manners, lexon't what may be found in the 6 III. Account of MSS. in Uncial characmuch time musi necessarily elapse before most imperfect cuitions, from the Complutens, referred to by the letters ABCD, &c. in the priblic would prel the necessity of having lineian Editors down 'o the Elzevirs. And this Work.-A. The Coder Alexandrinus, now one authentic edition of the original texts thouch to the beauty, emphasis and critical in the British Museum, sent, in 1628, from Cyformat froni such separate cilitions and criti perfectios of the letter of the New Testament, ril Lucaris, Patriarch of Constantinople, by cal dissertations. 11. All Versions, or trans a neuc edition of the Greek Testament, form Sir Thomas Roe, as a present to Charles I. lations of the Scriptures into the languare op ed on such a plain as that of Professor Gries. It is one of the most reputable MSS. known the different nations which hail receive the bach, is greatly to be desired; yet from such 10 exist; and is stated to have been written won of God as the rule of their faith and a one infidelity can expect no help: false so early as the fourth century; though others practice, must have been made, previously to doctrine in support; and even frue Religion assign it a much later date, and bring it so the liver.tion of printing. fioma S. Oz MSS no accession 10 its excelicnce; though a few low as the seventh. Besides the New Testasuch as the translator hail at hand: therefore, beam may be thus alded to its lustre ment, it contains the Septuagint Version of such Veralms could be no more than a futh The muliitude of rarious readings found the Old, formerly edited by Dr. Grabe. A facful translation of such MS, or MSS. 12. AS in MSS. choul no more werken any man's simile of the New Testament part has been the MSS. diffi'r anong them wives, from the faith in the Divine u oril, than the multitudo published by Dr. Wolde, London, 1786, fol. reasons annerl abow, so that diferent. MSS of Typorraphical errors found in printed edi. And lately, a fac-simile of the Psalms, by the would chibit diferent readires in cert in tions of the Scriptures. Nor, indel, can it Rev. H. H. Baber, of the British Museum, fol. cavs, though the inxt, in the main, was the le otherwise, unless Gol were to interrose, 1812, who is now preparing the Pentateuch same in all; so the Virsions must differ and miraculously prevent every scribe from for the press. among themselves, acconting to the particular making a false letter, and every compositor It is worthy of remark, that this M8 fol. MAS froin which they were taken. Hence, from ini taking a iror! in the text he was co-lows in the Gospels the Byzantine edition : both the MSS. and the Versions would prcez- pring. It is nough that God absolutely pre in the Episues of St. Paul, The Alexandrine: sarily contain various rralinge; and these serves the ichol truth, in such a way as is and in the Acts and Catholic Epistles, the rdings inust be import nt and valuable, in consistent with his moral goverminent of the Western edition. With this MS the Syriac, propotion to their agreement with the auto world. The preservation of the jote and tit. Coptic, and Ethiopic Versions, have a regraph from which they were alloriginallu de desin every transcriber's copy, and in every markable coincidence. rivel: and, upon the whole, the most ancient printer's form, by a miraculous act of Al B. The Coler l'aficanu13, No. 1209, contain: and carefully writun MS, migiit be consider mighty power, is rot to be expotrd; and is ing the Greek Version of the Septuagint, ed as containing the purest text. 13. All the not necessary to the accomplishment of the which was published at Rome by Cardinal Versions of all countries differ, less or morp, purposes of providence and grace.
Caraffa, fol. 1587. The second volume of this among themselves; which is a proof that they On this subject, the intelligent reacler will MS. contains the New Testament. It is a were formal from differrnt MSS. and that be pleasrl with the opinion or that very emi most ancient and valuable MS. and is supthose Versions exhibitel the relines which nen cotic Dr. Dentley; Speaking in reference posed to be older than the Codex Alexandriwere contained in those MAS 14. And it ipay to those who wern needlessly alumni at the ins; and to have been written some time in be added, that the most ancient Versions multitude of vario is readings collected by the fourth century, and before the time of St were likely to contain the purest text, be Dr. Mall, 311|1 said to amount to 30,000, he sils, Jerome : others refer it to the fifth or sixth calls made from the most ancient MSS. Not frighted with the present 20,000 various century. It is now in the Royal Library at which, we may fairly prisutne, were the ruling, 1, fur my own part, and, as I believe, Paris. There is a remarkable agreement bemost accurate copies of the original; as, in many others, would not lament, if, out of the tween this MS. and the Codlices D. and L., that case, the stream coulil pot le rendered old VISS. yet untouchel, 10,000 more were and it is supposed, as a whole, to be the most turbil, by a long and circuitous flow from the faithmully collecte: some of which, without correct Ms we have. Michaelis prefers it fountain. This the ruler may conceive to question, would mder the text no.e beauti. greatly to the Codex Alexandrinus have lern the origin of various sealings, both ful, just, and crat inough of no conerquence C. The Coder Ephraim AMS in the in the lianuscripts and ancient Persons, pre- to the incin of Religion: nay, perhaps wholly Roval Library in Paris, numbered formerly vloeisly to the invention of printing.
kynmou in the view of common readers; 1905, at present 9. The first part of it conMost copies of the Hebrew Bible have bren and quite insensible in any mo-lern Version" tains some of the smallest Greek works of St. taken from the sam. MSS. as the rulerquent Philaleuth. Lips 13. p. 90.
Ephraim Syrus, under which was originally editions have generally copieel the preceding After such a testimony as this, from one of written the whole of the Greek Bible. In the ones, with very little alteration in any thing the greatest scholars and critics of his age, it New Testament part, it is mutilated in a grea that could be conshered essential to the text is hope that no minor person will hazard variety of places, which may be seen in Mi. The first editions of the Greek Testament, viz. a contrary assertion; and that prejudices chaelis's Lectures, Vol. II. p. 258 The Greek the Complutensian, and the rirst of Erasmus, against the collation of MSS. and collections Version of the Bible which occupied the first were taken from different MSS ; but these of various readings, will not be entertained part of this MS, has been, as far as was possiFour, were, in general, not the most pure by the honest and well-meaning: as such ble, wiped out with a sponge, to make way for and correct, as the text fonnel from them snif may see at once, both the propriiy and ne. Ephraim's works: a frequent custom where friendly proves ; and hence, most succeeding cersity of such masures
parchiment was scarce and dear. It is sup elitors bave found it necessary to make a va In the use of the Greek Testament, critics posed by Wetstein to have been written early riety of alterations and annuidments in the hare noticed several which have an atfinity in the sixth century. It is an invaluable MS entitions which they haat pulilishert from such to cach other. This affinity has been derimi but is, through its great age and bad preser NO as they had the opportunity of colating natet famalia, family, by Bengel: Recensio, vation, most illegible. See P. Hence, vera few of these editions agree per Revision, hy Griestuch and Edition, by D. The Codrr Brzo, or Codex Cantabrigien. felly among theangel148; consequently, the Michaelis. These editions depend on the di sis. It contains the Greek text of the four neresetty of forming ime gencral and authen versity of time and place; and are divided by Gospels and Acts of the Apostles, with the old ticellion, from a careful judicious and con- Grieshach into three:
Itala, or Antehieronymian Latin Version. scientious collation of all the ancient VSS 1. Tle llestern Edition, or that formerly Weistein thinks that it is the very copy from
Account of Manuscripts
and different Versions, which Thomas Charkel, or Heraclius, under importance, and it is judged by Michaelis to rumi Sti. Basilit, No. 105, in the Apocalypse ; the auspices of Philoxenius, formed the later be one of the most valuable MSS. we pos- and so of others. Syriac Version, commonly called the Phi. sess.
Parther information on this subject belongs, Lorenian: but this is a groundless suppost: M. Coder Regius. This MS. contains the more properly, to the editor of a Greek Testa. tion. This MS. is supposed by Wetstein to four Gospels; belongs to the Royal Library, ment, than to the province of a conin.entator. be of the finh century: others think it two Paris, numbered 48, and was written in the Those who wish to examine this branch of centuries earlier. A splendid and correct tenth century.
Biblical criticism at large, hiust consult Mill, fac-simile of the MS. has been printed at N. Cæter Vindobonensis, 2 One of the Vic Wetstein, Griesbach, Michaviis, and Dr. Her Cambridge, by Dr. Kipling, 1793, 2 vols. royal enna MSS. It contains only fragments of the bert Marsh. folio.
book of Genesis, and of Luke, chap. xxiv. v. The readings in this MS frequently agree 13-21, 39-49, and was written in the seventh with the Latin Versions before the time of SL century.
A short account of the different Versions of Jerome, and with the Vulgate. Some have 0. A small fragment of some other MS., the New Testament, cited in this work, viz. argued that it has been altered from those and contains the parable of the Pharisee and
The Ethiopie, Arabic, Armenian, Bone Latin Versions : but Semler, Michaelis, Gries. Publican.
mitan, Copric, Gothic, Itala, Persian, Sq. bach, and Dr. Herbert Marsh, have amply re- P. Coder Guelpherhytanus, A. One of the hidic, Saron, or Anglo-Saron, Slavonic, or futei all those arguinents. It is one of the Duke of Wollenbuttie's MSŠ It is what is Russian, Syriar, and Vulgale; not in the oldest M88. extant; many of the reading called a Codex Rescriptus, I. e. a book, the
orter of the different ages in which these by which it is distinguished are found in the original writing on which has been sponged
Versions were inade, but in the order of the Syriac, Coptic, Sthidic, and margin of the out, to make way for some other werks; alphabri Philoxenian Syriac Version. In the main, which, in this case, happen to be the works of
THE ÆTHIOPIC. this is the most important Ms. we have of the Isidorus Hispalensis. It contains framments It is generally supposed that the Christian Gospels and Acts; and though it has been or the four Evangelists, and was written about religion was plantel in Æthiopia or Abysst written at different times, by different hands, the sixth century. See underc.
nia, so early as the times of the apostles, but yet the original parts may be sately supposed Q. Codex Guelphirtytanus, B. Another of when the scriptures were translated into the io exhibit the genuine readings of the evan- the Wollonbuttle Mos, containing fragments Æthiopic language, is not certainly known. gelic and apostolic text, in alerger proportion of Luke and John, written in the sixth cen
We have thie whole of the New Testament in than in any other MS. extant I have my tury. It is a Colex Roscriptus, like the for- that language ; and it is supposed thirt this self examined this MS. in the public library mer; the original writing being sponged out, version was made by Frumentus, a Chris at Cambridge; and am convinced not only of to make way for the works of Isidorus listian Bishop, in the fourth century. It is, in Its very high antiquity, but of its great ex- palensis, as in Colex P.
very many respects, an important version ; cellency. Every where in my Notes, I have R. Tubinginse. Fragmentum. This Ms, and seems to have been made inmediately endeavoured to pay particular attention to the which is preserved at 'f'ubing, contains only from the Greek text. Its various readings readings of this Ms. Whiston, in his prim. a fragment on the first chapter of John.
agree with the (A) the Codex Alexandrinus, tive New Testament, Sunnford and London, S. Coder Varicanis, No. 354. One of the and with Origen. 8vo. 1745, has truslate the four Gospels and Vatican MSS, written in the year 919
THE ARABIC. Acts literally from the Colex Deze.
T. Fragmentum Borgianum. It consists
There are different Arabic versione of the (D.) In St. Paul's Epistles, signifies the fun of about twelve leaves; begins with John vi New Testament, and they were probably, as mous Codex Claromontanus; it was written 23, and ends with vii. 33. It is divided into Dr. Marsh conjectures, derived nom these in the sixth or seventh century, and has the two columns; the first contains the Greek four sources-1. Some from the Syriac: Itala Version, as well as the Greek Text text, ihe second, the Coptic or Suhidir; andis 2. some from the Coptic: 2. Some from ibe
E. Coder Basiliensis, Num. B. VI. A MS supposed by Georgi, who has publisheit a Grek; 4. And some from the Vulgate. of the ninth century : it contains the four large quarto volune on it, to have been writ
When this version was made cannot be de. Gospels.
ten in the fourth century. This friement is termined; but it is generally allowed that (E.) In the Acts of the Apostles, significs a valuable specimen of the Alexandrian edi. there was no Arahic version of the New Tes. the famous Laud MS No 3. preserveri in the tion.
tament before the time of Mohammed, i. e. Bodleian library. It has both the Greek and U. Cover Equitis Vanii Venetiis. This is A. D. 620 that the oldest versions we Latin text; the Larin evidently altered to one of the MAS coliated by Birch, for his edi bave of that language, were made loween make it correspond to the Greek This Ms. tion of the Greek Testunt. It was written the seventh and teuth centudes. But, if this was printed by Hearne, 8vo. Oxon. 1715. in the tenth or eleventh century.
were really so, how can we well account for Wetstein supposed it to have been written X AMS in the public library of Ingolstad; the knowledge which Mohammed hast of the in Sardinia, about the seventh century. The this is in uucial characters, and has a com: Gospels, which he terms wil Anjre, from M8 is written in two columns; the Latin mentary in small letters. It appears to have Evangeliuin, in different parts of the Koran: text first : each line is composed of one word, been written in the eleventh century.
see particularly Surat it. v. 3, which Anjrel, very rarely of 1100; and the Latin and Greek These are all the Greek MSS. in square or be there mentions, as having come down words are always opposite to each other, uncial characters, which are referred to in from God, as well as the ühes coural noin which shows that it was written for the use Welstein and Griesbach; and which are the lar, and his own Koran; and in this of a person little skilled in either language. quoted in these notes on the four Gospels and some Siiral, and many others, he makes seve
F. Cover Borell. This M., which con- Acts. Where any of these letters appear with tal quotations from the Gospels; and, tough tains the four Gospels, forin rly belonged to an asterisk, as C., it siguities that the reading he meets them, to cause them to suit his Sir John Boreel, Dutch Ambassulor at the there quoted, exists not in the text, but in own purpose, yet his quotations afiord a precourt of King James L. Where it now is can the margin, or that manuscript. The MSS. sumptive evidence that the Gospels did est not be ascertained.
marked A. B. C. D. E. F. G. K. and L are in Arabic before his time; unless we could (F) is one of the Coislinian MSS. No. 1. probably, upon the whole, the best and suppose he read them in Greek, Syrie, or It contains the Septuagint Version of the (ciheir realing, the most authentic of all the Lilin ; and none, even of his own partial col. tateuch; and verses 24 and 5 of Acts, chap. uncial MSS.
lowers, have pretended that he derstood ix. It was written in the eighth century. There are many other MSS. written in those languages. As to the story of his having
F. In the Epistles of St. Paul, denotes the small letters, and quoted by Griesbach and in apostate Christian Monk, callet Sergius, Coder Augiensis, written about the winth others, by Arabic nunerals, viz. 1, 2, 3, &r., with him, who might have supplihim with century, and now in the library of Trinity which, though not equally ancient with seve such quotations, it remains yei to be provel. College, Cambridge.
ral of those in uncial characters, are of great to me, it seems mobable, that a version of G. Coder Wolfius A. This is non one of value and importance, and exhibit resting the Gols at leat exist before the time the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum : of equal worth with those in the preceiling of Mohimnai; as Christianity iliundo:ib. and is markel 5991 It contains the four MSS. Thes, however, I have raily Intly 1 its waisto in the Evangelists, and was probably written before tioned by name in my notes, and only refer dars of the apostles, as mayiw ethered from the tenth century. li is a correct and valua. to them in this ware Acts xvil. 23, the Acts of the Apostles, chap i and from ble MS.
* ABDE and more than fort y others." Ib. Various other testimonies Whosoever reads G. Coder Boʻrnerianus in the Electoral Li XX. 21, “ ABD. some others," &c. &c. I the Koran curfully over, in refereuce to this brary at Dresden. It has the Itala Version in thoughi it was unnecessary to be more par point, will provably tind reason to draw the terlined with the Greck taxt
ticular; as those who could provit most by Samne conclusion. (G.) In the Acts, &C signifies a MS. In the such information, would naturally have There are three principal editions of the library of the Augustin Friars at Rome. It Griesbach at hand; and, hy referring to Arabic, to which reference is made by Gries. has been only partially collated by Blanchinihim, would be able to obtain much more hach, and in these noies: 1. That printed as and Birch
satisfaction on the point, than the plan on Rome, fol. 1591, which was probably made H. Codex Wolfius B. This MS. is very which my potes were construcied could pos from the Greek 2. The version printei in similar to the preceding, and was p.obably sibly afford. It is necessary just 10 state that the Paris and London Polyglois : but in the written in the same century. It also contains both Wofstrin and Griesbach, hy quoting dir latter with additions ind corrections. This the four Evangelists.
fcrent MSS. by the same letter,m the four also was maile from the Gre k, ard 110 11cm H. Cour Coistinianus, No. 202, consists parts into which they have divided the New the Syriac or Coptic, as one have supposent. only of fifteen leaves, containing some fras. Testament, víz: the four Gospels, the Acts 3. The edition p inter! by Egwn, Lul. Pal. ments of St Paul's Epistles. It was written and Catholic Epistles, the Epistles of St. Paul, 1616, 4t0. takrii' from two Nis one of the in the fifth or sixth century.
and the Apocalypse, have produced strande Gospels, written about A. D. 1771, and an. I. Codex Coltonianus. This MS. contains and needless confision: in each of those other, of the Acts, Epistles and Revelation, only forar leaves, in which a few fragments parts we tind a distinct notation of MSS. On Matel A D. 1342. se Dr Marsh's riotes to of Matthew and John are found. It is written ihis subiect Michaelis has justly observer, Michaelis, Vol. II. p. 603. This version is oi Egyptian paper of a purple colour; and is that "Wetstein has made it very dinicult to supposed to have bern formed immediately a nong the Cotton Mss in the British Muse reinember his nofation of MSS hy not re noin the Greek; Ime interpolated in many un, and is marked Titus C. 15.
taining the same murks throughout the whole places from the Syriac. This of Ernis ile K. Coler Cypriue, so called, because work; for his letters and figures have a dir most valuable and genuine pulition of the Am. brought from the island of Cyprus. It is at ferıne meaning in the Epistims of St. Patri ble Testiment. These thrreeditions are quo present in the Roval Library at Paris. Il from that which they have in the four Evan. tel in Griesbach, and in the following noirs contains the four Evangelists; agrees in its gelists; a still different meaning in the Ca. The first, dr. Rom. the Arabic Gospels, various readings with A. B. C. D. Montfau. tholic Epistles, and Acts of the Apostles: printant at Rome, in 1591 2. Ar. Pol the con supposes it to be of the eighth century; and, lastly, they are taken in a fourth sense, Arabic, printed in the London Polyglott, 1657. Father Simon of the ninth.
in the book of the Revelation."-Lectures, 3. Erp. the Arabic New Testament, printed L. Coler Regius, 62. This very valuable Vol. II. p. 185-6). This perplexity may appear by Eren, in 1616. When all these editions M8 was one of those used by R. Stephens, evident, even in the unciat MSS., and inuch asree in the same reading. Griesbach, cieniles for his edition of the Grapk Testament, fol' more in the others, P. 9. D. which means the il br Art, and in con the same in those notes, 1550, in which it is marked 7. It is in the Cor. Bezo in the Gosp?s:und Acs means when I say, alle draho. Royal Library at Paris, No 62, and was proba the Clermont MS in the Epielr8 of St. Paul;
THE AVEVAN bly written in the eighth or ninth century and B. the Colt Vairamus 1209, in the line This version was probably maule in the film The various readings of this MS. are of great Ipuls, Acts, and Epistles, is the Colei Monacho ccntury, or about the year 410; according to
decount of different Versions INTRODUCTION.
of the New Testament the Armenans themselves. The author is | Marsh's notes to Michaelis. This is the mostat, Luke xix. 9. " Jesus said to the multitude, universally allowed to have been Miesra), likely of all the conjectura! emendations of and to his disciples, To day indeed there is the same who invented the Armenian alpha St. Augustin's text yet made. This ancient a great salvation to this house, because this ut. I appear to have been tirst made from Latin version, by whatever name it is called, man is of the sons of Abraham." That is, he The Syrisc; but having been twice translalet is supposed to be the same which is annexed is saved through Abraham's merit, and his frua that language, it was last of all transla- to the Greek text in the Codes Borrnerianus, own ahns-giving ; so I understand the intented from the Greek This is allowed by lou!11- Clar montanus, and Cantariyiensis. Buttion of the original. si nen to be a very valuable Version ; and besides these, there are more than twenty There is a remarkable addition, Matt. xxvi. contains vantour readings of great impor others which Griesbach has noted in his 75. which is found in no other version, nor in Tanoe But it has not as yet been accurately Greek Testamcat which contain the same any MS, and is not nouced by Griesbach. collased
V rgion, or rather a version or versions made and he (Peter) went out from inence, and THE BOHEMIAN
bufore the line of St. Jerone, Sce the cata. woep buierly, 7778 16 and his sin was The sacred writings were translated into logue of theu in Griesbach's Testament, forgiven him. the Bobemlin language hy eight Pobientin Vol. I. Prolegom. page cvil. All these I have Mall. xxvii. 52. is thus rendered, and the actors, who had been sent to Wittenbers quoted under the general name 1/ala, or An: graves were opened, and the rocks rent, Il Budi to swdy the original langutaves for trueronymian, Witboat specifying ine dig med and the bodies of mathis purpose. This translation was prisited for ni..ss in which the reading is contain ny saints who had suffered martyrdom, rose In Moravia, in the year 1529 I KUow nothing eu, . &; Six copies of the Itala-810e1cl cupies from their graves. All these examples, (and of the BP li of this version : Griesbach has of the liala-all the Itala, &c. The principal their number night be easily increased) show given a few matings from it, which he refragments of this version which still remain, the family from whence this version sprang; ceived from Proteszor Dobrowsky, ui Mos have been carefully collected liy savolier, in and how little regard, in all these cases, was cow
his Bibliorum Saurorum Latina Versiones paid to the Syriac, from which it is said to THE COPTIC.
Antiquo, fol. Rom. 1743, three vols., and by have been taken; or, indeed, to any other The Coatic was the common language of Blanchini, in his Eduageliorum Quadru- version ; for these, and such like renderings, Egypt before the invatou of the Strucens; itra Latino Versionis Antique seu llalica, are evidently made to serve a party, and sup is a mixture of the old Egyptian and the toi. Rom. 1749, four vols. The various read port a creul. From all this, it appears that Groek Into this language te Scriptures plus of these versions, both in those MSS much dependance cannot be safely placed on pear to have been translated as a very early leings of the Latin Fathers, are of great utility except where they agree with more authentic
learned men, and in the writhis version; and that its various readings, centures. The reading of this version are in ascertaining the readings of the ancient versions, are worthy of little credit. allowed to have a striking affinity to those of Greek leal, from which they were made; for There is a second Persian version of the the Latin version; and romelmes to those of many cacellent readings abow.d in these four Gospels, which Mr. Abraham Wheeloc, the Colex Bezs; and, according to Wetstein, versions, which agree not only with the most professor of Arabic in the University of Camwith Origen, Eusebius, Cyril, and the Alex ancient Greek MSS. but also with the best bridge, translated into Latin, and prepared amirian MSS Ser Suhidic.
versions, particularly the Syriac and the for the press, and actually began to print in THE GOTHIC.
Coptic. It was out of these versions that S. 1652; but dying shortly after, It was patronThe people to whom the version called Jerome formed the Vulgate. See Vulgate. ized by Thomas Adams, Lord Mayor of Lon. Gourde, beloned, had their ancient habitation
don, and finished under the care of Mr. Pierto the cast of the Borysthenes: but wander.
We have no very ancient version of the son, at the press of J. Flesher, 1657, fol. It bag westward, they selled in Wallachia New Testament in Persian. Hitherto we have seems that Mr. Whecloc had designed to affix Upulas, a Cappadocian by biru, who lived has only the four Gos pals in this language, critical notes to each chapter; and this we der the emperors Valens and Valentinian, which are printed with the Latin translation find done to the end of the seventeenth chap
ade this translation immediately fiom the or Dr. Sanuel Clarke, in the fifth volume of ter of Matthew, about which time it is likely Groek, cough occasionally in reference to the London Polyglott. This tmnslation was be died : for Mr. Pierson, the continuator of the Lith versions) about the middle of the finished about the year 1341, by Simon in his work, says, initio operis, prematura fourth century. Or this version only a muti Yuseph ibn Abraheem al Tabreezy; who is morte ereptus : death snatched him away at lated mpy of the four Gospels, and a few
chap Syriac "This version was made, most evi regular comment of Mr. Wheeloc appears to
said io have taken it immediately from the the commencement of his work. And as the bain. This MS, which was all written in dently, by a Christian of the Roman Catholic have been prepared no farther than to the ater levers, and bence called Codes Argen: persuasion, who acted under the most predo- seventeenth chapter of Matthew, the notes Inn, was first discovered in the abbey of minating influence of his own peculiar creed; which the continuator found after the close Werrien, la Westphalia; it got afterward to for it is not only interpolated with readings of that chapter, and which, most probably, Swed, then to the Netherlands; and is from the Vulgate, but with rearlings from ri. Whceloc designed to be the foundation of now in the university of Upsal. A 'fine edituals and legends. The Persian Gospels do more diffuse observations, are all printed at fion or the Gothic Gospels wits published by not appear to have been carefully collated by the conclusion of the work. Marshall, together with the Anglo-Saxon, at Mill, Wetstein, or Griesbach, scarcely any or It appears that neither Wheeloc nor War Dort, M5, 4o with a glossary by Junius: the many peculiarities of this version having ton knew of more than three MSS. of the Per. bot a better cdition was publisheri by Dr. E been noticed. To satisfy myself of its nature stan Gospels; one of Oxford, one of CamLe, Oxon. 1750, 410. The fragrpents of the
and origin, I have read the whole of it over bridge, and one belonging to Dr. Pocock. It enth, twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, and durice, and shall extract from the remarks 1 has been supposed, I think, without sufficient enth chapters to the Romans, edited by then made such proofe as appeared to me to evidence, that Wheeloc compiled his Persian Kulttel from the Wolfenbuttle M8., may be warrant its Catholic origin; and how little text from these three MSS. After carefully found at the end of Vol. II. of Dr. Lye's Saxon, the translator rezuriedi llie text on which he collating
both this and Walton's edition, in Gothic and Latin Dictionary. THE ITALA, OR ANTEHIERONYMIAN.
Milisation of punishment promised 10 Tyre Wheeloc printed his edition from the Oxford Previously to the time of St. Jerome, a and Sidon in the day of judgment.
MS. as Walton printed his from that of Po Tentalety of Latin versions of parts or the
"Now I say unto you, o cities, in the day cock. In a few cases, he introduces in brackchole of both the Old and New Testaments, of judgment, to 'Tyre an Sidon, con los cts,
or with an asterisk, a various reading las been made by different persons for their there shall be repose, which shall no1 tc to from the Cambridge MS. rarely from that of ownse; and these appear to have been as you." Matt. xi. 22.
Pocock : but in his comment or critical notes, Trious as the skill and talents of the translaThe supremacy of Peter most formally as he refers often to both
these MSS. giving the tors As none of these have been received serted, and the text corrupted to support it: most remarkable readings where they differ tro public use in the church, so it is not like and I say unto thee, sie woonges from the Oxford MS, which he has most evi. ly that they had any particular name: but
dently followed as his text. That the MSS. kalem tlines have given the title of Ilalac. Ithn ari the rock of my religion (that is, aof Pocock, from which Mr. Wheeloc gives the Rola or Antenieroromian, to all such Latin stone and the foundation of my church principal various readings, was the same Versions. Though the word Ilala be of the most shall be a building upon ther, Matt. xvi 18. which Walton printed in the Afth volume of dnbias wishority, yet all allow that by it, a
To weaken the reproof given by our Lord the Polyglot! is demonstrable from a collation very ancient Latin translation is intended :
10 Peter, which the translator probably of those various readings extracted by Wheebet bow such a translation becrime thus de: thought ico degrading, the offensive epithet loc froin the Pocock MS, which are found
to porninated, no person can tell; if, indeed, it Satan is omitted, Matt. xvi. 23.
be precisely the same with those in the text have had any such title in ancient times.
Jesus turnel back, and said unto Peter, and rubrics of that printed in the Polyglott. This title is supposed to be mentioned by St. Get behind me. l! O thou unbelieder i And that Wheeloc
took the Oxford MS, for his Angustin, where, speaking of the great va
Popish saying aböut hell, Mark ix. 46. for, text, is evident from this, that his various riety of Latin versions in early ise, he says, here their rorm
dieth not and the fire is readings are extracted only from the Cam
an lapais autem interpretationibus Itala, cate not quenched, Al Tabreezy translates, xs brie Pocock MSS. Dlated with that of Vis profirarur; nam est derborum tenacior Who Lulj!, Line), Because from Oxford. The text, therefore, of Wheeloc, is perspicuitate sententia " Among the thence liberation is impossible.
not a corrupted text, or one made up from versions, the Irala is to be preferred, as being
And in verse 48, he translates the same pas- different MSS. It is much more simple and mee meral, and more perspicuous." De siges Wubs:30s From echence thou much purer than that in the Polyglott, and Drenr. Christ. lib. 1. cap. 11.' Dr. Lariner shalt nevër find redemption.
appears to have been made by one not warped Furposes that hala here, is a mistake for et
In Luke 11. 7. the blessed Virgin is called by any religious system, as Al Tabreezy cerkle, and reads the passage thus : "and among Issue Mareem pak, Saint Mary. tainly was; and by one who better under the anslations lei that be preferred which is
The title to the pangraph, Luke v. 18, &c. stood the genius and composition of the Per a literal and most perspicuous." Dr.
is “The raising or that paralytic person who sian language. -As far as I have had the opBentley, and some others were nearly or the had lain 32 years. cogns Lino Lins portunity of examining this version, it apsame mind. Potter thinks that trala is ar: whose name iras Alekudemus.
pears to me to be taken verbatim from the By magtake for usitata, which mistake may
Lk. vil. 12. Prayer for the dead. "And when Latin Vulgate, and not from the Greek, as counted for thus: in ancient times, I he approached the gate, he saw a dead man, some, or the Syriac, as others, have supposed.
hea MSS. were written in uncial charac whom they were carrying out, usilje ; Jeronymo Xavier, missionary to the Indi. s, without distinction of words and senwith prayer and lamentation."
ans, was commanded by the emperor Akbar tences, a copyist having written :- INIPSISAU
Doctrine of the merit of good works and to translate the four Gospels into Persian, TEESTERPRETATIONIBUSU&ITATACAETERIS of sins. And I say unto thee, that as a recom-system of religion. Xavier undertook this
repentance for the purchase of the remission that he might examine their importance as a PRAESELA TURNAMESTVERBORUSTENACIOR pense (uses awaz) for what she has done, work, and by the assistance of a person named PERSPICUIT ATESENTENTIAB; took the her sins, which are many, are forgiven; for Moulance Aboos Sitar, a native of Lahoor, Arst syllable of usitata, on returntog to his that very cause, that she was toorthy of much, made a history of the life of our Lord, com MS for the last syllable of the word interpre- or has much merit. Süs lind m? But lit. piled out of the Gospels, and from popish leIloribus, which he had just written, and orale shall be forgiven to him, inho has little cends, and presented it to the emperor in Herse rend te word itate, which he co-merle, Luke vli. 47. The same doctrine ls 1602, who is said to have smiled at it and caded to be an error for tidla; and hence taught chap. xvi. 2.
well he might, as the genuine history was wine the present parious realing." Sce Dr. The docerine of supererogation is glancodi disgraced with cables. The MS. Sormed for